Sources and Friends

 

Alphabetical index of Ortelius’ carto-bibliographical sources and his contemporary friends and source/communicators. These occur on his loose maps, starting with his 8-sheet world map (1564), in the on recto and verso map texts of the various Theatrum editions, its Synonymia (1570-1575). Nomenclator  Ptolemaicus (from 1579L onwards), in the laudatory poems introducing the Theatrum,  and in the Catalogus Auctorum of his Theatrum. Further sources and friends mentioned in his Album Amicorum, in letters from and to Ortelius, his Synonymia (1578), Thesaurus (1587,1596), Itinerarium (1584), his Deorum Dearumque Capita, and his Aurei Saeculi Imago. His booklet on fish ponds, mentioned on th map of Bohemia has not survived.

 

 

Introduction to this index of sources and friends:

 

 

This index is ordered alphabetically by author and/or friend with a connection to Ortelius. In the very short biographical introduction of each author, the book or books written by this author are mentioned, with an indication specifying by Ortelius-number in which Ortelius map-texts  or elsewhere in Ortelius’ writings reference is made to this author. If the author is mentioned on a map itself, this is also indicated. Not only cartobibliographic sources from the maps and on verso texts are contained in this list, but also Ortelius’ correspondents and friends, as specified in letters from him and to him (more than 300 letters, as provided by Hessels), his “Album Amicorum”, and his “Itinerarium” of 1584. The “Synonymia”, appended to the Theatrum from 1570L, extended with each edition to 1575L was replaced by a separate publication in 1578 called “Synonymia”. This was again  extended and renamed as “Thesaurus” and published  separately in 1587 and in 1596. The result is the list of sources given below, containing about 231,000 words, in the form of authors and their books, not unlike the “Catalogus Auctorum” in the “Theatrum”
 

Greek names appear mosty in their latinised forms, following Ortelius’ custom. Latin names appear in a variety of forms, depending on the language of on verso map text. For better recognisability, they appear in their original Latin forms, rather than their inconsistent anglicized forms.

 

After that, specific references to on verso map-text and paragraph number of that text are given in a separate section and in Courier font which differs from the standard Times Roman, below the short biography and bibliography of the author. In this section, the first group of references consists of those where the author is mentioned on the mapsheet or in the text on its back without any mention of the book to which reference is made. The second set consists of references where Books and Chapters of a work of the author in question are given, but where Ortelius does not give the name of the work. Usually this can be inferred from other information provided. The third set of references refers to specific works, of which the title is given. Not all three categories occur for all authors.

 

In the case where an author has only written one book, or in the case where only one book of the author survives, the list of references to the text, the list of references where books and chapters are mentioned, but not the title of the book, and the list of references mentioning the book, all refer to the same book. But often, the situation is not so clear. When an author is known by more than one book, it can often not be determined when a book number and often a chapter number is given in the reference to which book by this author that reference refers.

I have refrained from checking all the sources in the originals, which often come in many different forms.

 

Note also that there is often variation in the naming of authors and in the spelling of their names. Further, sometimes the first name precedes the last name, sometimes it is not clear what is the first name and what the last. Leander Albertus and Pomponius Mela are examples.Also, the same author may be referred to under quite different names, e.g. Volaterranus is also called Maffeius. Therefore, many cross-references are provided, guiding the reader to a different name or spelling in this index pointing to the same author.

Finally, many documents are mentioned which have no clear author. These may be church councils or synods, saints lives, works in which many authors participated, “libri” without an author, the most quoted being “Liber Notitiarum”, or “Antoninus’ Augustus Itinerarium”, and hundreds of anonymous manuscripts. Coins have also been incorporated provided that the at least the picture on one side and perhaps inscription on the other are mentioned. Books which Ortelius bought from Plantin, if recognisable, have also been included, based on Denuce (1912) but most of Ortelius’ books were bought elsewhere, including the Frankfurt book fair, and many books were exchanged between Ortelius and his friends and correspondents. Inscriptions in stone have not been included, since their location is almost invariably unclear. The reference to Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006) refers to their article “Books and bindings from the library of Abraham Ortelius” which appeared in “Bibliophiles et reliures, Mélanges offerts à Michel Wittock, p. 374-409. It describes 71 books in libraries in Belgium and one library min France which was owned by Ortelius, as his signature indicates. Of these 71 books, 13 or 18% were not contained in the present list. If this number is representative, it mean that Ortelius library was 18% larger than what is described in this index below. 

 

Index

 

Abbas, Arnoldus, died in 1211 or 1214, was a clergyman of Lübeck who wrote “Chronicon Slavorum”, mentioned once as a source in lemma VRBS VETVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus (1587, 1596).

Abbas Ursbergensis, Conradus , fl. 13th c., wrote “Chronicon” (1212). Ortelius refers to him once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma DVRLACVM.

Ab Heila, Petrus or Værheila or Verheyl, fl. late 16th c., of Brugge was a lawyer and friend of Jacob Cools junior and Monau. He wrote a letter to Ortelius from London in 1592 (Hessels 211).

Abidenus, fl. 4th c. BC., was the teacher of Aristoteles. He is quoted by Eusebius, who in turn is quoted by Ortelius once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma ACRACANUS.

Abulfeda or Abylfeda or Ismael ibn Ali, Damascus 1273 – 1331, was an Arabic ruler and famous scholar who fought against the Mongolians at the age of 15 when these besieged Tripolis. He was widely honoured as a ruler in Egypt, but is better known for his writings. He wrote in Arabic and his “Annals” covered Arab history until 1328 and contain much information about Moslim rulers, but he also wrote about law, mathematics, logic and medicine. His works were only published in translation from 1766 onwards. Ortelius mentions him once, possibly referring to his manuscript map of Syria, as a source in his Synonymia” (1571L) and 4 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 10 times in the text. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers 3 times to “his map” and mentiones him altogether 6 times, in “Thesaurus” (1596) altogether 9 times. His “Cosmography” contains Asia maps used by Gastaldi and later by Ortelius. Ortelius refers to two other works by Abulfeda in his “Synonymia” (1578), viz. his “”Geographia” and his “Tabulæ Asiæ”. In lemmas ARIA, MOSÆVS, MOTENE and OXVS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to Abulfeda’s “tabulis” [maps] as a source and in lemma MANTIANA to his “Geographia”.

Ort1.25, 2.25, 3.28.

Accius, died in 80 AD., was a Roman tragedy writer. His “Thebaide” is mentioned as a source in lemma CIRCÆVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Accolti, or Accoltus, Benedetto,15th c., an Italian author, wrote “De bello Hierosolymitani”, referred to by Ortelius as an anonymous source in lemmas ASSVR, PTOLEMAIS and SIDON of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Accursius, Mariangelus or Mariangelo Accursio, 1490 – 1546, of Aquila in the kingdom of Naples was a humanist at the court of Charles V who wrote among other things “Osci et Volsci Dialogus Ludis Romanis Actus”, Rome, 1513. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in the text. In Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 24 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 28 times. Accursius quotes Ammianus, as in lemmas MARABIVS  of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Ortelius had at least two copies of Accursius, as stated in lemma VESSALIENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Achilles Statius or Statius Alexandrinus, 1st c. BC?, was a Greek author whose work was translated into Latin as “De Leucippe et Clitophonte & alia amatoria libri VIII”, edited by Cruceius. Ortelius refers to this work 3 times in lemmas NICHOCIS, ORODOPES and SYROS of his “Thesaurus”(1587, 1596) and in lemmas ALEXANDRIA, and also in lemmas PHAROS, SIDON and STYX of “Thesaurus” (1596) as “Amatoria” and “Amorum”.

Achior, biblical legend, note that in Ortelius’ view the bible was by definition the Latin Vulgate Catholic bible, not the Jewish or Protestant one, was supposedly a general in the army of Holofernes serving Nebucadnezar, king of the Assyrians. Holofernes was slain by the Jewish heroine Judith, according to the book of Judith in the bible. Achior is reported to have become a Jewish proselite afterwards. “Story of Judith and Holofernes” (Ort182)

Story of Judith and Holofernes: Ort182.2.

Acidalius, Valens, 1567 – 1595, was a humanist from Neissen, Germany, who wrote comments on Plautus. This work was presented in manuscript form to Ortelius in 1597 (Hessels 302) by Scultetus for possible publication. Monau calls him to Ortelius (Hessels 242) “our friend”.

Acontius, Jacobus or Jacopo Acontio, 7 September 1492 – around 1566, was an Italian jurist, theologian, philosopher and engineer. He is now known for his contribution to the history of religious toleration. He lived for some time with Ortelius’ nephew Emanuel van Meteren and seems to have been connected to Ortelius, who introduced a friend to him in 1567. His book “Satanae Strategemata” (1565) argued that confessionalisation was the devil’s means to obscure the truths of Christianity.

Acosta, José d’, 1539-1600,  from Medina del Campo, Spain, belonged to the Jesuits and worked for a long time as a missionary in the West Indies. His work has ethnical, historical and geographical significance. He wrote “Historia natural y moral de las Indas” (Sevilla, Spain 1590, 1591, Madrid 1604), translated into Italian by Paolo Galucci, Venice, 1604, and into French by Robert Regnault, Paris, 1596. Further “De Natura Novi Orbis lib. II” (Ort11,12; also mentioned as a source in lemmas OPHIR and THARSIS (but there withour mentioning the author) of “Thesaurus” (1596), Salamanca. Spain 1589, 1595, and “De Procuranda Indorum Salute Libri VI”, Cologne, 1596.

De Natura Novi Orbis: Ort11.28; Bk.1, ch.17 Ort12.26, 12.50;

Acron, son of Xenon fl. 5th c. BC., was an eminent Greek physician born at Agrigentum. From Sicily he went to Athens, where he opened a philosophical school (εσοφίστευεν). It is said that he was in that city during the great plague (430 BC), and that large fires for the purpose of purifying the air were kindled in the streets by his direction, which proved of great service to several of the sick. It should however be borne in mind that there is no mention of this in Thucydides and, if it is true that Empedocles or Simonides (who died in 467 BC) wrote the epitaph on Acron, it may be doubted whether he was in Athens at all during the plague. On his return to his native country, the physician asked the senate for a spot of ground where he might build a family tomb. The request was refused at the suggestion of Empedocles, who conceived that such a grant for such a purpose would interfere with the principle of equality he was anxious to establish at Agrigentum. Ortelius refers to him 16 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 20 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Acron is quoted by Horatius, as in lemma ARITIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) , DANVBIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596),  LIRIS, SATYRIVM and TANAIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Acron is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Adalgarius, 10th c., was bishop in Bremen. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BRVMENSIS, referring to the council of Triburia in Franconia, Germany, of 895.

Adam de la Planche see Planche, Adam de la.

Adamæus, Theodo(ri)cus, died in 1541, of Schwallenberg in Gelria has, next to his edition of Procopius, also written “De ædificiis Iustiniani Imp. De Rhodo insula” (publication details unknown) (Ort147, 174; Ortelius refers to this work as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578)). Adamæus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 8 times in its text, and also 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ort147.20, 147.36, 174.4.

Adam see Adamus.

Adams see Adamus.

Adamus, Franciscus of Bremen, died in about 1081, was a scholar and archbishop in Bremen/Hamburg and the first German geographer. He wrote a Church History of Hamburg entitled “Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiæ pontificum” (Ort85,86,93,161; also in lemma LETA of “Thesaurus” (1596)), of which book 4 is called “De situ Daniæ”. His “Historia ecclesiastica” is mentioned 4 times as a source in lemmas LINGONES, OBOTRITÆ, SLAVI and VINVLI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and 8 times, e.g. in SALVIA and VISVRIGIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Adamus was the first writer to mention Norse discoveries in America (Vinland) and played a role in the conversion of people in the Nordic countries.

Ecclesiastical History: Ort86.6, 86.10, 161.2, 200.63, Bk.1: Ort93.3.

Adgerius or Aggerus, Cornelius Antverpianus, Leeuwarden abt. 1520 - after 1595, was a Frisian mathematician, surveyor and cartographer who worked in Cologne and who published a map of the archbishopric of Cologne in 1583. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1584 onwards. He wrote to Ortelius (Hessels 119) about the siege of Leiden in 1574.

Ado, (St.?), 800 – 875, of Vienne was brought up at the Benedictine abbey of Ferrières and became a monk there. He made a pilgrimage to Rome where he remained for five years. He published a “Martyrology” in 858 and was appointed pastor of the church of St. Roman near Vienne and later archbishop of Vienne in France, referred to by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587) 11 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 20 times as a source, of which in lemma SIRICINIVM his “Martyrology” specifies Ado’s “Saint Leodegarium”, in lemma TYRVS his “Saint Christina” and in lemma VERANVS his “Saint Laurentius”. This “Martyrologia” is mentioned 7 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in lemmas PRISCINICVM, SAMOS, SIRICINIVM, TYRO, TYRVS and also in VRGO of “Thesaurus” (1596). In 870 he also published a chronicle based on that of Florus of Lyon called “Chronicon de VI Aetatibus Mundi” referred to by Ortelius in the Holsatiae maps (Ort87, Ort92; also in lemma MAXIMIANOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596)). He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text.

Ort38.5, 38.13, 87.6, 92.7.

Adrianus, Alphonsus see Alphonsus, Adrianus.

Adrianus Turnebus or Adrien Turnèbe or Tournèbe, 1512 - 12 June 1565, was a French classical scholar.Turnebus was born at Les Andelys in Normandy. At the age of twelve he was sent to Paris to study, and attracted great notice by his remarkable scholarly abilities. After having held the post of professor of “belles-lettres in the University of Toulouse, in 1547 he returned to Paris as professor of Greek at the College Royal. In 1562 he exchanged this post for a professorship in Greek philosophy. In 1552 he was entrusted with the printing of the Greek books at the royal press, in which he was assisted by his friend, Guillaume Morel. Joseph Justus Scaliger was his pupil. His works chiefly consist of philological dissertations, commentaries on Aeschylus, Sophocles, Theophrastus, Philo and portions of Cicero, and translations of Greek authors into Latin and French. His son Étienne published his complete works in three volumes, Strasbourg, 1600, and his son Adrien published his “Adversaria”, containing explanations and emendations of numerous passages by classical authors. He is mentioned once as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) also in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578), but not in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is 21 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) he is mentioned 48 times as a source.

Adrichom, Christaan van, 1533-1585, was a theologian and surveyor from Delft, the Netherlands, who lived and died in Cologne. His works “Ierusalem, et suburbia eius sicut tempore Christi floruit..”, Cologne, 1588, and “Theatrum Terrae Sanctae” (Cologne 1590) (Ort72) were often reprinted. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1592 onwards. In lemma BETHSAMES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Adrichom is mentioned as a source.

Ort72.19, 172.19

Adurno, Emmanuel Joseph, fl. late 16th c., was a Spaniard, friend of Moflinius, who worked at the Spanish court as physician. He also collected coins and wrote to Ortelius in 1584 (Hessels 139).

Ægidius Martinus see Martinus, Ægidius.

Ægidius, Tschudi see Tschudi, Ægidius.

Aecken, van, Cornelis Claeszoon see Aquanius.

Ælianus, Claudius, abt. 170 - 240 AD., came from Italy but wrote in Greek, which was translated into Latin. His most important works are “De Varia Historia (e.g. Lyon 1553), anecdotes about famous personalities (Ort186,193,196,200,213,214,216,231; referred to twice as a source by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578), 107 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 180 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) where he is sometimes called “fabulosum”, [mendacious]. He also wrote a natural history with many fantastic details including many excerpts from earlier authors called “De Animalibus” (Ort12,193,203,210,212,224; 206, quoting Theopompus), also mentioned 7 times as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), 54 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), 81 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum (1573). In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) reference is made 3 times to his edition of Valturius’ “De re militari”, e.g. in lemma AMPHIPPI, TARENTVM and TVNATENSIVM. He is also mentioned as a source once in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1570), but not in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and again in the “Catalogus Auctorum” and texts of “Synonymia” (1578), occurring 22 times in the text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) his “Variarum Historiae” is referred to as a source twice, again with the qualification “fabulosum” in lemma ANOSTOS and BERBICCÆ. Altogether he is mentioned 107 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 180 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Ortelius refers 4 times to Aelianus as a source.

Mentioned once on map sheet Ort222; further in texts Ort16.33, 117.5, 118.5, 124.15, 190.7, 190.42, 192.16, 193.26, 193.54, 196.49, 199.31, 200.31, 203.18, 203.24, 203.27, Ort204.5, 204.10, 205.5, 205.10, 210.8, 212.21-23, 216.4, 216.20, 216.24, 216.32, 216.33, 217.4, 217.5, 217.11, 217.23, 217.25, 217.30, 218.27, 220.2, 221.33, 221.39, 222.4, 224.46, 231.5;

De varia historia: Ort193.39, 196.94, 213.11, 216.46, Bk.2 Ch.5: Ort193.39, Bk.2 Ch.61 Ort200.61, Bk.3 Ch.1: Ort231.7-13, Bk.3 Ch.14: Ort214.27, Bk.3, Ch.28: Ort186.10.

De Animalibus Bk.1 Ch.1: Ort210.24, Bk.5 Ch.30: Ort224.58, Bk.7 Ch.12: Ort203.17, Ch.27: Ort193.59, Bk.13, Ch.3: Ort12.10, 12.36, Bk.14, Ch.23: Ort212.25, Bk.16 Ch.34: Ort217.13;

Quoting Theopompus in De Animalibus Bk.17, Ch.16: Ort206.10;

Quoting Silenus 189.15

Ælius, Antonius see Antonius Ælius.

Ælius, Aristides see Aristides, Ælius.

Aelius Festus Aphthonius was a Latin grammarian of the 3rd or 4th century, possibly of African origin, and considered to be one of the most important classical rhetoricians. He wrote a metrical handbook “De Metris”, in four books, which was added to the “Ars Grammatica” of Gaius Marius Victorinus sometime before 400, but not by Victorinus himself. He is referred to as a source once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

 Ælius, Gallus see Gallus, Ælius

Ælius Lampridius see Lampridius, Ælius.

Ælius Pollux see Pollux, Ælius.

Ælius Pertinax, emperor, 126 – 193, was born in Alba Pompeia, the current Alba (Cuneo) in the Langhe. Acclaimed emperor before January 193, he was murdered on March 28 of that year. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma PELVSIVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ælius, Spartianus see Antonius Ælius Spartianus

Æmilius, Marcus Scauro, c. 163 - 88 BC, was a Roman statesman and  a member of a great patrician family which had sunk into obscurity. Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became aedile, praetor and consul in 115. During his consulship he celebrated a triumph for his victory over certain Alpine tribes. In 112 he was one of the commissioners sent to Africa to arrange the dispute between Jugurtha and Adherbal. In 109 Scaurus was censor, constructed the Via Aemilia and restored the Mulvian bridge. Ortelius refers to him twice in the lemmas GANTISCI and MOGLINTENSIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Æmilius, Paulus Veronensis, 16th century, wrote “Historia delle cose di Francia”, Tramezzino, (Venice, 1549), translated as “De rebus gestis Gallorum libri IX”, (Paris 1550), a French history (Ort 44,45,53). Ortelius’ copy of this book, autographed, is now in the University library of Ghent as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Æmilius is mentioned 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas SEPTVMANI and TRACTARI.

French History: Ort44.4, 45.4, 53.20, 54.9

Æmilius Probus,1st century BC, edited the only surviving work of Cornelius Nepos, “Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae”, which appeared in the reign of Theodosius I. Probus presented it to the emperor with a dedication in Latin verse. He claims it to have been the work of his mother or father (the manuscripts vary) and his grandfather. Despite the obvious questions (such as why is the preface addressed to someone named Atticus when the work was supposedly dedicated to Theodosius), no one seemed to have doubted Probus's authorship. Eventually Peter Cornerus discovered in a manuscript of Cicero's letters the biographies of Cato and Atticus. He added them to the other existing biographies, despite the fact that the writer speaks of himself as a contemporary and friend of Atticus, and that the manuscript bore the heading “E libro posteriore Cornelii Nepotis” [from the last book of Cornelius Nepos]. At last Dionysius Lambinus’s edition of 1569 bore a commentary demonstrating on stylistic grounds that the work must have been of Nepos alone, and not written by Æmilius Probus. This view has been tempered by more recent scholarship, which agrees with Lambinus that they are the work of Nepos, but that Probus probably abridged the biographies when he added the verse dedication. Ortelius bought a work by Probus printed in 1568 from Plantin in 1586, and again in 1597. Probus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. He does not occur as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)

Æneas, Sylvius Piccolomini, 1405 – 1464, from Consignano near Siena, Italy, was a diplomat, man of letters and he was crowned poet laureate by Frederick III of Germany. He became Pope Pius II in 1458. He is the author of a geographical-historical lexicon of Europe called “De Europa” (Ort93,99,100,102,105,106,143,152,153,168,169), published in Memmingen, 1490 and a cosmography “Cosmographia vel de mundo universo historiarum” published inVenice, 1477, one volume only. It deals mainly with Asia, which is thought to have influenced Columbus. He also wrote “Historia Friderici III” (Ort106) which contains a history of Austria and Bohemia (Ort 101,104) and a description of Vienna, as well as an “Epistula ad Mahumetum” (Ort105,106) (1470, Cologne), an attempt to convert the Turkish ruler to Christianity. He was an influential writer, well known because of his work “De duobus amantibus”, a love story set in Siena telling of the beautiful Lucretia, unhappily married to the wealthy Menelaus, and her lover Euryalus, a German official travelling in the entourage of emperor Sigismund. Sylvius’ Æneas is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and altogether 3 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Sylvius’ “Vita Sancta Wenceslai” is mentioned as a source in the lemma BIZENIA. His map of Genua, often referred to as copper plate from Genua is mentioned 13 times as source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) e.g. in the lemma BOPLO and 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is referred to as a source 13 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 34 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort4.6, 5.7, 93.7, 93.22, 101.9, 101.22, 102.13, 103.13, 107.2, 108.2, 109.7, 111.6, 112.6, 114.8, 126.11, 137.33, 148.4, 149.8, 149.18, 155.16, 193.33, 193.56, 218.25;

History of Bohemia: Ort101.6, 104.10, 104.60;

Description of Europe: Ort100.4, 102.4, 102.5, 105.7, 105.9, 106.7, 106.9, 143.4, 143.8, 152.7, 153.7, Ch.4: Ort168.8, 169.8, Ch. 23: Ort99.4; Epistles: Ort105.7, 106.7;

Historia Austriaca: Ort106.9.

Ænicola see Putsch.

Æschines, Athens, 390 BC - Rhodos, 314 BC., Greek: Αἰσχίνης was a Greek orator and envoy involved in politics, and a contemporary of Demosthenes. Three of his orations have survived, one of which was “Oration against Ctesiphon” to which Ortelius refers 6 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Epistles” (Ort216) are incorrectly attributed to him and probably date from the 2nd century BC. Ortelius refers to these “Epistles” as a source 5 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in which he is mentioned as source altogether 9 times. In lemmas AETAEI of “Thesaurus” (1596), ALPONOS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and AMPHYCTIONES of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Oratio De falsa legatione” [Oration against the false deputee] is mentioned as a source. Altogether Æschines is mentioned 16 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 27 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Epistle: Ort216.45.

Æschylus, c. 525 - 456 BC., is the first of the great Greek tragedy writers, the other two being Sophocles and Euripides. He fought in the Greek army against the Persians. His tragedies won him 13 victories over competitors, the first dating from 484 BC. He is supposed to have written 90 tragedies, 79 titles of which are still known, but only 7 survive: “The Persians” (mentioned as a source in lemmas CISSINVS and SILENIARVM of “Thesaurus” (1596)), “Seven against Thebe”, “The supplicants”, “Prometheus Bound” to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 8 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and “Oresteia”, consisting of “Agamemnon” (mentioned in lemmas  ESCHATIOTIS, SAPYSELATVM and THESPIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), “Choephoroi” and “Eumenides”, (Ort189; also in lemma PLISTVS of “Thesaurus” (1596)). He is also mentioned via Plinius as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 3 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 14 times as a source. In lemma GYPIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Supplicibus” is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned as a source 30 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Æschylus is mentioned twice as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort189.20.

Æsopus, 6th century BC, is best known for his “Fables”, which have not survived in their original form in Greek, but only through Demetrius of Phaleron, c. 300 BC. The first printed edition of Æsopus' fables appeared in Latin in 1479, Verona, and many editions followed, such as the 1485 edition in Latin and Italian in Naples, the 1491-93 edition of Paris, and many more. He is referred to in the text of Ort222.

Ort222.5.

Æthicus, Ister, most probably also known as Vergilius from Salzburg, died in 784, wrote a “Cosmography” in the form of a travel report around 768. Ortelius deservedly calls him an author of dubious reputation (Ort193.9). In lemma ALCAEOS of “Thesaurus” (1596) he is called “ignobilis” [insignificant].and in lemma TAVRVS “auctor monstrosorum vocabularum” [the author of monstrous words]. Ortelius refers to his “Liber Sophista” twice in his “Synonymia” (1578). He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 22 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he occurs 45 times as a source. In lemma TEREDON of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius describes Æthicus as “si huic ulla fides” [if we can trust him at all]. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he is altogether mentioned 21 times as a source.

Æthicus is twice mentioned on mapsheet Ort190, once on mapsheet Ort191 and twice on mapsheet 192; further in map texts: Ort3.19, 189.11, 192.59, 193.9, 204.7, 205.7, 209.14, 209.18, 232.21.

Æthicus Sophista, late 16th century, is referred to by Ortelius in Ort3 and in the lemmas BETORICÆ, GADARONITÆ, NINIVE, RIFARGICA, SIRCHINECE and ZVZA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) as an author “not yet printed”. In lemma RIFARGICA Ortelius refers to his work as a manuscript. Altogether he occurs 15 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 48 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Aethicus quotes Orosius.

Ort3.19.

Ætius or Æthius Amidenus Medicus, 6th c., was a physician who wrote “Tetrabiblos, iatricorum libri viij” [4 books of physicians]. Ortelius refers to him 5 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587)  and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in the lemmas AGARACES, AMIDA, BABYLON, GAGE and GOGYRICVM.

Afer, Dionysius, see Dionysius Apher.

Afer or Afrus, Optatus, 4th  century AD., was a bishop of Carthago. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ in the text of Ort123 and Ort203. He occurs as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma AVTVMNIANI and occurs altogether 15 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he is mentioned 23 times as a source.

Ort123.10, 203.5.

Africanus Ioannes Leo, see Leo Africanus.

Agatarchides see Agathias.

Agatharchides see Agathias.

Agathias, also Agathius or Agatharchides, “the Greek”, 181 - 146 BC., was a Greek historian and geographer who wrote treatises on Asia, Europe and the Red Sea in the style of Thucydides. He also wrote a “History of Daphne” (Ort232; also mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)) and mentioned as the author of “De bello Gothorum” in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), e.g. in lemma TAVRESIVM. In lemmas MELETI of “Thesaurus” (1596) and PYTHICVS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Agathias’ “Proemius Historiae” [Introduction to history] is mentioned as a source. Agathias is mentioned as a source 15 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 107 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 145 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Mentioned once on map sheet Ort 206; twice on Ort220; twice on Ort221;

In texts: Ort131.25, 196.40, 199.28, 199.72, 200.60, 200.64, 200.65, 217.2, 221.22, 224.9, 224.46, 224.48, 224.53, 224.54, Bk.5: Ort214.32, 214.38;

History of Daphne: Ort232.27.

Agathius see Agathias.

Agathyas,  who died in 582, was a Byzantine historian who wrote “De bello Gothorum et aliis peregrines historiis” printed in Rome by Jacobo Mazochius in 1516. It begins where Procopius ends and is our chief authority for the period 552-558. It deals principally with the struggles of the Byzantine army, under the command of the eunuch Narses, against the Goths, Vandals, Franks, and Persians. Gibbon contrasts Agathias as "a poet and rhetorician" to Procopius "a statesman and soldier." Ortelius refers to this work as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Agellius, Antonius or Antonio Agellio, 1532 – 1608, was bishop of Aterno and a member of the Theatines, born in Sorrento. He was an editor of the Clementine edition of the Latin Vulgate. He is mentioned 5 times as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Aggere, Petrus ab, see Heyden, Pieter van der.

Aggerius see Adgerus.

Agiulphus or Adelphius, 5th c.?, was a king of the Longobards. Ortelius refers in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) to Agiulphus “Vita” in the lemma BLESENSE.

Agnellus, Andrea, around 800 AD, was an Italian historian from Ravenna, quoted by Rubeus in lemma NAZAMBA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Agricola, Georg Hammoniusor or Georg Pawer, Glauchau, March 24, 1494 – Chemnitz, Novenber 21, 1555 , was a German physician in Chemnitz and the father of mineralogy. He wrote numerous works on minerals which were collectively published as “De re metallica libri XII” (Basel in 1550, 1556 and 1558). A German edition appeared in 1580, referred to by Ortelius (Ort96). He also wrote a book about the Itinerary of the Blessed Mary (Ort 171, 172), Ingolstadt, 1560. Further, he wrote “Oratio de bello adversus Turcam suscipiendo”, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1595. Agricola is mentioned as a source in lemma HERMANDVRI of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Itinerary of the Blessed Mary: 170.9, 171.8, 172.27;

Ort96.3.

Agrippa, Henricus Cornelis von Nettesheim or Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, 1486 – 1535, of Cologne, Germany was a prominent humanist and alchemist who wrote "De Occulta Philosophia", 1510, expanded in 1533, and who travelled all over Western Europe. His works are of importance but not very original, since he derived much from Erasmus, Trithemius and Reuchlin. He was the model for Goethe's Faust. He is mentioned in the text of Ort167, Persia. Ortelius refers to Agrippa once in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in his “Thesaurus” (1587).

Ort167.3.

Ailly see Alliacus.

Aimoin de Fleury see Aimonus.

Aimonius or Aimonus or Aimon or Ainon or Annonius Floriacensis or Monachus, from Gironde, France, 965 – 1010, was a Benedict monk and later abbot in Fleury, France, who wrote “Gesta Regum Francorum”  alias “Historia Francorum” (1004), a “History of Franks”.Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1583 and mentions it twice as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), sometimes without mentioning its author. Ortelius sometimes refers to it somewhat confusingly as “History of the French”, (cf. Ort34,36,56,57 ) in 5 books, full of fables and legends which stops in 654. It was published with comments by Ascencius, Paris, 1514. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Ortelius refers to his “Regino” as a source in the lemma FARVM. He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 4 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he occurs altogether 34 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 58 times.

Ort87.8, 92.17;

History of the Franks/French: Ort34.8, 36.20, 56.7, 57.8

Ainon see Aimonius.

Aitzinger, Michaël, 1530 – 1598, was a historian and cartographer from Obereitzing, Upper Austria. He wrote “Itinerarium Belgicum”,  Cologne 1577, and was possibly responsible for “Itinerarium Orbis Christiani”, 1579-1580, a route map for pilgrims said to be the first printed road atlas (Ort172) of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1582, but he is best known for his “Leo Belgicus”, a map of the 17 Provinces in the shape of a lion. He also wrote “Pentaplus regnorum mundi” on geography, published by Plantin in 1579. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1579.

Ort171.26, 172.19.

Alarchonius, Ferdinand or Fernando de Alarcón, abt. 1500 - abt. 1542, was a Spaniard who joined Vasquez’ expedition to the North American west coast (1540 - 1542) and reported on the coasts there in “Relacion del descrubriemiento de la siete cividades” which Ramusio included in his compilations. He occurs in the map texts of Ort9,10 and 11.

Ort9.40, 10.40, 11.43.

Alarcon see Alarchonius.

Albacarius or Albuquerque, died in 1515, is a Portuguese author who wrote 114 Letters (Ort149) about the Indies to the King of Portugal. He is also mentioned as a source in map text Ort194.

Ort194.30; Letters: Ort149.14, 149.24.

Albategnius or Albatani, fl. 9th c., was a Syrian prince; able and willing to spend wealth on costly observatories established at Aracte and also at Antioch. The result of his labours is contained in a treatise on the science of the stars and their motions. In trigonometry, he introduced an important innovation: the use of the semi-chord of the double arc for the chords employed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. This semi-chord was called in Arabic “gib”. pleat or fold, translated into Latin as “sinus”. The introduction of the sine simplified the labour of calculations. Of the other trigonometrical lines, the tangent appears to have been known to him, but not used; the cosine and secant were of later invention. In astronomy, by repeating with greater accuracy and better instruments the observations recorded by Ptolemy, determined the annual amount of precession as 54", instead of 36"; a very much nearer approximation to the true amount. The year as fixed by him was two minutes and a half too short, an error much smaller than that of Hipparchus. Ortelius refers to Albategnius once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) via Monteregius.

Albenas see De Poldo Albenas.

Albenatus see De Poldo Albenas.

Albericus de Rosate, 1290 – 1360, was born in Rosciate, near Bergamo, around 1290. He studied law in Padua under Oldradus da Ponte and Riccardus Malumbra. He studied also under Ranieri di Forlì and received advice and help from Bartolo da Sassoferrato. In the second decade of 1300 he came back to Bergamo: there he practiced - but never taught - law and was actively involved in the civil life of his city, particularly as reformer of the statutes in 1331 and 1333, and as ambassador to the papal court in Avignon, in 1335, 1337-1338 and 1340-41. He died in Bergamo in 1360. Albericus’ dictionary “Dictionarium Iuris tam Civilis quam Canonici”, was considered essential for jurists and law students for hundreds of years, and directly influenced all legal lexicography that followed. It was first printed in 1481 in Bologna, and seven more editions appeared over the next century. By the time of the last edition of 1581, it had been enriched by hundreds of additions and emendations, which were described in detail in the preface by the editor, Johannes Decianus. Albericus is referred to once as a source in lemma LERNÆVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) where he is called “auctor proletarius”, [an author of humble descent].

Alberius, Claudius or Claude Auberi, fl. late 16th c., was a professor in Lausanne who wrote “De terrae motu oratio”, published in Bern in 1585. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1586.

Albertus, Leander also called Leander Albertus or just Albertus or Leander or Alberti, 1479 – 1552, of Italy was a Franciscan monk and historiographer in Bologna who wrote an influential work describing Italy, called “Descrittione di tutta Italia” (Ort117,118,120,121,122,125,129,131,137,140; also in lemma FLVENTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) printed in Bologna, 1550, Venice 1551, 1553, 1561, 1568, 1577 and 1581. It contained 7 maps viz. Toscane (referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Lake Thirenno, Isole vicine a Napoli, Isole del Mare Adriatico and and Venetia. It was published in a Latin translation by Wilhelm Kyriander in Cologne in 1567. It is very frequently referred to in all “Synonymia” and “Thesauri”, e.g. in lemmas METAVROS, MOLYBODES and SPIRACVLA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Leander also quotes “Commentaries of Augustinus Iustinianus on Corsica” (Ort137) and he also quotes Aelianus. He and his maps of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily in the booklet “De Insulis Italicis” was first included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in 1573L. Leander and (sometimes) his “Italia and its islands” are mentioned 1055 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), and 1067 times in “Synonymia” (1571L), 1133 times in “Synonymia (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), sometimes referring to his book “Description of Italy” and its maps of Italy. He is altogether mentioned 551 times in “Synonymia” (1578), 513 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 602 times in Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort117.5, 117.33, 117.41, 118.5, 118.41, 119.3, 119.11, 123.10, 124.7, 124.27, 126.11, 127.7, 127.9, 128.8, 129.14b, 129.14c, 130.6, 130.13, 130.21, 132.10, 132.12, 133.9, 133.15, 133.17, 137.18, 137.36, 138.3, 139.9, 141.5, 141.13, 143.9, 143.16, 210.26;

Description of Italy: Ort120.8, 121.8, 121.16, 122.8. 125.2, 125.7, 129.14, 140.8;

Quoting Aretino in “Italy”: Ort131.7, 131.17;

Quoting the Commentaries of Augustinus Iustinianus On Corsica: Ort137.26;

Quoting Johannes Georgius Tristinus: 124.16.

Albertus Magnus, 1193 – 1280, was a saint who wrote “Liber de causis proprietatum elementorum” [on the causes of the properties of elements], mentioned twice as a source in lemmas ERTE and GEMON of “Thesaurus” (1596), where Ortelius says that this work is incorrectly attributed to Aristoteles, without mentioning Magnus.

Albertus Stadensis or Hildebert, before 1200 – after 1264, archbishop of Tours, France, wrote “Carmina”, “Hymns”, “De nativitate Christu” and “Troilus”. He is mentioned 5 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas AMRINVM and SEMBOS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Albinovanus, Pedo, fl. around 20 AD., was a Roman poet and friend of Ovidius, who wrote “Elegiae et Fragmenta”, who edited Seneca and who was in turn edited and published by Scaliger in 1590. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma OPHIR of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Albinus, Petrus Nivemontius, 16th century, was a professor in Wirtenberg and a historiographer. He wrote a “Meissen Chronicle”, Würtemberg, 1580; also mentioned once in lemma VANDALI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)), further “Historia Thuringorum” and “Commentatiuncula de Walachia”, Würtemberg, 1587). His “Novae Saxonum Historiae Progymnasmata” Würtemberg, 1585, with Ortelius’ inscription is now in the Royal Library of Brussels, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). He is 6 times mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g  in the lemmas ELYSII and HERMANDVRI.

96.11, 193.53.

Albricus Philosophus,late 15th c., was an Italian author who wrote “De deorum Imaginibus” Rome, 1490, Basel, 1543, mentioned as a source in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Albricus see also Albacarius.

Alcæus of Messene, Greek: λκαος was the Greek author of 22 epigrams in the “Greek Anthology”, from some of which the date may be easily established at around the late 3rd/early 2nd century BC. He was contemporary with Philip V, king of Macedonia and son of Demetrius II of Macedonia, against whom several of his epigrams are pointed, apparently on the basis of  patriotic feelings. Ortelius refers to Alcæus once in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587).

Alciatus, Andrea, 1492 – 1550, was an Italian lawyer who wrote “Index Embemata” about emblems, first printed in Augsburg, 1531. Ortelius refers to his “Annotationes” on Tacitus’ “Germania” twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times, e.g. in lemmas ALPES and VITELLIANVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Alciatus is quoted by Fabritius, as indicated in lemma SARNVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Alciatus’ “Emblemata” is mentioned twice as a source.

Alcibiades, c.450 - 404 BC., was a Greek politician and army commander, raised by his uncle Pericles. He was a follower of Socrates. He was briljant and ambitious, but also ruthless. He is mentioned as a source in the map text of Ort186.

Ort186.10.

Alcuinus or Alcimus or Alkuin, Latinus , c. 735 – 804, of York was an Anglo-Saxon scholar and librarian who worked at the court of Charles the Great and wrote “De litteris Colendis”, [On the study of letters], as well as some dialogues with Charlemagne (Ort131). He merged ecclesiastical and profane scholarship. He is also mentioned as a source in the text of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he also occurs once in its text, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) also once, in lemma SONNICI.

Histories of Charles: Ort131.4.

Aldinus, late 15th c., was an Italian scholar who edited an edition of Homerus, which was first published in Venice in 1504. Ortelius refers to his codex 19 as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in the lemmas BONCHNÆ and DAGALASSVS. He also edited and published Solinus, to which Ortelius refers as a source in lemma HIBERNIA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and Antoninus, to which Ortelius refers in lemmas MENDICVLEA and SAMOSATA of his “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas CECILIONI, HERMONTHIS, MENDICVLEA, NOVÆ and SAMOSATA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether he is mentioned 15 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 28 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Aldo Manutio see Manutius, Aldus.

Aldroando or Aldrovandi, Ulysses, 1522 – 1607, of Bologna, Italy was an archeologist and collector who published “Le Antichità della città di Roma”, Venice, 1556, mainly dealing with statues from antiquity. He did this with the help of Maurus Lucius. Ortelius refers to this work as a source in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573). He is also mentioned in the map text of Ort129.

Ort129.17.

Aldus Manutius, see Manutius, Aldus.

Alemannus, Hermannus, who died in 1272, translated Arabic philosophical works into Latin. He worked in Toledo from approximately 1240 to 1256 and is almost certainly to be identified with the Hermannus who was bishop of Astorga in León from 1266 until his death. His translations have been identified from prologues and colophons in the surviving manuscripts, three of which are dated. They are: the Rhetoric, comprising the almost complete text of Aristoteles interspersed with portions of Averroes’commentary and short fragments from Avicenna and Alfarabi. In lemma PITYVSSÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas EVRYSICHEÆ and PITYVSSÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596), Alemannus is referred to as a source. He quotes Stephanus Byzantinus and Strabo.

Aleotti, Giovanni Baptista, 1546 – 1636, also called Argenta, was an architect and surveyor who made a single sheet map of the Ferrara area in 1603 which was the model for Vrients’ Ferrara map (Ort133). He is also mentioned in the map text of Ort129.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Ferrara map as its maker, Ort133; further in the map text Ort129.17.

Alexander, Andreas see Andreas Alexander.

Alexander Citolinus see Citolinus.

Alexander Cornelius, surnamed Polyhistor, fl. about 70 BC., was a Greek grammarian, born at Miletus or Myndus in Caria. He was taken prisoner in the Mithridatic war by Sulla, from whom (or from Cornelius Lentulus) he received his freedom and assumed the name Cornelius. He accompanied Crassus on his Parthian campaigns, and perished at the destruction by fire of his house at Laurentum. He is said to have written "books without number, chiefly on historical and geographical subjects”. Of the extant fragments (see Müller: “Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, iii”) those relating to the Jews are important as containing quotations from lost Jewish authors. He is mentioned as a source for Stephanus Byzantinus in lemmas ARAXAE, HYLAMI and ZAGYSTIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Alexander, Georgius, 16th century, edited the works of Tacitus. He is cited by Volaterranus (Ort147,148).

As cited by Volaterranus: Ort147.4, 147.27, 148.8.

Alexander Geraldinus see Geraldinus, Alexander.

Alexander Magnus III, 356 – 323 BC., popularly known as Alexander the Great, Greek: Μέγας λέξανδρος, was a king of Macedonia. He is the most celebrated member of the Argead Dynasty and created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Born in Pella in 356 BC, he received a classical Greek education under the tutorship of the famous philosopher Aristoteles, succeeded his father Philip II to the throne in 336 BC after the king was assassinated, and died thirteen years later at the age of 32. Although both Alexander's reign and empire were short-lived, the cultural impact of his conquests lasted for centuries. Alexander was known to be undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time. He is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, and is remembered for his tactical ability, his conquests, and for spreading Greek culture into the East (marking the beginning of Hellenistic civilization). Ortelius devoted his Parergon map “Alexandri Magni Expediti” (Ort222) to him. Ortelius refers to his “Letter to Aristoteles” in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma CASPIRVS and in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma CLYIAS. Ortelius refers in lemmas PSINAPHVS and THIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) to Alexander’s “Aegyptiacorum” and in lemma SEBEDA to his “Periplus”.Altogether he is mentioned as a source 12 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Alexander Neville see Neville, Alexander.

Alexander, Saint, Bishop and martyr, fl.. 2nd c. AD., was a student at the famous Christian school of Alexandria in the late second century. He became bishop of Cappadocia and during the persecution of Severus was imprisoned for several years viz. 204-211. Following his release from prison, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and was proclaimed coadjutor bishop there in the year 212. Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria, censured Alexander for participating in the ordination of Origen and for encouraging Origen to teach in churches while still a layman. Despite this, Alexander received Origen in exile. Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, Alexander developed a great theological library. During the persecution of Decius, he was seized and again imprisoned. After making a public confession of faith, he was condemned and thrown to the wild beasts, but they refused to attack him. Alexander was then taken to Caesarea where he died in chains in the year 251. The church recognizes him as a martyr. Ortelius refers twice to his “Life” as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BONA MANSIO and BORTIA.

Alexander Trallianus, Ancient Greek: λέξανδρος, of Tralles in Lydia c. 525 – c. 605 AD., was one of the most eminent of the ancient physicians. His chief work, titled “Twelve Books on Medicine”, was first printed in an old, imperfect Latin translation, with the title “Alexandri Yatros Practica”. It was first edited and published in Greek by Jac. Goupylus Paris, 1548, a beautiful and scarce edition, containing also “Rhazae de Pestilentia Libellus ex Syrorum Lingua in Graecam Translatus”. The other work of Alexander's that is still extant is a short treatise, “Περ λμίνθων”, “De Lumbricis”, [about worms] which was first published in Greek and Latin by Hieronymus Mercurialis, Venice, 1570. Alexander seems also to have written several other medical works which are now lost. Alexander also is credited with the discovery that depression (melancholia) can lead to homicidal and suicidal tendencies. He is referred to as a source in lemmas SAREPTA and TYGRINVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas INTERANIESIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma POLLISIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Trallianus’ “Longuaevis” twice as a source, and in lemma TANNETA once. Altogether he is mentioned 9 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Alexander Zardus see Sardus, Alexander.

Alexandria, Council of. In 231 AD a council of bishops and priests met at Alexandria, Egypt,  called together by bishop Demetrius for the purpose of declaring Origen of Alexandria unworthy of the office of teacher, and of excommunicating him. In 306, a council held under pope Peter deposed Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, for idolatry and other crimes. The schism then begun by him lasted fifty years and was the source of much trouble for the Church of Egypt. In 321 the council was held that first condemned Arius, then parish priest of the section known as Baucalis. After his condemnation Arius withdrew to Palestine, where he secured the powerful support of Eusebius of Caesarea. Ortelius refers to an undated council of Alexandria in lemmas NVPHEOS “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and PHRAGONIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587) as reported by Athanasius.

Alexandrinus Appianus see Appianus Alexandrinus.

Alexandrinus Clemens see Clemens Alexandrinus.

Alexandrinus, Dionysius, about 190 to about 240 AD., called “the Great” by Eusebius was a Greek writer who wrote to oppose the views of Paul of Samosata who became bishop of Alexandria. Alexandrinus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 15 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 16 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 19 times.

Ort144.6, 145.10.

Alexandrinus, Georgius, 7th c., was archbishop of Alexandria and author of “Vita S. Chrysostomi”, possibly based on a work with the same name by Theodorus Trimithuntius wh flourished abt. 680. Alexandrinus’ “Chrysostomus” was published in Paris in 1557 and is mentioned as a source 5 times in lemmas MARIANA, MAZICI, MEPHAS, SYNENES and VICTORIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Alexandrinus, Hieronymus Comes or Natalis Conti, fl. late 16th c., was an Italian historian who wrote “Commentari de Turcarum bello in insulam Melitam”, published in Venice, 1566, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1587). Alexandrinus is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In lemma IVNONIS ARA of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Bellum Melitensi” is mentioned as a source, and in lemma PASSAPRVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) he quotes Athenæus.

Alexios I Komnenos, Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus, Greek λέξιος Α' Κομνηνός, 1056 – 15 August 1118, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118, and the founder of the Komnenian dynasty. He wrote a “Constitution” referred to by Ortelius as a source in lemma BASILÆI of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Alexius Ugonio see Ugonio, Alexius.

Alfons de Meneses see Meneses, Alfons.

Alfonsus Bonacciolus see Buonacciolus.

Alfonsus Hadrianus or Adrianus, Roman times, was a Roman architect and wall builder in Britain who wrote about military discipline. He and his book are mentioned 29 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) as a source, and 10 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus”(1587) his book is mentioned once and his name as an author 9 times. In “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Disciplina militari” is mentioned once as a source in lemma ACROCERAVNII. He is altogether mentioned 10 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Alfonsus see  Alphonsus.

Algoet, Lievin see Lievin, Algoet.

Al-Hassan Ibn Mohammed Alwazzan see Leo Africanus.

Alonso de Ulloa see Ulloa, Alonso de.

Alphanus, Tyndarus, late 15th c., was an Italian author who wrote “Tractatus de Testibus”, published in Rome, 1475, and “De institutis renuntiantium”, Venice 1574. Ortelius refers once as a source in the lemma DRVMENTVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) to Alphanus’ “Vita duodecim fratrum martyrum”.

Alphesum, Council of was a church council held in France in the 4th century, reported on by Gratianus. It is mentioned as a source in lemma ALPHESUM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) as held under king Conrad.

Alphonsus Adrianus see Alfonsus Adrianus.

Alphonsus of Cartagena, 1396 - 1456, a Spanish historian, was born at Cartagena and succeeded his father, Paulus, as bishop of Burgos. In 1431 he was deputed by Joannes II., king of Castilia, to attend the council of Basel, in which he made himself conspicuous by his learning. He was the author of several works, the principal of which is entitled “Rerum Hispanorum Romanorum imperatorum, summorum pontificum, nec non regum Francorum anacephaleosis”. This is a history of Spain from the earliest times down to 1456, and was printed at Granada in 1545, and also in the “Rerum Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot”, printed by R. Bel, Frankfurt, 1579. He is referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587).

Alphonsus Hispanus, 15th  century, wrote "Sigismundiana", a collection of poems referred to as a source in the map text of Ort140. Possibly, he is the same as the previous item.

Ort140.7.

Althamer, Andreas, 16th century, published and commented on Tacitus’ “Germania”, referred to as a source in lemma RHÆTICA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas CHERVSCI, DVZIACVM, HERCYNIA and RHÆTICA of “Thesaurus (1596). He also commented on Tacitus’ “Annales” in 1529 (Ort105,106); also referred to in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). His version of “Annales” is twice referred to as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596).  He also quotes Beatus Rhenanus and  Marlianus. He is mentioned twice in “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L) and 4 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Althamer is censured as a heretic. He occurs 38 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 45 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 49 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort56.8, 57.9, 102.4, 194.32;

Quoting Tacitus' Germania: Ort105.3, 106.3.

Althamerus see Althamer.

Altissiodorensis see Henricus of Auxerre.

Alunno da Ferrara, fl. late 16th c., was an Italian author who wrote “Della fabrica del mondo” which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1576.

Alvaradus, Petrus or Pedro de Alvarado, 1485 – 1541, from Portugal was a famous explorer who lived for some time in Ethiopia. His travel report, originally written in Portuguese was translated into Latin, Italian, French and German. The Italian translation is considered best, and appeared in Ramusio’s compilations. The French translation by Jean Bellere was published in Antwerp in 1558. He is mentioned as a source in the map texts of Ort9, 10 and 11.

Ort9.32, 10.32, 11.35.

Alvaredo see Alvaradus.

Alvares, Fernandus see Secco

Alvares, Nunnius see Alvarez, Nunnius.

Alvarez, Francesco or Fernando, 1465 – 1541, of Coimbra, Portugal, was an explorer who visited Ethiopia and wrote about his experiences in “Travels” (Ort175). He is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text: in the lemma NILVS of the “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) where he is called Fernando.

Ort8.15;

Travels: Ort175.10, 175.17, 175.19.

Alvarez, Gaspar or Machiado Louzada, Braga 1554 – Lisbon 1634, was a Portuguese theologist and archivist in Lisbon. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1594 (Hessels 251). In lemma NEBIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) he is mentioned as a source and called “doctißimus”.

Alvarez, Nunnius or Nuñez, born in Spain in Farinale, died in Antwerp in 1603, was a captain and physician who explored the seas . He taught in Leuven and contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 87v-88, 1576, 1577).

Ort9.34, 10.34, 11.37.

Alvarus Gometius, 16th c., was a Portuguese author who wrote “Life of Franciscus Ximenius”, a work mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma DANIENSIS, describing the life of Ximenius.

Amadæus, Theodorus of Svallenberg see Adamaeus.

Amantius Bartholomæus, 16th century, was a lawyer from Landsberg, Germany who published “Florilegium sententiarum græcarum et latinarum” [Anthology of Greek and Latin proverbs] in Ingolstadt or Dillingen. Amantius is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and three times in its text, there referred to as a source in the lemma FOCVNATES, and referring to his “Codex” in the lemma PETOVIO. In these lemmas in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma SICAMBRIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) he is again mentioned as a source.

Ort1.59, 2.59, 3.64.

Amasæus see Amaseo.

Amaseo or Amaseus or Masius, Gregorius, 1464 – 1541, was a humanist scholar from Udine, Italy who wrote a “Descriptio geographica Italiæ et Provinciæ Foroiuliensis” for Leandrus from Bononia. He was a partner of Candidus (Ort119). He drew a map of Friuli in manuscript (now lost) and translated Cepha and edited Pausanias. He and his Friuli map is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards but not used by Ortelius. Amaseo is mentioned as a source 3 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), 3 times in “Synonymia” (1578) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ort119.11,

Translator of Cepha: Ort178.8, 179.8;

As reported by Leander: 143.9;

Amaseus Romulus or Romolo Amaseo, fl. early 16th c., was a French author who wrote “De Pace Oratio” for Charles V and who edited Pausanias. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas CLYDON, NOREIA and PHLYGONIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ambrosio de Morales see Morales Ambrosio de.

Ambrosius Marcellinus, fl. 4th c., was a Roman ruler who is mentioned as a source in lemma GÆA in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ambrosius, St. Leo, 339 – 397, was a church father who among many other works wrote “Epistle to Rusticus” (Ort196), “Sermons” (Ort227) and “De Nolanis.Commentariis”, mentioned as a source in lemma PALÆPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma CLANIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). He was the excommunicator of emperor Theodosius after the massacre of Christians in Thessaloniki. He is also mentioned as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), but not in its text. In lemma CALLINICVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Epistula ad Theodosium” is mentioned as a source. In lemma PLACENTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) there is simply a reference to his “Epistolae”. Altogether, he is mentioned 6 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort218.28;

Epistle to Rusticus: Ort196.61.

Sermon 5 concerning Psalm 118: Ort227.18;

Ambrosius, Marcus Nissensis or Marek Ambrozy, fl. c. 1540 – 1566, was a Silesian humanist who lived in Antwerp for some years. He made a manuscript map of Livonia about which no details are known. He and his Livonia map are first included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” in 1570, but it was not used by Ortelius.

Amil Resende see Resende, Andreas.

Amiotus or Amyot, mid-16th c., was a French scholar who  edited Diodorus Siculus in French (1554), as indicated in lemma PACTOLVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), where he is mentioned as a source altogether 3 times. In lemma PACTOLVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Amiotus’ “Gallia” is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 6 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ammianus Marcellinus or Marellinus Ammianus or just Ammianus or Marcellinus, c. 330 – 395, from Antiochia wrote a history of Rome called “Res gestæ” or “Historia Augusta” (Ort197,198) in 31 books of which 13 were lost, published in Rome in 1474. It was intended to be a sequel to Tacitus’ “Annales”, starting at the death of Domitianus and ending with the defeat of the Romans by the Goths at Adrianople in 378. This publication was rediscovered by Poggio Braccolini and published by Frobenius, Basel, 1533, as in lemma SEBVSIANI of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), by Accorso, Augsburg, 1533, and by Gelenius in Basel. This history is quoted by Petrus Pithœus in his “Adversaria” (Ort 196). In lemma ARCAGANTES of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ammianus’ “Bibliotheka Historialis” is mentioned twice as a source. Ammianus is mentioned twice in “Synonymia” (1570, 1571L), 9 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of  Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 151 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 434 times as a source. In lemma ASTACANTAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Ammianus’ “Codex” as a source. In lemma CIMONIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Ammianus “Vita Thucydidis”. Altogether, Ammianus is mentioned 526 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Ammianus is mentioned 3 times as a source.

Ammianus is mentioned 4 times on map sheet Ort197, 4 times on map sheet Ort198, once on mapsheet Ort203, three times on map sheet Ort212; further in map texts: Ort16.15, 36.10, 38.2, 38.10, 42.4, 44.4, 45.4, 47.4, 119.19, 149.6, 149.17, 190.33, 190.34, 192.7, 192.8, 194.5, 194.6, 194.14, 196.4, 196.5, 196.38, 196.41, 196.84, 196.116, 199.4, 199.44, 200.15, 203.24, 209.13, 209.14, 209.15, 209.17, 209.18, 212.6, 213.5, 213.6, 214.2, 214.3, 214.5, 214.14, 216.5, 216.14, 219.7, 219.18, 220.2, 221.8, 221.28, 221.32, 221.33, 226.58, 226.89, 226.95, 231.28, 232.2, 232.7, 232.23, 232.25, 232.28,

Bk. 6: 190.2, 190.40, Bk.14: Ort187.1-5, 216.4, Bk.15: Ort34.9, 36.21, Bk.17: Ort222.16, Bk.18: Ort16.35, 190.6, 190.40, 192.14, Bk.19 & Bk.21: Ort229.2, Bk.22: Ort174.5a, 213.9, 216.18, 221.29, 232.18, 232.19, Bk.23: Ort7.7, Bk.24: Ort167.3, Bk.26: 199.39, 200.9, Bk.27: Ort207.3, 208.3, Bk.30: Ort217.5;

History Bk.15: Ort197.17, 198.17, Bk.16, quoted by Petrus Pithæus in Bk.3 of his Adversaria: Ort196.105, 196.106; Bk.25 196.91;

Commented on by Stuckius 213.9.

Ammonius, 1485 – 1556, was a Flemish humanist who published a translation in Latin of Chrystostomus' “Homily on Providence”. He was mostly known because of his “Epistles” mentioned in Ort38. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in the lemma SORABOS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ort38.5 38.13.

Amos, 8th c. BC., is one of the 12 lesser prophets in the Old Testament and Tenach. The book Amos tells about the prophet whose name means “born” or “burden”. Amos was born in Tekoa, near Bethlehem. He was of low descent, and a farmer rather than a prophet. Ortelius refers to the books of Amos 3 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas CALANA, CALANNO and CAPHTOR.

Anacreon, Greek νακρέων, 570 BC – 488 BC., was a Greek lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and hymns. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. Anacreon wrote all of his poetry in the ancient Ionic dialect. Like all early lyric poetry, it was composed to be sung or recited to the accompaniment of music, usually the lyre. Anacreon's verses were primarily in the form of monody, which means that they were to be performed by a single voice rather than by a chorus. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) as a source found in Strabo, and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is again mentioned once as a source in its text in lemma TEOS via Strabo and Stephanus.

Anania, Bartholomæus see Bartholomæus Ananiensis.

Anania, Laurentius see see Bartholomeus Ananiensis.

Anania, Lorenzo d’ see see Bartholomeus Ananiensis.

Ananiensis, Bartholomeus see Bartholomeus Ananiensis.

Anastasius I, bishop, later pope from 399 – 401 wrote “Decreta” subdivided into “Causae”, mentioned as a source in lemmas PERRHENORVM, SAVINAS and TANSIATVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) sometimes without mentioning the author.

Anastasius, emperor, reigned 491-518 AD., of Constantinople is quoted by Glycas (Ort196).

Ort210.14;

Quoted by Glycas: Ort196.23.

Anaximander, 611-547 BC., of Milete was a Greek philosopher, pupil of Thales, who concentrated on non-religious explanations of physical phenomena and who made the first world map, referred to in the map text of Ort186.

Ort186.8.

Anconitanus Cyriacus see Cyriacus Anconitatus.

Andreas Alexander, 16th century, was a scholar from Naples, Italy who wrote “Della guerra de Campagna di Roma e del Regno di Napoli nel pontificato di Paolo IV l’anno 1556, 1557” (Ort139), published by Hieronymus Ruscelli, Venice, 1560. Andreas is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned twice as a source, e.g. in lemma MANDVRIA.

Ort200.71;

The war between Philip and Paul IV (published by Hieronymus Ruscellus): Ort139.10.

Andreas Althamer see Althamer Andreas.

Andreas Lacuna see Laguna.

Andreas Laguna see Laguna.

Andreas Resende see Resende, Andreas.

Andreas Schott see Schott Andreas.

André Marmolius see Thevet.

Andreus Resende see Resende, Andreas.

Angelinus Politianus or Angelo Poliziano or Angelo Ambrogini, Tuscany July 14, 1454 – 1494, was an Italian writer and poet who died in Florence. He wrote “Epistolarum Libri XII” which was published, together with writing from other authors such as Petrus Bembo and Fracastorius in 1522. Ortelius refers to his “Legatio Mariae” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), to his “Epistola ad Petrum Medicum” in lemmas FESVLÆ and FLVENTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) and to his “Miscellaneis” in lemma THESPIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), also mentioned 3 times as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). Ortelius bought two copies of his “Epistolarum” from Plantin in 1587. He is mentioned in the title cartouche of Illyricum, Ort 144.

Ort144 cartouche;

Commenting on Curtius Ort222.39.

Angelerius, Hippolytus or Ippolito Angelieri, 16th c., was an Italian author who wrote “De antiquitate urbis Atestinae” and “Historia di Vicenza”, published in 1592. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas PETELIA and TARINATES of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Angiolello or Angiolellus, Giovanni Maria, 1451-1525,  from Vicenza, Italy wrote a history of Mahomet II in Turkish and Italian, entitled “Breve narrazione della vita et fatti del sig. Ussun-Cassano, ré di Persia”, published by Ramusio (Venice, 1559). He is mentioned twice in “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is again mentioned as a source twice, e.g. in lemma HYRCANIA.

Ort167.10.

Anglicus, Bartholomæus, 13th c., was an Englishman who wrote “Liber proprietatibus rerum” around 1230. It was first printed in Heidelberg in 1486. Ortelius refers to this work without mentioning its author, but saying that it has incorrectly been attributed to Aristoteles in lemma IAMAN of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Anjou, René d’, 1409-1480, was king of Naples, count of Anjou and Provence, patron and poet. He made manuscript maps of Anjou and Provence which have not survived. He and his Anjou and Provence map were included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1592 onwards, but not used.

“Annales Francorum” is a collection of historical accounts written by an anonymous monk around the year 800. Ortelius refers to it 3 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemmas ABOTRITI, CARNIOLENSES and FAGOFACHOS, and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in the lemmas just mentioned.

Annius Viterbiensis see Annius of Viterbo.

Annius of Viterbo, or Giovanni Annio “the Unreliable”, 1432 – 1502, from Viterbo, Italy was a Dominican clergyman who through falsifications created havoc in many scientific publications of his time. His “Antiquitatum variarum volumina XVII cum commentariis” (Ort130), Rome, 1498, Paris, 1515, discusses a series of presumably lost works by Berosus (Ort117); also in lemmas CADO SENE and LIBYSOSONA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Fabius, Pictor, Cato (to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), Manethon, Sempronius and others. Ortelius mentions his work “Ailes Fabulæ” but refuses to quote from it in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma VITERBVM because “he seems to have been sleeping”. Annius also wrote the unpublished work "Volumen libris septuaginta distinctum de antiquitatibus et gestis Etruscorum", of which Ortelius must have had a manuscript, for he refers to it as such as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma TVDER, but he no longer refers to this manuscript in TVDER in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), presumably because Ortelius meanwhile had acquired a printed copy, or because he finds Annius too unreliable. Annius’ falsifications were copied by Zanchi. Annius is mentioned as a source in the Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 29 times in its text. In his “Thesaurus” (1587), Ortelius refers to a “fragment of Antoninus” presented by Annius, in the lemma CAFERONIANVM, and mentions him altogether as a source 33 times. In lemma GARIOFILVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Annius’ edition of “Decretum Desiderij Regis”. Altogether, Annius is mentioned 44 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort25.8, 29.6, 30.8, 32.2, 194.31, 207.5, 208.5;

Antiquities of Etruria: Ort130.13;

Commentaries on Berosus: Ort117.33, 118.5, 118.33;

Bk.7 quoting Cato 131.25

Annonius from München see Aimoinus.

Annonus, saint, fl. 9th c., was a bishop of Vetvaria (Altenburg) whose “Life” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BONNA.

Anonymous “Istoire des Croniques de Flandres” was a 13th century collection of manuscripts first published late 16th century. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1583.

Another Anonymous is mentioned various times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), e.g. in lemmas SAREPTA and SIDON and as a source who wrote “De belli Hierosolymitani”.In lemma SAOCORAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a travel account called “Itinerarium Persicum” saying that the author is anonymous.

In lemma SERRÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) “Sanctiones patriarcharum”, an unidentied work, is mentioned as a source.

Scores of “Anonymus” authors are mentioned in the “Synonymia” and “Thesauri”, but if the title of their work as well as their name are lacking, they have not been registered in this document as a source.

Ansegigus, saint, about 770 – 833, was a Roman Catholic abbot who wrote laws for Charles the Great, which retained validity for a long time in France, Germany and Italy, as reported by Divæus. Ortelius refers to these laws as a source in lemma MENAPISCVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Anticlides, 3rd century BC) was a Greek historian who wrote a dictionary explaining words and phrases occurring in ancient stories (Ort216).

Ort216.40.

Antigonius or Antigonus, third century BC., of Megasthenes wrote “De Mirabilibus” [About Wonders] (Ort203,211,224.) This work is also referred to 34 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 38 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether Antigonus is mentioned 42 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 53 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Antigonus quotes Myrsilius (Ort216) and Ctesias in lemma ALPHION of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort12.9, 12.35, 210.24, 211.12, 214.20-22, 216.5, 216.20, 216.41, 217.4, 217.23, 217.25, 217.29;

De Mirabilibus: Ort203.18, 224.48, Bk. 1: Ort211.12;

Quoting Myrsilius: Ort216.21.

Antigonus see Antigonius.

Antimachus of Colophon or Claros who flourished about 400 BC., was a Greek poet and grammarian. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His poetical efforts were not generally appreciated, although he received encouragement from his younger contemporary Plato as reported by Plutarchus in his “Lysander”. His chief works were: an epic “Thebais”, an account of the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, the war of the Epigoni and an elegiac poem “Lyde”, so called for the poet's mistress, for whose death he endeavoured to find consolation telling stories from mythology of heroic disasters. Antimachus was the founder of "learned" epic poetry, and the forerunner of the Alexandrian school, whose critics allotted him the place next to Homerus. He also prepared a critical recension of the Homeric poems. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In lemma MARMISVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to his “Oracula Sibyllina” as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas ELEA, MARMISVM and PANTHA.

Antioch council, 341 AD., was a non-ecumenical Christian church council held at Antioch (modern Antakya in southeastern Turkey) on the occasion of the consecration of the emperor Constantine I’s Golden Church there. It was the first of several 4th century councils that attempted to replace orthodox Nicene theology with a modified Arianism. Attended by the Eastern emperor Constantius II and about 100 Eastern bishops, the council developed four creeds as substitutes for the Nicene theology,  all of them to some degree unorthodox and omitting or rejecting the Nicene statement that Christ was “of one substance” (homo-ousios) with the Father. This council is mentioned as a source once in Ortelius “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma VASADENSIS. In “Thesaurus” (1596) this council is altogether mentioned 5 times as a source.

Antiochus III the Great, Greek ντίoχoς Μέγας, ca. 241–187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC, younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. Ascending the throne at young age, Antiochus was an ambitious ruler. Although his early attempts in war against the Ptolemaic kingdom were unsuccessful, in the following years of conquest he proved himself as the most successful Seleucid king after Seleucus I himself. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he briefly assumed after his Eastern Campaign. Antiochos also assumed the title "Basileus Megas" [Great King], the traditional title of the Persian kings. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578)  through Strabo and twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned once.

Antoninus Augustus Pius’ Itinerarium Provinciarum was a book on the Roman roads, provinces, and cities, probably written or initiated by Antoninus Pius Augustus, 138 - 161 AD. He won fame for his integrity as proconsul of Asia and joined emperor Hadrianus’ circle of advisors, and later became his successor (cf. Hessels nr. 146). The “Itinerarium” was first published by Henricus Stephanus or Etienne, an also by Christoforus Longolii in Paris 1512. Ortelius refers very frequently to his “Itinerarium” and possessed many different editions of this work. He refers to his edition by Manutius Aldinus, e.g. in lemma NOVIDVNVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius also refers to the version by Surita pulished in Basel in 1575 and mentioned e.g. in lemma TRITIVM METALVM in “Thesaurus” (1596) and also to his Simlerus edition, in turn based on the edition by Tschudi. Ortelius also refers to his Lugdunensis [Lyon] edition, published in 1550 by Vincentius, e.g. in lemma INCARVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Schottus published an edition in 1586 (see Hessels 146). Ortelius’ “Parisiensis” [Paris] edition is referred to in for instance lemmas DÆDALIVM, MAGIOVINTVM, OSIVDIZO SVBSICINVM, YVNGO and ZYMNA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Antoninus is referred to 34 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), and 61 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). Further Antoninus is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 438 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Antoninus is mentioned 1922 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 2115 times. This includes 32 references by Ortelius  to his manuscript of a fragment of Antoninus, e,g, in lemma HITVS and points out discrepancies between his various editions.
Antoninus’ “Dialogorum de nummis antiquis” is mentioned as a source in lemmas CELSA and PHOCAICVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Itinerarium Maritimum” or “Itinerarium Portuum” is mentioned as a source in lemmas NAVS, OXEI, QVINTIANÆ, and ROMÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) and in lemma SABATA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Antoninus Pius is referred to once as a source in chapter QVIRINI of “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Antoninus is mentioned on map sheet Ort191 no less than 20 times, on Ort192 20 times, on map sheet 193 5 times, on map sheet Ort197 3 times, on mapsheet Ort198 once, on map sheet Ort199 twice, also twice on map sheet Ort200, 6 times on map )nsheet Ort203, twice on map sheet 206, five times on mapsheet Ort210, three times on map sheet Ort212, once on mapsheet Ort213, three times on map sheet Ort217, twice on map sheet Ort218, four times on map sheet Ort219, 7 times on map sheet Ort220, nine times on Ort221; his Itinerarium is mentioned once on map sheet Ort203; twice on map sheet Ort206; ten times on map sheet Ort207, 12 times on Ort208, once on maps sheet Ort209, and 5 times on map sheet Ort210; further in map texts:
Ort1.20, 2.20, 3.22, 53.17,54.6, 60.5, 60.13, 192.68, 192.70, 207.6, 208.6, 229.5, 230.14-18, Ort228.5-7, 229.5.

Antoninus Florentinus or Fra Antonino or Antonio Pierozzi or Antonio de Forcigliono, 1389 -1459, Dominican and reformer, was archbishop of Florence, Italy. He wrote “Confessionale” [Confessions],(Milan, 1477, Strasbourg, 1488, a world chronicle (Ort1,2,3) Nürnberg ,1484, “Roman Annals” (Ort2,3) and a “Journal” (Ort107,108). He occurs in the map texts of Ort1, 2, 3, 19, 54, 60, 107, 108, 192, 204 and 205:

Ort19.33, 19.34, 19.39w, 19.41y, 54.6, 60.5, 192.68, 204.11, 205.11;

History Bk.1, ch.3: Ort1.29, 2.29, 3.32;

Annals of the Roman Empire: 2.20, 3.22;

Journal Ort107.4, 108.4.

Antoninus Marcus Aurelius, 121 – 180 AD., was a stoic philosopher and emperor from 161 to his death in 180. He revitalised the Parthian empire and wrote “Meditationes”. He is referred to as a source once in lemma GRANVA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) referring to his “Philosophi Vita”, and altogether occurs twice in this “Thesaurus” (1596).

Antonius Ælius, also called Spartianus, 4th century AD., belonged to the group of authors who together provided the contents of “Historia Augusta”, a collection of the lives of some 30 Roman emperors over the period 117 - 284 AD. He is well known for his “Life of Hadrianus” (Ort231), referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) twice in “Thesaurus” (1587), twice in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). He also wrote  “Life of Didius Julianus”, mentioned as sources in lemmas CLASSIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and VIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Life of Severus”, mentioned as a source in lemmas SEPTIZONIVM and TINVRTIVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas MEMNON, SEPTIZONIVM, TINVRTIVM and VIMINATIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), and “Life of Caracallus” to which works Ortelius refers as sources in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587), and once in lemma GETÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). Spartianus is quoted by Lupanus. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), and 11 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 11 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 17 times.

Ort28.12, 28.30, 48.4, 49.3, 49.13, 82.2, 83.2, 192.59, 199.39, 200.9, 218.20, 222.34;

Life of Emperor Hadrianus: Ort231.26;

Pesennio : 196.116

Antonius Augustinus see Augustinus, Antonius.

Antonius Liberalis, abt. 150 AD., wrote “Metamorphoses” in which he discusses a great variety of subjects, including how the bladder of a goat caught the dangerous semen of king Minos in a woman’s vagina. He is mentioned 20 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). His “Metamorphoses” is mentioned in lemma CVRETAS of “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is altogether is referred to as a source 31 times.

Ort189.26, 189.27, 210.24, 222.21, 226.55.

Antonius Possevinus see Possevinus Antonius.

Antonius Veronensis see Veronensis Antonius.

Apher, Dionysius, see Dionysius Apher.

Aphrodisius, Saint, French: Saint Aphrodise, Afrodise, Aphrodyse, Aphrodite, is a saint associated with the diocese of Béziers, in Languedoc, southern France. According to Gregory of Tours, Aphrodisius was an Egyptian who was martyred in Languedoc along with his followers Caralippus (Caralampus), Agapius, and Eusebius. He is mentioned as a source via Stephanus in lemma APHORMIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Apianus Alexandrinus see Appianus Alexandrinus

Apianus Cyracius see Cyracius Appianus.

Apianus, Peter see Appianus, Petrus.

Apianus or Appianus, Philip, 1531 – 1589, son of Petrus Apianus, was a professor of mathematics in Ingolstadt and Tübingen. He obtained the order from duke Albrecht the Fifth to make a map of Bavaria in a scale of 1:45.000 which resulted in a map of 5 x 5 meters. This map was reduced to a woodcut of 1: 135.000 (Ingolstadt, 1568) which was used by Ortelius (Ort110). Apianus and his Bavaria map are mentioned as sources in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theaterum” from 1570 onwards. Apianus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 6 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is mentioned 4 times as a source, e.g. in lemma VINDELICIA.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the second Bavaria map as its maker, Ort110; in texts:

Ort1.58, 2.58, 3.63, 109.11, 110.6, 110.10, 136.5;

Apicius or Apitius, Cælius , first century AD., was a well-known gastronomer who wrote a cook book, called “Culinaria”. He is mentioned as a source in lemma ARABIAM in “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma PALLACANA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Apitius’ “Culinaria” is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort203.30, 203.32.

Apione or Oasi di Siwa, 20 BC – 45 AD., was a grammarian, sophist and commentator on Homerus and was known for his aversion of Jews and Judaeism. He studied at Alexandria and became ambassasor for Caligula in 38 AD. Josephus Flavius accused him in his “Against Apione”  He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas CABESSVS and PHINTHIA.

Apollinaris, Sidonius, see Sidonius Apollinaris.

Apollo, Horus or Orus, 8th century BC?, was a mythological figure, supposed to be the son of Osiris, the last Egyptian pharao, called Apollo by the Greeks. Apollo Horus is said to have put down Typhon and was the last god to be king of Egypt, as reported in Herodotus’ “Enquiries”, Book 2. Ortelius refers to Apollo as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578). Ortelius bought a work from Plantin,  in Latin and French, published in Paris and written by Apollo Orus in 1583.

Ort219.8, 221.9, 221.45.

Apollodorus or (incorrectly) Appolodorus, about 140 BC, of Athens was the author of a long treatise in Greek prose  Peri Qewn, [On the Gods], referred to as a source in lemmas CEPHALVS and ELIVS in “Thesaurus” (1596) and twice in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). He also wrote a chronicle covering the period from the fall of Troy to 144 BC. Further, he wrote “Biblioqhkh, [Library] (Ort216), a study of Greek heroic mythology, but the uncritical work that survives under this name was probably compiled in the first or second century AD. Apolodorus is quoted by Strabo (Ort224). Apollodorus is mentioned 13 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 43 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), and 94 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort203.19, 216.37, 217.31, 219.2, 221.2, 226.5, 226.8, 226.13, 226.14, 226.17, 226.20, 226.21, 226.22, 226.24, 226.27, 226.29-32, 226.34, 226.36, 226.38, 226.40, 226.41, 226.48-50, 226.52, 226.52a, 226.52d, 226.54, 226.57, 226.61, 226.63, 226.64, 226.67-69, 226.75-80, 226.85-88, 226.92, 226.93, 226.95, 226.96;

Biblioteca Bk.1: Ort216.30;

Quoted by Strabo: Ort224.29.

Apollonius Collatius, Peter, fl. late 15th c., was an Italian poet and priest who wrote “Excidii “Hierosolytani”, dealing with Vespasianus’ siege of Jerusalem. It was edited by Adrianus van der Burg and printed in Leiden in 1586. Ortelius refers to it once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Apollonius Levinus, born in 1510, of Belgium travelled to America and died on such a journey on the Canary islands. He wrote “Libri quinque de Peruviæ regionis inter novi orbis provincias celeberrimæ inventione et rebus in eadem gestis” (Antwerp, 1567), and “De navigatione in terram Floridam, deque clade an. 1565 ab Hispanis accepta” (Antwerp 1568). He is mentioned as a source in the on verso texts of the America maps.

Ort9.27, 10.27, 11.30.

Apollonius Rhodius, 295 - 215 BC., was a Hellenistic poet from Alexandria, Egypt, who spent the later part of his life on Rhodes. He was tutor to Ptolemy III, and head of the Alexandrian Library. His main surviving work is “Argonautica” (Ort186,212,226), Venice, 1521. Reference is made 8 times to this work in as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 25 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), sometimes mentioning Philostratus as its editor. This work was the only epic before Vergilius’ “Aeneid” that could be compared with Homerus in subject and intent, and also the first epic to give prominence to the concept of love, viz. Medea’s love for Jason. Appolonius was much admired in late antiquity, and is one of the few Hellenistic poets whose work survived in numerous medieval manuscripts. Apollonius also quotes from “De Mirabilibus” [“History of strange and wonderful things”] written by Aristoteles (Ort192; also 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)). He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 38 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), reference is made to Apollonius’ “Mare Rubri” in the lemma BYBLOS. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 180 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma CHOLVM and CVROPOLIS Ortelius refers to Apollonius’ “Caricorum” as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Apollonius Rhodius is altogether mentioned 233 times. In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Apollonius’ “Commentaria Graeca” is mentioned as a source.

Apollonius is mentioned twice on map sheet Ort203, once on map sheet Ort212, once on map sheet Ort213, once on map sheet Ort214, once on map sheet Ort226; further in map texts Ort189.30, 199.8, 199.47, 200.20, 209.22, 213.3, 226.2, 226.3, 226.12, 226.13, 226.17, 226.18, 226.22-24, 226.26, 226.27, 226.30, 226.32, 226.36, 226.38-41, 226.43, 226.44, 226.47, 226.48, 226.51, 226.51a, 226.52, 226.52b, 226.52c, 226.52e, 226.54-58, 226.60, 226.61, 226.65, 226.66, 226.69, 226.70, 226.72, 226.74, 226.76, 226.79, 226.81, 226.83, 226.87, 226.91, 226.96;

Argonauts Bk.4: Ort186.14, 212.25, Bk.4 Ch.15: Ort226.8; Quoting Scytinus Chius 191.14 from his History of strange things: Ort191.14, 192.77, 192.90.

Apomasar or Albumasar or Abou Mashar, 787 – 886, was a Persian astronomer/astrologer whose work “Apotelesma, de significatis et inventis insomniorum, ec Indorum, Persarum, Aegyptiorumque disciplina” was published by Leunclavius in Frankfurt, 1577. Ortelius refers to him once as a source in lemma MOCHVRA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Appianus Alexandrinus, abt. 95 - 165 AD., Greek: ππιανός λεξανδρεύς; “the diligent and serious chorographer” as Ortelius calls him, was a Greek historian who lived in Alexandria and witnessed the Jewish uprising of 116 AD. As a lawyer and civil servant, he obtained Roman citizenship, went to Rome, became a financial officer and returned to Alexandria between 160 and 165 AD. He wrote “Historia Romana”, a history of Rome from its legendary beginnings in 24 books, ending at his own time, also called “De bellorum civilium” (first published in 1551, Ort146; to which Ortelius refers as a source as “Civilium” in his “Synonymia” (1578), 14 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 56 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). It contains “Mithridatica” (Ort224, Ort226; also referred to 4 times in “Synonymia” (1578), 51 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)) and further “Annibalica” (Ort136,206) Mainz, 1529, a work to which Ortelius refers 5 times in his “Synonymia” (1578), 7 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and 12 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “De Bellis Syriacis” to which Ortelius refers twice in his “Synonymia” (1578) 9 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In the text of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) Appianus is mentioned as a source 38 times. As concerns Roman wars, he described the countries and peoples subdued by Rome, as in “History of France” (Ort197,198), and “Peregrination of St. Paul” (Ort181), He also wrote about the Punic wars, to which Ortelius refers once in his “Synonymia” (1578), 10 times as “De Punicis” in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 14 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He is also the author of “Ibericis”, mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 29 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 27 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote  “De bello Parthicis”, mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He is also author of “De bellis Illyricis”, mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) in lemmas ISSA and TORGIVM, and 6 times in lemmas CHAONES, DAORISI, DERBANI, ESSIOS, ISSA, PALARII, PANNONIA (where Ortelius sometimes says that he could not check what the Greek edition mentions), TORGIVM and TRIBOLA of “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Historiae Proemio” are mentioned as a source in lemmas BRITTANNICÆ and HIADES of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma FOSSA PVNICA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Appianus’ “Libycis” is mentioned as a source. Appianus is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 37 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 233 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 344 times.

Ort16.26, 16.30,144.7, 144.8, 144.9, 145.11, 145.12, 145.13, 187.5, 189.26, 190.2, 190.31, 190.35, 192.5, 192.9, 193.8,193.12, 199.18, 199.19, 199.23, 199.27, 199.61, 199.62, 199.67, 199.71, 200.36, 200.37, 200.45, 200.57, 203.4, 203.6, 203.19, 203.20, 203.22, 203.31, 209.14, 213.15, 214.2, 218.3, 218.15, 218.17, 218.19, 218.24, 223.12.

Bk.2: Ort196.60, Bk.4: Ort146.15, Bk.5: Ort142.17;

Civil War Bk.2 196.60; Bk.5: Ort224.22.

History of France: Ort187.5, 197.17, 198.17;

Civil War, Bk.5 Ort224.22;

Peregrination of Saint Paul: Ort181.3;

Mithridatica: Ort226.10.

Annibalica: Ort136.5, 206.3; mentioned on mapsheet Ort136.

Appianus or Apianus, Petrus, or Peter Bienewitz, “a writer of good reputation and a diligent chorographer”, 1495 – 1552, wrote “Inscriptiones sacrosanctae vetustatis”, Ingolstad 1534, designed a map of the World, Ingolstadt, 1530, Europe, Ingolstadt, 1534,  and St. Pauls Travels (1529).  He also wrote a “Cosmography” together with Gemma Frisius, Antwerp, Diest, 1533, 1545. He was included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in 1570 and is mentioned 75 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L)  in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of  Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 45 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 25 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) also 25 times.

Appius Claudius Cæcus see Claudius Appius.

Appolodorus see Apollodorus.

Appolonius Levinus see Apolonius Levinus.

Appolonius Rhodius see Apollonius Rhodius.

Apuleius, Madaurensis Lucius, 125 - 180 AD., a Roman Rhetorist from Madaurus, Numidia, was strongly influenced by Plato, and wrote a philosophical treatise “De Mundo” [About the World] (Ort1,2,3, after Aristoteles) which was very popular in the 16th century, although of little significance. It is referred to as a source in lemma HIBERNIA, PHEBOL of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in PLVTONIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote “Florida”, excerpts from his orations. Ortelius refers to this work (Ort166, 216; also 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)). Also “Apologia pro se ipse” [Apologies for himself] (Ort193; also referred to 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)), “De Deo Socratis” (Ort231) and “Metamorphoses” (Venice, 1521, Lyon 1553), referred to as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) containing “The Golden Ass” (Ort218,224; also mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas ACHERON, BRITINI, LACEDÆMON, PELOPONNESVS and TÆNARIA of “Thesaurus” (1596)) printed in Bologna in 1500 with comments by Philippus Beroaldus. Editions of his work were published and commented on by Bonaventura Vulcanius, Jos. Scaliger and Janus Gruterus. Apuleius’ “De virtutibus Herbarum” [the merits of herbs] is mentioned as a source in lemma OLCIMVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and “De Absynthio” in lemma TAPOSIRIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). His “De Floridor.” is mentioned as a source in lemma SAMOS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Apuleius is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 17 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 33 times. Altogether he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort218.13, 221.26, 222.4, 231.15;

About the World: Ort1.15, 2.15, 3.15;

First Apology: Ort193.18;

De Deo Socratis: Ort231.19;

Florida : Ort166.8, Bk.2 Ort214.34;

Golden Ass Bk.2: Ort224.2, Bk.6: Ort218.28, 218.30, Bk.11: Ort218.28.

Aquanus, Cornelius or van Aken, 1514 –1590, was a Dutch artisan and antiquary from Leiden who contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”,( folio v.96-98, in 1578).

Aquæus, Stephanus or Etienne de l’Aique, fl. early 16th c., was a French scholar who commented on Plinius’ “Historia Naturalis”. Ortelius refers to these comments once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma CASSIOPE where Ortelius accuses him “hallucinari” [to hallucinate], .

Aquilius, Hendrik, 16th century, of Arnhem, Netherlands, was a historian who wrote “Compendium Chronici Geldrici” (Ort61,62), 1566, and “De ducibus Geldriæ”. He is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Synomymia” (1571L) and twice in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), once in “Synonymia” (1578), referring to his “Cosmographia”, and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Chronicle: Ort61.10, 62.10.

Aquitanicus , Prosper, 390 – 455,  bishop of Tunnuna and saint wrote “Chronicon”, first published in Basel in 1529, referred to twice in Ortelius “Thesaurus” (1587), e.g. in the lemma ACHILLAS. In lemma SAPAVDIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his manuscript of “Chronicon” as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he also occurs twice as a source. He also wrote “Sancti Prosperi presbyteri Aquitanici adversus inimicos gratiæ Dei libellus…”, 1524, Mainz (Ort22).

Ort22.35.

Arab, Paraphrast, after 700 AD., was an anonymous interpreter of Mohammed’s Alkoran in “Pet.”(?) (Ort221).

Pet.2.13: Ort221.9.

Arcesinus, 4th c. BC., was a Greek physician specialised in curing melancholy. He is referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BEGIALIS.

Archelaus “the chorographer”, flourished 413 - 399  BC., was king of Macedonia, memorably portrayed by Plato in his “Gorgias”, a monster of cruelty, but he also entertained poets, including Euripides. He is quoted by Diogenes Laërtius (Ort222) and is mentioned once as a source in lemma TOPAZOS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Quoted by Diogenes Laërtius: Ort222.2.

Archilochus or Archilochos, Greek: ρχίλοχος, c. 680 BC – c. 645 BC., was an archaic or a classical Greek poet and supposed mercenary, or, at least, a warrior. Besides his actual poems (or surviving fragments thereof), his main claim to fame rests on being the first known poet to write lyric poetry (in the "western tradition"), in the first person. He is quoted as a source by Eustathius in lemma SAI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Archimandrites, Theodorus, fl. 12th c., was an Italian of Calabria who was sanctified. His “Vita” is referred to as a source by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma ARAVNIA. . This “Vita”, written by Metaphrastes, was used 24 times as a source by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), e.g. in the lemmas BRIANEÆ, CADOSIA, EVCHRAES and TZOYDADER. In lemmas BANI, IMMERENI and TZVDADER of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to his “De Lectoris Collectaneis”. See also under Saints.

Ardens, Radulphus or Raoul, died in 1200 AD., of Poitou was a theologian, early scholastic philosopher and a poet (quoted by Hieronymus (Ort177)), whose “Vita” is referred to by Ortelius as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BERCORCATES.

Quoted by Hieronymus: Ort177.22.

Arelatensis concilium or (first) council of Arles, 313 AD., formally condemned the heresy of Donatism. The council of Arles was the first called together by Constantinus and is the forerunner of the first council of Nicaea. Augustinus of Hippo called it an oecumenical council. Ortelius refers to this council twice as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmasCVLLV and VEGESELA. In lemma VIRENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to the 2nd council, which was held in 353.

Arenbergius, Carolus or Charles of Arenberg or Karel de Ligne, Vollenhove 1550 - Edingen 1616, Duke of Aarschot, made Knight of the Golden Fleece by Philip the Second, is a diplomat and friend of Ortelius who wrote him two letters (Hessels 283, 315) and a third on February 6, 1598 which is mentioned in Hessels 315 § 1. Arenberg is the person to whom Ortelius dedicates his map of the Argonauts (Ort226).

Mentioned by Ortelius as the person to whom he dedicates the Argonautica map, Ort226.

Aretæus or Greek ρεταος, first century AD., is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known. There is some uncertainty regarding both his age and country, but it seems probable that he practised in the 1st century, during the reign of Nero or Vespasianus. He is generally called "the Cappadocian" (Καππάδοξ). He wrote “de Morbis Acutorum” [about acute illnesses], referred to as a source in  lemma SCYBELVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort221.15.

Aretinus, Brunus Leonardus 1369 – 1444, or Leonardo Bruni wrote “Epistolarum liber” which appeared in print in 1466, and also “De bello Italico adversus Gothos gesto” [the Italian war against the Goths”], published by Neumeister in 1470 and referred to as a source once in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemma FORVM TRVENTINORVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is best known for his “Historia Fiorentina”. Although Aretinus claims the authorship of this first printed history of the Barbaric invasions and wars in Italy, his role was actually limited to translating and editing the work by the Byzantine historian Procopius of Cæsarea. He is quoted by Leander (Ort131). Aretinus is mentioned 12 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L) 3 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 3 times in its text. He is mentioned 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Quoted by Leander: Ort131.7.

Aretius, Claudius Marius, 16th century, from Syracusa, Italy was a historiographer of Charles V who wrote “Chorographia sive de situ Siciliæ libellus”, referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587); also “Dialogus ubi Hispaniæ descriptio cum recentioribus nominibus” (Ort25; referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587)) and “Descriptio Hispaniæ et Siciliæ” (Ort32) published in Lyon, France in 1552, referred to as a source in lemmas ALPHEIVS and SALDVBA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius refers to his “Vocabulus” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma NEBRODES. Aretius is mentioned 100 x as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L), 120 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 62 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 96 times as a source.

Ort25.8, 141.5;

Description of Spain: Ort32.2;

Chronicle on Florence : 131.25.

Argentarius, Ioannes Daubri ,16th c. On page 49 of Ortelius’ “Itinerarium” (1584), there is a reference to the house of this person.

Argentré, Bertrand d’ or Bertrandus Argentræus, 1519-1590,  from Bretagne, France, lawyer and magistrate,  wrote a “Histoire de la Bretagne” which appeared in Rennes in 1568 and 1582, and in Paris in 1588, referred to as a source in lemma VINDANA of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is also referred to as a source in lemmas STALIOCANVS and TETVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort37.13.

Arianus see Arrianus.

Arias Benedictus Montanus or Benito or Benoit Montano, “the Learned”, 1527 – 1598, from Sevilla, who was born and died in the same years as Ortelius, was a linguist and theologian, mentioned in Ortelius’ “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Theatrum” from 1573 onwards. He was also a good and close friend of Ortelius, he lived in Antwerp for a considerable time viz. from 1568 to 1574 and he was instrumental in Ortelius' appointment as king Philip’s Royal Geographer, a distinction awarded to him by the Duke of Alba in 1573. His major work is “Biblia Polyglotta”, 1568 – 1573, published by Plantin. He designed a map in his “Apparatus Biblicus” which was appended to this multilingual bible for the king of Spain, which included a chapter called “Chaleb” (Ort170,171,172,181) of which Ortelius possessed a copy. He refers to this work 23 times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 23 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 23 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought another copy of this work in 1580. Montanus also wrote “Commentaries on Obadiah the prophet” (Ort193; also twice referred to by Ortelius as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596)) and “Davidis Psalmi” of which Ortelius received a copy from Plantin which has survived, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006), now in the Plantin Moretus museum. Ortelius dedicates his ancient Spain map (Ort193) in the following words: “Dedicated to the excellent theologist lord Benedictus Arias Montanus, a man well versed in languages, knowledgeable in matters, and with great integrity in life by Abraham Ortelius in friendship and due reverence”. In lemma SEGOVIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius calls Montanus “vir omni laude dignißimus, deq. me bene meritus” [a man most worthy of praise for me, well deserved]. Ortelius refers to his “Onkelos” in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma PANCHÆA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Montanus’ “Varia Republica” as a source. Arias wrote “Humanae salutis Monumenta”, published by Plantin in 1571. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in the same year, another in 1573, and another again in 1592. Ortelius also refers to his “Josha” of which he bought a copy from Plantin in 1583. In 1590, Ortelius bought his “Poemata”, and in 1593 two copies of his “Hymni et Secula”and a copy of his “Antiquitates Judaicae”. He also appears to have edited  Hieronymus, as appears from Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In lemma OPALVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a golden ring he received from this “amicissimus vir”, with a gem on it, see also Hessels (288). Arias is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). He wrote letters to Ortelius in 1576, 1590 (2x), 1591 and 1596 (Hessels 62, 173, 177, 195, 288). He is a contributor to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”(ff. 16 vo. 17). He is mentioned 8 times as a source in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and is  mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and 66 times in its text. Altogether he is in “Thesaurus” (1587) mentioned 63 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 66 times. In Sweertius “Lacrymae” Arias is called Ortelius’ close Spanish friend.

Dedication of Ancient Spain map (Ort193). Further in map texts: Ort123.15, 193.8, 221.3, 221.10;

Map in Apparatus Biblicus, appended to the Bible of the King of Spain: Ort181.3;

Commentaries on Obadiah: 193.5;

Chaleb, part of the Biblical Apparatus : 170.8, 171.8, 171.26, 172.19, 172.27;

Quoted by Ortelius: Ort175.8.

Ariosto or Ariotusus, Franciscus, who died in 1492, was a philosopher and professor from Ferrara, Italy who also wrote poetry, among which the poem “Orlando Furioso”. He was nicknamed “the divine”.

Ort133.16-17, 134.25

Furioso : Verse 43, line 32  Ort133.7, 133.20

Ariovistus, 1st century BC., was not a writer but chief of the Germanic Suevi, and called to Gallia in 71 BC to assist a Gallic tribe in local warfare. The Roman Senate acknowledged his conquests, but he was eventually routed by Cæsar in 58 BC and died soon afterwards. He is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578).

Ort199.72, 200.73;

Being reported to by Cæsar: Ort200.73.

Arista, Eneco, born in 839, was the first king of Pamplona, Spain. He wrote a “Historia”, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1584.

Aristarchus c. 215 - 143 BC., of Samothrace was head of the Alexandrian library and originator of professional scholarship. He wrote commentaries on Greek classical authors, and also treatises on a variety of topics such as Greek grammar, tragedies and histories like those by Herodotus.

Ort224.13.

Aristides, Publius Ælius, 117 - 189 AD., was a Greek rhetorician who spent much of his life giving demonstrations of his rhetorical talents. Fifty-five of his orations have survived, the first edition of which was printed in Florence, 1517. Visiting Rome at the age of 26, he was struck by an illness, perhaps of a psychological nature, from which he suffered for the rest of his life. He sought a cure in the temple of Asclepius at Pergamum, and left an account of the dreams he experienced there in a book called “Sacred Teachings” which is interesting as a record of the personal religious experiences of a pagan, referred to twice in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) as “Sermones sacres”.  He was known to the physician Galenus who cited him as an example of a person whose power of oratory had “caused his body to waste away”. In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to his “Oratio Aegyptiaca” 3 times as a source. Aristides, as quoted by Plinius, is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text via Plinius. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 19 times as a source. In lemma CNIDVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Aristides’ “Æsculapius” is mentioned as a source, and in lemmas DESSÆ and GENNAIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Aristides’ “Sermonibus sacris” as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he is altogether mentioned 18 times as a source.

Ort213.3.

Aristinetus, fl. 1st c. AD., was a Roman general who occurs in Plutarchus’ writings. Ortelius bought his “Epistulae” written in Greek and Latin from Plantin in 1595.

Aristobulus II,  second ruler from the house of the Maccabees, died about 62 BC., was a Jew who quarreled with his brother Hyrcanus and with Aretas, his brothers ally, about being the king of Israel. He won, his term as king ended in 63 BC and he was displayed in the triumph honouring Pompeius in 62 BC. He is mentioned as a source once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in his “Thesaurus” (1587) via Arrianus. In lemmas GLAVCANICÆ and IAXARTES of “Thesaurus” (1596), Aristobulus is mentioned as a source.

Mentioned on the mapsheet Ort222.

Aristophanes, Greek: Ἀριστοφάνης, 445 - 385 BC., was a Greek poet who wrote comedies. Ortelius owned a copy of his “Operum … Omnium, Nova editio, Graece et Latine”, ex bibliotheca Isaaci Casauboni… 1590 containing his signature, now in the Ghent University Library. There are no references to it in his map texts, but he is referred to twice as a source in “Synonymia” (1578). In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Aristophanes’ “Arachna” (twice), to “De Avibus” once,  and to his “De Nubibus” as a source in the lemmas CATAGELA, CICINES, LEPRIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma MIMAS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 11 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and also 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) there are 3 references to Aristophanes as a source.

Aristoteles, Greek: ριστοτέλης,  384-322 BC., was a Greek encyclopedic writer and tutor to Alexander the Great. He was much admired by humanists in the Renaissance. His complete works were translated into Latin by Manutius and supervised and commented upon by Desiderius Erasmus in 1531. Cochlæus published his “Metereology” (Ort182,183,196,213) with comments in Nurnberg in 1512, to which Ortelius refers 3 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and also in lemmas BATHEA, CHREMETES, DANVBIVS, DODONÆI, HELLAS, HERCYNIA, IMBRI, NYSES, SIPYLVS, THALATTA and VMBILICVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Julius Cæsar Scalinger, father of the well known philologist Jos. Scaliger has written a Commentary on the books about plants by Aristoteles which was published in Leiden in 1556. The Spanish Count Laguna translated Aristoteles’ “Peri Kosmou”, into Latin as “De Mundo” (Ort1,2,3,189; also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), first published in Alcala, Spain, in 1538. He also wrote “De Animalibus”, (Ort193), referred to 15 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 12 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), a “Letter to Alexander the Great” (Ort16, 190, 192); also mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in lemma IORDII of “Thesaurus” (1596), and “De Admirandis” [about admirable matters] also known as “De Mirabilibus” [about wonders], quoted by Apollonius Rhodius (Ort12,142,196,203,206,209,210, 211,226); also referred to 27 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 58 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Pollux” (Ort208), “Problematibus” [Problems] (Ort213); also in lemmas ARTANES and PAESA of “Thesaurus” (1596), “Politicorum”, referred to 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), and further “De Elocutione” a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1583 (Ort193,196,197,199,200).Ortelius also refers to his “Proprietates Elementorum”, published in Venice, but expresses doubt about this authorship in lemmas AGLOG, ALCHAZAR, MARE MEDITERRANEVM, MEDECVEL, RASMI and ZINDI of “Thesaurus” (1596), suggesting an Arabic source as well (in fact: Heinrich Quentell, Cologne, 1496). Modern scholarship has established that “Peri Kosmou” or “De Mundo” and “Pollux” have not been written by Aristoteles. Aristoteles’ “De Re Publica” [about public matters] is mentioned as a source in lemmas CHAONES, HIPPONIATES, ISTHMVS and OENOTRI of “Thesaurus” (1596). From lemma NYSES in “Thesaurus” (1596) it is clear that Ortelius consulted both the Greek and Latin version of works of Aristoteles. Ortelius owned a copy of the complete works of Aristotles in Greek and Latin, edited by Casaubonus and printed in Lyon in 1590, as reported by Opde Beeck and de Coster (2006). Aristoteles is also mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and 14 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 66 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 137 times.

Ort121.10, 140.2, 142.2, 183.32, 183.33, 189.5, 189.13, 192.42, 193.51, 194.29, 196.93, 210.22, 216.11, 217.29, 219.3, 221.3;

Meteorologies Bk.1 & 2: 213.20, Bk.2: Ort182.28, 183.28, 183.32; Bk.2, Ch.8: Ort196.35;

Miracles of Nature: Ort142.12, 196.12, 196.20, 196.28, 196.32, 210.23;

De Mundo [About the World]: Ort1.9, 2.9, 3.9, 189.27;

Letter to Alexander the Great: 16.26, 190.2, 190.35, 192.9;

On Living Creatures Bk.5-6: Ort193.59;

De Admirandis: Ort12.9, 12.35, 196.12, 196.92, 203.14, 203.26, 203.35, 203.36, 206.10, 209.27, 209.42, 210.23, 211.6, 226.7;

Quoted by Iulius Pollux: Ort208.9;

Problems: Ort213.10.

Politics Bk.7: Ort193.25, 196.79, Bk.8: Ort199.22, 199.65, 200.40.

Aristotle see Aristoteles.

Arles, council of, see Arelatensis.

Arluno Bernardinensis, 15th century,  from Milan, Italy wrote a manuscript history on Milan called “Historiarum ab origine urbis Mediolanensis ad nostra usque tempora” later published in excerpts as “De Bello Veneto” (six books) and “Bellum Gallicum”.

Ort125.7.

Armenius, or Haithon, Antonie see Haitho.

Arngrimus, Jonas  or Arngrimur Jónsson, 1568 – 1648, of Iceland wrote a manuscript called “Liber de Gronlandia” which Ortelius refers to as “Treatise on Iceland” (Ort161). Ortelius received a copy of this book from Nathan Chytraeus in 1593 (Hessels 238).

Treatise on Iceland: Ort161.8, 161.13, 161.14, 161.16, 161.20, 161.21, 161.25, 161.26, 161.27, 161.28.

Arnobius Africanus, fl. about 305 AD, was a famous and well respected orator who was educated in North Africa. He has written much against the pagans, such as “Contra Gentes” (Ort208). Ortelius bought two copies of this work from Plantin in 1586. Ortelius refers twice to his “Adversus Gentes” in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas AGDVS and BRVNDA. In “Thesaurus” (1596) this work is mentioned in lemmas BRVNDA and VVLCENTANVM. Altogether he is mentioned 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Arnobius is also 3 times mentioned as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort209.14, 222.11, 222.37, 222.43;

Contra Gentes Bk.6: Ort222.38, Bk.7: Ort208.8.

Arnold Fretagh see Frethag Arnold.

Arnoldus, late 10th c., was abbot of Lübeck, Germany. He wrote “Slavorum Historia” also called “Chronica Slavorum”, a rather unreliable work which Ortelius mentions once as a source in the lemma GAVRVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Arquerus, Sigismundus, 1523 – 1571, from Cagliari, Italy was burnt at the stake in Toledo. He studied at Pisa and Siena and contributed an interesting “Sardiniæ brevis historia et descriptio” to the second volume of Münster’s “Cosmographia”, Basel, 1550, p. 242-250. Münster also used his map of Sardinia.

Quoted by Münster: Ort141.8.

Arrianus Flavius, 95 – 175 AD., was a Greek historian from Nicomedia who became a successful officer in the Roman army and who later was appointed consul and legate in Cappadocia. He retired to Athens, where he was archon in 145/146. He wrote “Expeditionis Alexandris libri septem et historia indica” (1497) or “Life of Alexander the Great” (Ort166,200) to which Ortelius refers 5 times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 113 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 103 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), the last book of which is called “Indike”, referred to as a source 115 times by Ortelius as “De Indicis” in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 104 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote “Arriani Flavii et Hannonis Periplus” (Ort8, 12,212,224), published in Basel in 1553. This work was also published as: “Arriani Flavii: Ponti Euxini et Maris Erythræi Periplus” and commented on by Stuckius (Ort212,213), Geneva 1577, to which Ortelius refers 33 times in his “Synonymia” (1578), 120 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 209 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote about his own life, as is clear from lemma ANDACA in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Ramusio refers to Arrianus’ “Lettera intorno al Mare Maggiore” and “Nearcho, navigatione in quale scritta Arriano”, mentioned as a source in lemma SOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He also wrote a book “On Germany” (Ort104). Arrianus is mentioned as a source 3 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and 119 times in its text. In lemma TEREDON of “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius expresses doubt that the author of “Alexander” and “Periplus” are the same person. Arrianus is altogether mentioned 524 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) as a source. In lemma LIBANÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) Arrianus’ “De Parthicis” is mentioned as a source, in lemma NICOMEDIVM his “De Bithyniacis” and in lemma SOTIRA his “Syriacis” of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is referred to as a source

Arrianus is mentioned in the cartouche of the Erythraei map as its source; on map sheet Ort193 he is mentioned once, on map sheet Ort212 once, on map sheet Ort213 six times, on map sheet Ort222 once, on map sheet Ort224 three times; further in map texts : Ort189.7, 189.27, 199.18, 199.19, 199.61, 199.62, 200.36, 200.37, 212.3, 213.9, 214.4, 215.9, 216.43, 222.3, 222.8, 224.42, 224.45; Bk.5: Ort7.3;

De Indicis: Ort12.10, 12.36, 224.52, 224.54, 224.58;

De Indicis, commented on by Guilelmus Stuckius: Ort212.30, 213.9

Hannonis Periplus : 8.14;

On Germany: Ort104.2, 105.52;

Life of Alexander: Ort166.8, 200.71.

Arsenius, Ferdinand and Ambrosius, flourished abt. 1570 – 1615, were Flemish brothers and grandchildren of Gemma Frisius who made instruments such as astrolabes, but they also engraved. Ortelius first refers to them as his engravers , next to Hogenberg, in his 1595 Latin address to the reader. Of the 17 new maps in the 1595 Latin edition 14 have been engraved by the brothers Arsenius. Their engravings probably resembled each other as was also the case for those of the brothers Deutecom. In fact, they engraved for Ortelius from 1570 onwards 78 maps viz. Ort2,3,6,7,8,11,12,30,36,37,39,41, 42,46,47,52,

53,60,71,72,73,82,83,84,86,87,88,91,95,96,97,100,101,102,103,106,108,109,110,111,
112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,131,144,145,154,156,157,165,172,175,177,179,189,
190,191,192,197,200,207,208,209,210,211,212,221,222,223,224,226,231,234. They also engraved for Guicciardini and further the Epitome of van der Keere, 1601.  

Artapanus of Alexandria, 2nd c. BC., was a historian of Jewish origin, who lived in Alexandria. He wrote a history of the Jews but his books have not survived. Parts of his work have been preserved in the books of two later historians: Eusebius’ “Præparatio Evangelica”, mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and Clemens Alexandrinus’ “Stromata”. In lemma ATHOS, GOSSEN and IVDÆI of “Thesaurus” (1596), Artapanus is mentioned as a source via Eusebius. Altogether he is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Artemidorus, late second century AD., of Daldis in Lydia, Greece, was the author of the Greek work "Oneiro Kritika”, an interpretation of dreams. According to Ortelius, he also wrote “Porphyry” (Ort217), but this is incorrect. Artimidorus as quoted by Strabo (Ort192) is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) via Strabo and 6 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 19 times as a source. In lemma LOS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Artemidorus’ “Epitome” as a source, and in lemma PANORMVS to his version of Homerus’ “Odyssee”, book 13. In lemma PSEVDOCORASIVM there is a reference to his “Geographicorum”. Altogether he is mentioned 29 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort31.5, 193.35, 196.31, 220.3, 221.35;

Porphyry: Ort217.29;

Artimidorus in Ptolemæus' Geography Ort191.14;

Artimidorus quoted by Strabo: Ort192.77, 192.90, 224.14.

Artimedorus see Artemidorus.

Artopœus, Petrus, 1500-1563, a theologian and grammarian of Stettin, made a map of Pomerania which was used by Ortelius and also mentioned on the Denmark map (Ort84). He is quoted by Münster in his Cosmographey (Ort158). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Artopoeus is censured as a heretic

Ort84.5;

Quoted by Münster in his Cosmographey: Ort158.10, 158.11, 158.28, 158.29, 158.33.

Asarubas, fl. 60 AD., of Cartago was a contemporary of Plinius and is quoted by him. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” and in the text of the “Synonymia” (1578) once and in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) once as quoted by Plinius.

Ascanius or Asconius Pedianus Quintus, c. 9 BC - c. 76 AD., was a Roman grammarian and historian, probably a native of Padua. In his later years he resided in Rome, and there he died, after having been blind for twelve years, at the age of eighty-five. During the reigns of Claudius and Nero he compiled for his sons, from various sources such as the Gazette (“Aetablica”), shorthand reports or skeletons (“commentarii”) of Cicero's unpublished speeches, Tiro's life of Cicero, speeches and letters of Cicero's contemporaries, various historical writers, e.g. Varro, Atticus, Antias, Tuditanus and Fenestella (a contemporary of Livius whom he often criticizes). Of his historical comments on Cicero's speeches only five have survived, viz, “in Pisonem” (mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596)), “pro Scauro”, “pro Milone”, “pro Cornelio”, “contra Verrem” in lemma OLYMPVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) and in chapter VICTORIAE of “Deorum Dearum (1573), and “in toga candida”, in a very mutilated edition, under the modern title “Q. Asconii Pediani Orationvm Ciceronis qvinqve enarratio”. His work is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma CAMOENARVM. Altogether, he is mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Asconius is mentioned twice as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Asclepiades or Sicelidas “the philosopher”, born about 320 BC., was one of the earliest Greek writers of epigrams in the Hellenistic age, and a contemporary of Philetas and Theocritus. He gave his name to “asclepiad” metres, used earlier by Sappho and Alcæus, because he revived this form of poetry. His writings only survive in Latin translation. He is mentioned once as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort232.18;

Quoted by Strabo Ort224.14.

Asconius see Ascanius.

Asinius Gaius Pollio, 1st c. AD., son of Gaius Asinius Gallus and Vipsania Agrippina, was a Roman politician and writer. He was consul in AD 23 alongside with Gaius Antistius Vetus We know from his coins that he was proconsul of Asia. Through his mother he was the half-brother of the younger Drusus. In 45, Pollio was exiled as an accuser of a conspiracy and later put to death on orders from empress Valeria Messalina. Asinius is quoted by Strabo and mentioned as such in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) but not in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Asinius is mentioned as a source via Strabo in lemma RHENVS.

Asinius Gaius Quadratus Protimus. c. 165 - after 235, was the Proconsul of Achaea c. 220. He was the brother of Gaius Asinius Rufus, son of Gaius Asinius Nicomachus and wife and cousin Julia Quadratilla (or perhaps Asinia Marcellina, descendant of the family of Gaius Asinius Pollio) and paternal grandson of Gaius Asinius Rufus and wife Julia. He married and was the father of Gaius Asinius Nicomachus Julianus, Proconsul of Asia between ca. 225 and ca. 230. Asinius Quadratus is mentioned once as a source in lemma GELYS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Asklepiades see Asclepiades.

Assonleville, Christophorus of Arras 1528 - Brussels 1607 was a Belgian knight, ruler of Altevilla, statesman, diplomat, member of the Privy Council and first councillor of king Philips the Second and is mentioned as the dedicatee of the Artois map (Ort73) and the Africae Propriæ map (Ort218). He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1587 (Hessels 151).

Mentioned as the person to whom Ortelius dedicated the Africæ Propriæ map, Ort218.

Mentioned as the person to whom Ortelius dedicated the Artois map, Ort73.

Athanasias or Athanasius, saint, abt. 295 – 373, was a Greek church father and bishop of Alexandria who was prosecuted by his enemies for his strong Christian faith. These enemies were successful in banishing him. With the help of emperor Constantius he returned to Alexandria in 346, only to be banished again. He defended his faith against the Arians and wrote “Against the Arians” in 3 volumes. He also left “Letters’ and “Description of Antonius the Heremit”. His “Concilium Alexandrinum”, “Epistola ad episcopos in Africa”, “Ad Ioannem Pinnem” and “Apologia ad Constantinum Imp.” are mentioned as sources in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas ANDROMENA, LEIDÆ, PETOVIO and PTEMENGYRIS. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Athanasias’ work “Concilium Sardinianus” is mentioned as a source in the lemmas CANALES, and , his “Ad vitam solitarium” is mentioned as a source in lemmas lemmas SOINES and TARADVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas PHÆNO and SIEMIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 30 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemmas ANTHITORVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Epistola Episcorum Aegypti” is mentioned as a source, in lemma BVLTVS his “de fuga” [about my flight] and in lemma Petra his “Epistola ad Solitariam vitam degentes is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 30 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 38 times in “Thesaurus”(1596).

Ort184.3, 220.2, 220.6, 220.8, 221.33, 221.38, 221.41.

Athanasius see Athanasias.

Athenæus Polybius, about 200 AD, of Naucratis, Egypt, wrote “Deipnosofistai” [men learned in the arts of banquets], printed in Lyon, Venice, Basel, Paris, 1556 and later, (Ort193,203,214,216,217,224), the banquet being the forum of 23 learned men, some with the names of real persons such as Galenus and Ulpianus, to discuss philosophy, literature, law, medicine and other disciplines. It also contains much practical detail relating to ancient food, wine, and dining customs, with many anecdotes. In “Deipnosophistai” Athenæus quotes Polybius (Ort12), Posidonius (Ort203) and Timon (Ort208,214,216,224). This work is usually referred to by Ortelius as “Deipnosophiston”. Athenæus is referred to as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 19 times in its text. Ortelius bought a copy of “Deipnosophiston” printed in Basel from Plantin in 1581, and he also owned a copy in Latin edited by Casaubonus, printed in Heidelberg as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Athenæus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 19 times in its text. In  his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers to Athenæus’ “”Ratio fabellæ” as a source in the lemma CYLICRANI. Altogether, Athenaeus is mentioned 131 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma SCEPTRA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Athenæus quotes Agathocles of Babylon. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Athenæus is mentioned 259 times. In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Athenaeus is mentioned once as a source.

Ort119.21, 189.9, 193.20, 193.23, 193.24, 194.6, 196.15, 196.16, 196.21, 196.26, 196.49, 196.70, 196.72, 196.76, 196.107, 196.116, 199.24, 199.67, 199.68, 200.46, 200.47, 203.24, 209.14, 209.17, 209.18, 210.11, 210.12, 211.12, 213.16, 214.7, 214.17, 214.18, 215.2, 216.6, 216.17, 216.21, 216.24, 216.32, 216.33, 216.38, 216.41, 216.43, 217.6, 217.14, 217.19, 217.24, 217.29, 218.8, 219.18, 220.2, 221.28, 221.33, 222.2, 222.4, 222.11, 224.8, 224.26, 224.31, 224.46, 226.53, 231.4, 231.22;

Bk. 4: Ort232.27, Bk. 5&10: Ort232.26, Bk. 6 Ort16.27, 190.2, 190.36, 192.10, Bk.15 203.28;

Deipnosophistai: Ort193.19, 217.8;

Bk.4 & 12, quoting Timon: Ort208.10, Bk.6: Ort192.10, 216.26; Bk.7: as reported by Polybius Ort12.9, Bk.8: Ort193.47, Ch.1: Ort26.8, based on Polybius’ 34th book of Histories: Ort196.27, Bk.9: Ort 142.19, quoting Posidonius Ort203.34, Bk.10: Ort214.27, Bk.12: Ort214.15, 216.34, Bk.13: Ort196.88, Bk.14: Ort224.55;

Quoted by Dalechampius: Ort196.28;

Quoted by Eustatius: Ort214.4;

Quoted by Sosipater: Ort196.70;

Quoting Bæton 222.2;

Quoting Polybius in his book 7: Ort12.9, 12.35; Bk.13: Ort196.88; Bk.34 Ort196.27;

Quoting Possidonius: Ort 196.35, 196.70, 196.82, 196.86, 203.34;

Quoting Philonides: Ort224.48;

Quoting Cratinus Comicus’ De Ulysses: Ort224.32;

Reporting to Andreas: Ort136.10

Athenagoras whoflourished in the second half of the second century AD was a Christian apologist from Athens. Two extant works, the “Legatio” [Plea on Behalf of Christians], mentioned as a source in lemma OSIRIDIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), and “On the Resurrection of the Dead”, have traditionally been attributed to him. Athenagoras does not appear in the ecclesiastical histories of either Eusebius, Socrates, or Sozomenus. Methodius is the only ante-Nicene writer to mention Athenagoras.  Methodius' “From the Discourse on the Resurrection” 1.7 refers to Athenagoras’ “Plea” 24. The only other early witness to Athenagoras is Philip of Side, a deacon of Chrystostomos, who lived during the fifth century. According to a fourteenth century codex, Athenagoras was the first to head the school in Alexandria. He flourished at the time of Hadrianus and Antoninus, to both of whom he addressed his “Plea on Behalf of Christians”. He became a Christian while he wore the philosopher's cloak and was at the head of the academy. His “Legatio” is mentioned once as a source in lemma TROCHOIDES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Athenagoras is also mentioned as a source in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Athenodorus of Soli, 3rd century BC., was a Stoic philosopher, and disciple of Zeno of Citium. He was born in the town of Soli, Cilicia, and was the compatriot of another disciple of Zeno, Chrysippus. Athenodorus was the brother of the poet Aratus of Soli, the author of the long didactic poem, “Phaenomena”. Both brothers followed the teachings of Zeno. He is mentioned in the list given by Diogenes Laërtius as the disciple of Zeno. He may be the dedicatee of the work “On Definite Propositions” ( Περ τν ϰαταγορευτιϰν) written by Chrysippus. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma GÆTVLI.

Attius Sextus Suburanus Aemilianus, commonly abbreviated as Suburanus, date of birth or death unknown, end of first century AD., was a prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, during the reign of emperor Trajanus, from 98 until 101. He acceded to the office upon the execution of his predecessor Casperius Aelianus, who had been responsible for an insurrection against the previous emperor Nerva. After his tenure as Praetorian prefect, Suburanus was inducted into the Roman Senate, held the suffect consulship in 101, and then later the consulship in 104 together with Marcus Asinius Marcellus. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) as quoted by Plinius, but does not occur in its text or in later “Thesauri”.

Aubanus see Böhm.

Audeiantus, Hubertus, fl. early 17th c., of Brugge was a friend of Lipsius who wrote an 78-line obituary for Ortelius in the 1603 Latin, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612 Latin edition beginning: “ORTELII tibi divum …” and ending “…quod erat vino, sic bene mortuo erit.” .

Audoënus or Audoinus see Rothomagensis Episcopus.

Audomar or Audomarus, Flemish saint, 7th c., whose feast fell on 9 November (changed from 1 November after 807), was bishop of Therouanne. He founded the monastery of Saint Bertin in Sithiu on the river Aa, as well as the abbey of Saint Omer, which later gave its name to the city of Saint-Omer. Audomarus died after 667 and was buried in the church of Saint Martin at Saint-Omer. Ortelius refers to the anonymous “Vita S. Audomari” twice as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) e.g. in the lemma AGMONIS. See also in Saints.

Augustinus, Antonius or Antonio Agustín y Albanel, 1516–1586, was a Spanish Humanist historian, jurist and Roman Catholic archbishop of Tarragona who pioneered the historical research of the sources of canon law. He also lived in Italy. Ortelius refers to his “Dialogis Antiquitatum” in Spanish and Italian in the introduction of “Deorum Dearumque Capita”

Augustinus, Aurelius, Saint, 354 – 430, of Hippon, North Africa, wrote “De vita Christiana”, printed in Speyer, 1471, but is best known for his “De Civitate Dei”, first printed in Venice, 1475, (Ort189,193,196,210,218; also mentioned 6 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), 13 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 5 times in  “Deorum Dearum”(1573) Further “Sermonas ad heremites”, Venice 1490. In 411, Augustinus wrote “Collatio Carthageniensis” after a council held in Carthago under emperor Honorius (mostly without mentioning its author), referred to 320 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596) in which Donatists, a schismatic Christian sect, were condemned for heresy. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1589. This work was edited by Massonius. Augustinus’ “De claritate Christi” was bought by Ortelius in 1591. He also wrote “Contra Crescentium Grammaticum”, appreciating the “ars disputationis” of the Stoics, Ortelius refers once to this work as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 127 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in lemmas FVRNITVM and REALES of “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Thesaurus” (1587), he also mentions his “Collatio Breviculo” (2 x), and also twice in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further once to “Contra Parmenianum”, “Decretum Causa” and  twice in lemmas VAGIENSIS and VVLTERNÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). Further Ortelius refers once to his  “Epistola ad Xantippum” and  “Epistola ad Donatus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) to his “Retractationum” and  “De Unitate Ecclesiæ”. Further, Ortelius refers to his “Ad Vincentium” in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), to his “Ad Eleusionem” in lemma TITIANA of “Thesaurus” (1596), to his “Ad Dioscorum” in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)), “to his “Epistola 128 and 129 Ad Donatum” 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), to his “Ad Olympium” in “Thesaurus(1596) and also simply to Augustinus’ “Epistolae” (at least 256, often numbered) as sources. In “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Epistles” are mentioned 29 times, again often mentioning the number of the letter. Augustinus’ “ad Bonifacium Comitem” occurs in lemma SITIVENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Contra Cresconius” is mentioned 4 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas BRIXIA and CASÆ NIGRÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596), and “De diversis quaestionibus” in lemma OCEA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Augustinus’ “Psalms” are mentioned in lemma CAVERNÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma MACHLINIÆ and NIVESDVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “De mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae” is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 127 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), 370 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and altogether 8 times in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort178.8, 179.8, 182.29, 183.29, 222.20;

De Civitate Dei: Ort193.59, 196.30, 196.106, 218.27, Bk.16: Ort189.4, Bk.18 Ch.16: Ort210.24.

Augustinus Iustinianus, late 15th c., of Nebia was a Dominican bishop who translated and edited Latin and Hebrew texts and who wrote comments on Corsica. He is mentioned as a source in lemma MANICELVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Altogether he is mentioned 4 times in “Thesaurus”(1587)  as a source. In lemmas CALYCADNVS and POSTVMIA VIA of his “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Iustinianus’ “Genuensi Historia” as a source. Altogether, Augustinus Iustinianus is mentioned 14 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Augustinus Justinianus see Giustiniani.

Augustinus of Hippo, fl. lat 16th c., wrote “Sanctorum patrum regulæ monasticæ”, Leuven 1574, containing contributions in Latin from St. Hieronymus, St. Franciscus of Assisi, Johannes Trithemius and others. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1576.

Augustus, Emperor, 63 BC - 14 AD., also Julius Primus, was the first and perhaps the greatest of the Roman Emperors. He ended civil war, ruled with wisdom and brought peace for many years. He was a patron of the arts and tried to revive traditional Roman religion. He ordered a world map to be made.

Ort3.20.

As quoted by Plinius: Ort126.11, 209.2, 209.34.

Augustus Antonius see Antonius Augustus.

Augustus, Saint, 6th c. AD. of Bourges, France was a friend of Saint Germanus of Paris. Monk, and abbot. He discovered the relics of Saint Ursinus. He is mentioned as a source 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas ACTIVM and EGVITVRI.

Aurelius Cornelius see Cornelius, Aurelius.

Aurelianum concilium V, 506 AD., was a synod held in Aurelia in the 27th year of king Childebert. It is mentioned as a source in lemmas ELORONENSIVM, GLANATICA and VTICA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). “Aurelianum Concilium” without a number is mentioned twice, e.g. in lemma SAGIENSIS and “Aurelianum Concilium VI (511) is mentioned once in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Aurelianus, Jonas 9th c., was a German bishop who wrote “Libri Tres De Cultu Imaginum” [care of images], published by Birkmann in Cologne, 1554. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas FVSSALENSIS and SYNICENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Aurelianus, Lucius Dominicus, late 5th c., is venerated as a Christian saint. He is the second bishop of Limoges, France. Aurelianus was originally a pagan priest who wanted to throw Martialis or Marcialis into prison. However, Aurelianus was struck dead as he attempted to do so. Martialis brought him back to life, baptized him as a Christian, ordained him as a priest, and consecrated him as bishop. In lemma TVLLVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to his “Vita Marcialis” as a source. He is mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). In lemma APTA IVLIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to the 5th council of Aurelianus as a source.

Aurelius, Julianus, 1st c. AD., wrote “De cognominibus Deorum”, printed in Antwerp in 1541. Ortelius refers to it twice as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Aurelius, Marcus, 121 - 180 AD., was a child prodigy who enjoyed the friendship of emperor Hadrianus. He was appointed consul in 140, tribune in 147 and became Roman emperor in 161. He was a philosopher in the Stoic tradition who did not oppose Christianity, nor follow it. He is best known for his diary. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma SOSIBES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ort32.21.

Aurelius Sextus Victor see Victor Aurelius

Aurifaber, Andreas, also Goldschmidt or Goudsmit, 1514 – 1559, of Vratislava was a doctor in Königsberg, Prussia and court physician to Duke Albrecht of Prussia. In 1551 he wrote “Succini Historia” a history of amber (Ort156,157), referred to as once a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma GLESSARIA. Jacob Monau sent Ortelius a copy of his book in German, and promised to send one in Latin, together with a beautiful piece of amber (Hessels 106).

On Amber: Ort156.19, 157.19, 157.25.

Aurigarius, Lucas see Waghenaer.

Aurogallus, Matthäus or Matthäus Goldhahn, Komotau, Bohemia 1490 – Wittenberg, November 10, 1543, was a German linguist. He worked as professor of Hebrew at the university of Wittenberg and was a colleague of Philip Melanchthon and Martin Luther. He assisted Luther in the revision of the reformer's translation of the Old Testament. He wrote “De locis Hebraeorum” of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1590. Aurogallus is once mentioned as a source in lemma SYCAMINOS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and 2 times in lemmas DORA and MESOPOTAMIA  of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ausonius Decimus Maximus, 309 – 394, was born in Bordeaux, France. He wrote “Lectiones” which were commented on and published by Elias Vinet and Jos. Scaliger in Leiden in 1574. He also wrote an “Epigram on Queen Dido” (Ort223), “Perioche” (Ort224) to which Ortelius refers once as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), also once in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and “Epitaphs” (Ort224). In his “Thesaurus” (1587), Ortelius refers 13 times to his “Epistolae” as a source and mentions “Epistolæ Paulini” specifically 3 times. In Thesaurus” (1596) Ausonius’ “Epistolae” are mentioned 15 times, including 3 times to “Paulinum”. In “Thesaurus” (1587), Ausonius mentions “Epistola ad Theonem” twice as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) once. Ausonius also quotes from “Saint Paulinus” (Ort189) and is quoted by Scaliger (Ort193) and Vinetus (Ort37, Ort194). Ortelius refers to his “Mosellæ Idyllius” 5 x in his “Synonymia” (1578), 6 x in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Descriptio Narbonæ” is mentioned once, as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma TECTOSAGES. In the lemmas EVROPA in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), RVTVPIÆ in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), TARBELLA in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and VASSATES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to his “De Parentalibus” or his “Parentalia”. In the lemma NEMAVSVS (“Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Ortelius refers to his “Descriptio Burdigalæ” and in lemma VALLEBANA in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) to his “Epigrammatae”. In lemma VASSATES of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to Ausonius’ De Vita Epicedii” as a source. In lemma BAIOCASSES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Ausonius’ “De Professoribus carmen 4”. In lemma GALLIA CISALPINA Ortelius refers to Ausonius’ “Ad Gratianum Imp.” as a source. In lemma LVCANVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ausonius’ “De Urbibus” is mentioned as a source. In lemma PAVLIACVS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Ausonius’ “Ad Theonem” as a source. Ortelius bought an unspecified work of Ausonius, printed in Heidelberg. Ausonius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 28 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) his “Epigrammati” is mentioned once as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) also once. Altogether, Ausonius is mentioned 76 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), 100 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 3 times in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). Pulmannus edited Ausonius, as is stated in lemma GELBIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort38.2, 38.6, 38.14, 47.4, 60.3, 60.11, 165.8, 196.15, 196.105, 197.19, 198.22, 203.10, 206.2, 209.13-18, 224.2, 224.8, 224.10, 224.22;

Epigram on Queen Dido: Ort223.13;

Perioch Bk.9: Ort224.7, 224.13;

Epitaphs: Ort224.30;

Quoting Saint Paulinus: 189.2;

Quoted by Scaliger: Ort193.9;

Quoted by Vinetus: Ort194.32;

Quoted by Vinetus from his Cupido poem: Ort37.13.

Austen, Saint, or Austin or Augustinus of Canterbury, died in 604 or 605, was the first archbishop  of Canterbury. He converted and baptised many thousands of Anglosaxons around 597. Bede gives details about his life.

Ort196.106.

Auxenius of Bithyna, saint who died in 473, was a hermit who was cleared of heresy at the council of Chalcedon. He became a Roman Catholic saint. His life, as reported by Metaphrastes, is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma AVXENTIVS.

Avenius see Avienus.

Aventinus, Ioannes or Johann, 1477 – 1534, was a Bavarian historiographer who wrote and published “Annales ducum Boiariæ” [annals of the dukes of Bavaria] (Ort1,2,3,56,57,109, referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), once in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in lemma ATILIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Annalium Boiorum” was published in Ingolstad, Germany in 1554, Frankfurt 1566, and unexpurgated in Basel, Switzerland in 1560. It deals with other regions than Bavaria as well. He also wrote “Germaniae veteris description”, published in Strasbourg, of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1591. Aventinus is mentioned as the maker of the Ortelius’ Bavaria map (Landshut, 1523, Ort109). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, mentioning his Bavaria map. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Aventinus is censured as a heretic. Aventinus is mentioned as a source 38 times in “Synonymia” (1570L), 39 times in “Synonymia” (1571L), 49 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 38 times in its text, sometimes referring to his Bavarian Annals. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he as altogether mentioned 40 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 47 times.

Mentioned on the first Bavaria map as its maker, Ort109.

Ort100.4, 100.9, 105.12, 106.12, 107.2, 108.15, 109.7, 110.7, 152.7, 153.7, 194.32;

Bavarian Annals Bk.2: Ort1.31, 2.31, 3.34, 56.7, 56.8., 57.8, 109.7.

Quoting Ptolemæus : 107.15, 108.2, 108.15.

Aventius see Aventinus.

Avicenna, 973 – 1037, was an Arab physician also called Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdalla Ibn Sinna, who wrote “De ægritudinibus nervorum”, an early treatise on nervous diseases, Strasbourg, 1473, and “Liber Canonis De Medicinis cordialibus; Cantica; De remoedis documentis in regimine sanitatis; De Syropo acetoso”, Venice, 1562. Avicenna is also once mentioned as a source in lemma MONDEL of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ort164.2, 180.44;

Bk.2, Tome 2, Ch.283: Ort175.6,
Bk.2, Tract.2, Ch.596: Ort180.22,
Bk.2, Tract 2, Ch.47 Ort221.6.

Avienus see Rufus Festus Avienus.

Axonius see Gravianus.

Baartwijck, Jean Antoine see Barvicius.

Babenbergius, Lupoldus or Leopold von Bebenberg, 14th c., was a German professor of civil and canon law, and bishop of Bamberg, Germany in 1340. His tracts “De zelo veterum regum Galliae et Germaniae principum” and “De iuribus regni et imperii” [about the rights of king and emperor], first published in Strasbourg in 1506, also in Paris, 1540 and Cologne, 1564. He is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). in lemma MORTARIA.

Babylonius, Abdias, 1st c. AD, was bishop of Babylon and one of the earliest Christian writers. He wrote “Virtutes Iohannis”, “De morte Herodis” and “Historia certaminis Apostoli” (published in 1566, 1569 and 1576). His “Vita St. Andreæ” is mentioned once as a source in lemma MYRMIDON of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and his “Vita Matthæi apostoli” once in lemma NADDAVER in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). His “Historia Simonis et Iudæ” is mentioned once as a source in lemma SVANIR of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and altogether 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Bacchilides, Greek: Βακχυλίδης, 5th century BC., was an ancient Greek lyric poet. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets which included his uncle Simonides. The elegance and polished style of his lyrics have been a commonplace of Bacchylidean scholarship since at least Longinus (De Sublimitate 33,5). Some scholars however have associated these qualities with superficial charm. He is referred to once as a source in lemma POENESSA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587).

Baccius, Andreas, 1524 – 1600, was a physician from St. Elpidio, Italy who wrote “De Thermis” [about hot baths], Venice, 1571, 1588; also referred to in the map text of Ort142, once as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 16 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas GABIVSA and THERMÆ STYGIANÆ, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1586. Further he wrote about the wines of Italy (Ort123), “De naturali vinorum historia”, Rome, 1596, of which Ortelius bought a copy in 1598 from Plantin, and “De methodo medendi per balnea”[Healing through baths]. This work of Baccius is mentioned 16 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and 8 times in its text, sometimes referring to his Baths. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 13 times as a source, referring twice to Baccius’ Balnea”, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) he is altogether mentioned 17 times as a source. His “Balnea” is mentioned once as a source in lemma TVNGRORVM FONS. In lemma PLVITALIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Baccius quotes Alexander Giraldinus.

Baths of the whole world: Ort142.6, 142.11, 142.21, 142.23.

On the Wines of Italy, Bk.6: Ort123.10.

Badius, Jodocus, or Josse Badius or Josse Bade or Ascensius, 1462–1535, from the village of Asse, near Brussels, where he was born, became an eminent pioneering printer in Paris. Badius's shop was one of the most productive of the period 1501–1530: 775 editions are listed in the bibliography in Philippe Renouard’s “Imprimeurs & libraires parisiens du XVIe siècle”. He frequently worked for or in partnership with Jean Petit, who was by far the most important wholesale bookseller/publisher of this period. Badius is mentioned as a source in lemma NAVPHRA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Bæton, a mythical figure featuring in Plato’s “Phædo” is quoted by Athenæus (Ort222) in his “Deipnosophiston”.

Quoted by Athenæus: Ort222.2.

Balagrus, 3rd c. BC., was a Greek author who wrote about the Macedonians. He is referred to as a source in lemma AMOLBVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1596).

Balbi see Balbus, Casparis.

Balbinus Decimus Caelius Calvinus, 165 – 238, was jointly Roman emperor with Pupienus between April and July of 238. Balbinus was an admired orator, a poet of distinguished fame, and a wise magistrate, who had exercised with applause the civil jurisdiction in almost all the interior provinces of the empire. Balbinus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma CARPI.

Balbus, Casparis or Balbi, Gasparo,16th century, was a merchant in gems from Venice, Italy wrote an itinerary entitled “Viaggio dell’ Indie orientali ..dal 1579 fino al 1588”, a treasure grove of information about the Indies and about Japanese embassadors he met in Goa. It was first published in 1590 in Venice by Camillo Borgominieri (Ort164). He is mentioned 4 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Journal of India: Ort164.12.

Balbus, Lucius Cornelius Major, born in Gades early in the first century BC., served under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius and Pompeius against Sertorius in Hispania. For his services against Sertorius the Roman citizenship was conferred upon him and his family by Pompeius. He gained the friendship of Julius Caesar, who placed great confidence in him. Becoming friendly with all parties, he had much to do with the formation of the first Triumvirate, and was one of the chief financiers in Rome. Balbus attached himself to Caesar, and, in conjunction with Oppius, had the entire management of Caesar's affairs in Rome. Subsequently, Balbus became Caesar's private secretary, and Cicero was obliged to ask for his good offices with Caesar. The year of his death is not known. Balbus kept a diary of the chief events in his own and Caesar's life (“Ephemeris”), which has been lost. He took care that Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war should be continued. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers twice to Balbus’ “De limitibus”, and altogether mentions him 25 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) “De limitibus” is mentioned twice as a source, the second reference in lemma INTERAMNA states that this reference was based on a manuscript. In lemma REGINENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Balbus’ “De rebus agrariis” via a manuscript by Nansius.in “Thesaurus” (1587) Balbus is altogether mentioned 25 times as a source, and in  “Thesaurus” (1596) 15 times.

Balduinus Flandrus or Flandricus, 16th c., was a Flemish author who wrote “Excidium Morini oppidi carmine elegiaco”. He also edited Nicetas, referred to 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in lemmas DIDYMOTICHOS and HALMYRVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, Balduinus is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ballinus, Julius who died in 1592, was a lawyer and geographer from Venice, Italy who published “Disegni delle più illustri itta e Fortezze del mondo, con una breve istoria delle origine et accidenti loro” [about cities] (Ort1,2,3) in Venice in 1560, a forerunner of Braun’s “Theatrum Urbium”.

Cities (in Italian): Ort1.52, 2.52, 3.57.

Balsamon, Theodorus, 1140 – 1195, was a Byzantine historian who wrote “On the powers of the Patriarch of Constantinople”, mentioned as a source in lemma SEBASTENI of “Thesaurus” (1596), and also “Scholia”and “Syntagma”. He is referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587); in the lemmas MARADVNVM, MINDANA and MYSTIENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to his “Epistola Basilij ad Amphilogium”. He edited Photius, as appears from lemmas HELENO and TEMENSIS in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 33 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemmas CALOTYCHAS and REGETSELITANÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587), Balsamon’s “Commentaria in Concilio Carthaginensis Sexto” is mentioned as a source. In lemma OXEA of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Synodus VII” is mentioned as a source. Altogether, Balsamon is mentioned 37 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) as a source.

Ort218.16.

Baptist Raymond see Raymond Baptist.

Barbaro Hermolius see Ermolao Barbaro.

Barbarus Josephus or Barbaro Giosafat, 1413 – 1494, was a Venetian patrician who was sent to Tartary and Persia as an envoy in 1473. His “Itineraria” [travel reports] (Ort163) were published by Ramusio as “Viaggio della Tana e nella Persia” in 1545. Ortelius refers to this work twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemmas HIEROSOLYMA, and ISTHMVS and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma ISTHMVS. He is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). Barbarus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 13 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is mentioned 12 times as a source.

Ort167.10;

Travels: Ort163.8.

Barbosa, Duarte who died in 1521, was a Portuguese sea explorer who wrote an itinerary which was published by Ramusio in 1588. Barbosa died together with Magellan on the first voyage around the world.

Ort164.19.

Barbosa, Emanuel, 1546 – 1639, from Oporto, Portugal, was a lawyer with a keen interest in geography. He wrote Ortelius a letter in 1593 (Hessels 240) and in 1594 (Hessels 258). He is mentioned as a source in lemmas CINNIANA and NEBIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Barbosa, Odoardus see Barbosa, Duarte.

Barbuda, Ludovicus Georgius see Barbuda, Luiz .

Barbuda, Luiz Jorge de, fl. 1575 – 1599, was a Jesuit and an important Portuguese chartmaker who in the 1570s appears to have defected to Spain, where he held important positions in the “Casa del Contraction” in Sevilla. He supplied a manuscript draft map of China to Ortelius upon which Ortelius’ China map (Ort164) was based. He and his China map are first included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in 1579.

Ludovicus Georgius is mentioned in the cartouche of the Chinæ map as its maker, Ort164.

Bardi, Girolamo, 16th c., was an Italian author who wrote “Chronologia Universale” which was sent to Ortelius by Francesco Soranzo from Venice (Hessels 85).

Barentsz, Willem, c. 1550 – 1597, was a Dutch navigator and cartographer who published a map of the Northern polar sea, Amsterdam, 1598. He and his Northern Regions map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of 1601.

Barlaam & Josaphat, 7th century AD., are not authors but a book of unknown authorship, a most famous spiritual guide throughout the Middle Ages, expressing an apology of Christian life. It also contains a narration about Ethiopia about which Ortelius indicates that there is a copy of it in the Augustan library (Ort8).

Ort8.14.

Barland, Adrianus, 1488-1542, of Zeeland, the Netherlands, later Louvain, Belgium, is a historian who wrote “Catalogus insigniorum oppidorum inferioris Germaniæ”, which was published in Antwerp in 1526, and also “Descriptio Hollandiæ et Zelandiæ” and “Itinerarium Belgicum”.

Ort78.8.

Barlandus see Barland.

Barlæus, Melchior, fl. around 1560, was a Flemish poet, and uncle of the well-known Caspar Barlæus. He wrote “Libri V Brabantiados” (Ort65). Ortelius refers to his “De diis gentium” in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Brabant: Ort65.14.

Barlesio Martino see Barletius.

Barlet see Barletius.

Barletius, Martin, late 15th century, from Italy wrote “De obsidione Scodrensi 1477”, Venice 1504, “De vita et laudibus Scanderbergii” (Ort144,145), Rome, 1506, and “Compendium vitarum summorum pontificum et imp. Romanorum usque ad Marcellum II”, Rome, 1555. Barletius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and three times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 6 times as a source and in Thesaurus” (1596) 14 times.

Life of Scanderberg: Ort144.12, 145.16.

Baronius, Cæsar, 1538 – 1607, was an Italian ecclesiastical historian and cardinal; in the Roman Catholic church who wrote “Annales Ecclesiastici” published by Plantin. Ortelius bought a copy of this work in 1589 and again in 1595 and refers to this work as a source in lemmas AQVAE SALVIAE, BVSAN, FORVM APPII, IAMNA, IANICVLVM, INFVLO, IVLIA, LABILENSE, LISANICVLVS, MAGO, MAGODIA, NVPSAS, NYMPHAS, PAZVS, SCOTORVM, THERMA, TRES TABERNÆ, TRICON and ZABDICENA of “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote “Martyrologium Historia Romanum circa annum Christi 192”, Plantin, 1589, referred to as a source in lemmas AMITERNVM, ARENARIVM, CHERSO, FALARIENSIS, FRENTANI, ROMATIANÆ, SEXTI, SVPPENTONIA and VRSVS PILEATVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought a copy of this work in 1589, and again in 1598. Baronius quotes Saint Hieronymus, as in lemma TIBERIAS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, Baronius is mentioned 45 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Baronius also wrote “Septimus”, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1598. As a Vatican librarian, Baronius had access to the Papal archives.

Book 6: Ort184.14.

Barreiros Caspar, also Gaspar Varrerius who died in 1574, was a Spaniard living in Portugal, Ortelius calls him “doctissimus” and “diligens”.Barreiros travelled to Italy and wrote “Chorographia” Coimbra, Portugal 1561, describing in the Portuguese language a number of Italian cities from Bajadoz to Milan to which Ortelius refers as a source 6 times in his “Synonymia” (1578), 8 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and 7 times in lemmas FORVM VOCONII, IACTVM, ITALIA, OCELVM, PAX IVLIA, TVRDVLI and VISOMTIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), evidence that Ortelius could read Portuguese. He also wrote “De regione Ophira” to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in lemmas OPHIR and TAPROBANA of “Thesaurus” (1596), further “Observationes cosmographicæ” and “Itinerarium Lusitanica” (in Portuguese) to which Ortelius refers twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596) referring to its language as “Lusitanican” [Portuguese]. His “De Ophyra regione” is mentioned as a source in lemma OPHIR of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). His “Chorographia”, written in Portuguese, is mentioned as a source in lemma EBVROBRITIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 87 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 85 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 91 times.

Ort9.26, 10.26, 11.27, 11.68.

Barrio see Barro, João de.

Barrius, Gabriele, 1506 – 1577, was an Italian author from Francica, Calabria who wrote “De antiquitate et situ Calabriæ”, Rome 1571, also published by Plantin in 1571 (Ort139,140,210). Ortelius refers to both editions. Barrius’ “Calabria” is mentioned as a source 22 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia, 1578, 48 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 29 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), where in lemma NAPITIAM Ortelius calls this work “mendosißimus” [full of lies]. Further “De laudibus Italiæ” (1571). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 106 times in its text. Barrius quotes Herodotus in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma MILETVM and Varro in the lemma MINERVÆ. He quotes Cato’s “Origines” in “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma TAVRISCI, also in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma TAVROCINIVM and further Cicero’s “Ad Atticum” in lemmas SEDECVLA, SINVESSANÆ, SOLONIVM and TREBVLANVM in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma SEDECVLA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Barrius quotes Josephus in lemma RHEGIVM IVLIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Barrius quotes Saint Thomas in lemma SAMOS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought a copy of “Calabria” from Plantin in 1576 and refers to it very frequently in his “Synonymia” (1578) and his “Thesaurus” (1587), also mentioning an edition printed in Rome, but very unreliable, as stated in lemma NAPITIAM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In the text of “Synonymia” (1578) Barrius is altogether mentioned 106 times as a source, in “Thesaurus” (1587) 98 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 141 times.

Ort210.15, 224.22;

Calabria: Ort139.10, 210.16, Bk.1-5: Ort140.10.

Barro or Barros, João de, 1496 – 1570, or Ioannes Barrius or Barrosus is the most important Portuguese historian of the age or discoveries. He wrote “De Asia Decadae 1-2” (Ort1,2,3,26,164,166,177, also praised profusely on Ortelius’ 8-sheet map of Asia), published in Lisbon, 1552-1563 and “Cosmae Indopleutes” (Ort166). Ortelius praises him as a reliable eye witness concerning India, where he was an ambassador to the Portuguese crown. He also seems also to have written a book about Africa (Ort8). Barrius is mentioned twice in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 18 times in the “Synonymia” (1571L), 22 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and in “Synonymia”(1578), where his “De Ophyra Regione” is once referred to as a source in the lemma OPHYR. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 30 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 39 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 29 times.

Decades on Asia: Ort1.68, 2.68, 3.74, 164.19, 166.8, 166.10, 167.5, 167.14, Ch.1: Ort26.8,also on 8-sheet map of Asia.

First Decade on Asia, Bk.3 Ch.3: Ort177.30;

Cosmae Indopleutes, cited by Gyllius: Ort166

Book on Africa: Ort8.15.

Barthema, Ludovicus see Barthema, Luigi.

Barthema or Varthema, Luigi, also Ludovicus Vartomannus, c. 1470-1517, is one of the most important Italian explorers. He travelled through Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Syria and India. His travel reports were translated into Latin by Archangelo Medrignano and published in Rome in 1510 in Italian. A Latin translation appeared in Milan in 1511 as “Ludovicus Vartomani Novum Itinerarium Æthiopiæ, Ægypti, utriusque Arabiæ, Persiæ, Siriæ et Indiæ intra et extra Gangem” and in . It was also published in Italian by Ramusio in 1517 (Venice). Barthema was translated into many languages. Ortelius mentions his “Navigatio Vartomanni” once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), and once in lemma ZAARAM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Mentioned in text block lower right of Ort1,2 & 3 as reporting on the vastness of the Southern continent.

Ort1.70, 2.70, 3.76, 6.5, 7.7, 166.8.

Bartholini, Richard, 16th century, from Perugia, Italy was in the service of the Cardinal of Gurk. He wrote “De bello Norico [about the Bavarian war], Austriados libri duodecim” [twelve books on Austria] (Ort1,2,3; also once in lemma ROMARICI of “Thesaurus” (1596)) Strasbourg 1516, which contained “Scholae” by Jacob Spiegelius (Ort111b). Bartholinus also wrote“Hodœporicon cardinalis Gurcensis”.

Austria Bk.4/8: Ort1.27, 2.27, 3.30, 111.8.

Bartholomaeus Anglicus, or Bartholomew the Englishman flourished abt. 1220 –1240, and was Franciscan encyclopaedist who was long famous for his encyclopaedia, De proprietatibus rerum” [On the Properties of Things]. Bartholomaeus lectured in divinity at the University of Paris and became a Franciscan about 1225. Though primarily interested in Scripture and theology, he covered in his 19-volume encyclopaedia all the customary knowledge of his time and was the first writer to make available the views of Greek, Jewish, and Arabic scholars on medical and scientific subjects. The immense popularity of his work is shown by the very large number of manuscript copies of it found in European libraries. His “de proprietatibus” is mentioned once as a source in lemma HADRAMOT of “Thesaurus” (1596) without mentioning the authors name but by claiming it to be an Arabic source, also saying that this work is falsely attributed to Aristoteles.

Bartholomæus Laurentius Ananiensis, 13th century, was an Italian travel companion to Guilelmus de Ruysbroek or von Rubruck, about 1220 - about 1270, on his travels in Western and Central Asia, the experiences of which were recorded in Ruysbroek’s “Itinerarium” in 1253. He is mentioned as a source 29 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 23 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)..

Ort1.50, 2.50, 3.55, 22.31.

Bartholomeus, Ioannes Marlianus see Marlianus

Bartholomæus Amantius see Amantius Bartholomæus.

Bartholomæus de las Casas see Casas.

Bartholomæus Marlianus see Marlianus, Bartholomeus.

Bartholomæus Saligniaco see Saligniaco Bartholomæus.

Barvicius or Baartwijck, Jean Antoine, abt. 1555 – 1620, of Cologne was from 1589 onwards first secretary of the chancellory of emperor Rudolf the second in Prague. He wrote a letter to Ortelius (Hessels 77) concerning his “Synonymia”. He was asked by Ortelius in 1578 to inspect the Peutinger tables in Speyer, the first effort to locate these maps. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f.95 v, 96, in 1575).

Bassianensis see Niger, Franz.

Bassianus see Niger, Franz.

Baumgarten, Martin von, 1473 – 1535, of Breitenbach was a German noblman and author who wrote “Peregrinatio in Aegyptum, Arabiam, Palaestinam et Syriam”, published in Nurnberg in 1594. Ortelius refers to this as a source in lemma THERASIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Bavo, Saint, 589 – 654. This famous hermit, also called Allowin, was a nobleman, and native of that part of Brabant called Hesbaye. After having led a very irregular life he was left a widower, and was moved to conversion to God by a sermon which he heard Saint Amand preach at Ghent. Going home he distributed all his money among the poor, and went to the monastery at Ghent that was afterwards called by his name. His “Vita” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BEILA.

Bayfius, Lazarus, 1496? – 1536, was a French naval engineer who wrote the first book on shipbuilding, “De re navali”, published in Paris in 1536. Ortelius refers to this book once as a source in lemma HERMONIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Beatus Rhenanus or Beat Bild von Rheinau, 1485 – 1547, published and commented on Tacitus’ “Germania” (Ort112,227,230) and also on Velleius Paterculus’ “Historia Romana, 1520. Also: a report on the war between the Goths and Vandals by Procopius as “Rerum Germanicarum libri III”, (Ort227)  in Basel Switzerland, 1531, see further below. In “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Beatus quotes Ausonius in the lemma LVPONDVM. Rhenanus and his “Germania” is mentioned 118 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L) 119 times in “Synonymia” (1571L), 122 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 127 times in the text of “Synonymia” (1578), 119 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 120 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In the last mentioned work, Rhenanus quotes Ammianus Marcellinus, e.g. in lemma SEBVSIANI. In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers 4 times to the Peutinger maps via Rhenanus, e.g. in lemmas HERCVLIS, IVLIOMAGVS and VAPLVARII. In lemma BRIGOBANNIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers again to Rhenanus as a source for the Peutinger tables. Beatus ordered a copy to be made of the Peutinger maps, but the copyist died soon afterwards and the project was abandoned. In lemma ANISVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Rhenanus’ “Calendarium” as a source.

Ort44.10, 45.9, 56.7, 57.8, 67.11, 112.8, 115.4, 199.35, 200.5, 228.6, 228.8, 230.3;

German Histories: 227.3, Bk.1: Ort112.10, 230.4, 230.6, Bk.3: Ort230.9.

Bebenburg see Babenbergius.

Becanus, Ioannes Goropius, Hilvarenbeek, 1518 - Maastricht 1572, or Jan van Gorp of the Netherlands was a physician with linguistic interests who wrote “Origines Antwerpianæ sive Cimmeriorum Becceselana libri IX, in quibus: Atvatica, Gigantomachia, Niloscopium, Chronia Indo-Scythica, Saxsonica, Goto-Danica, Amazonica, Venetica et Hyperborea” [on the origin of people, 9 books, in which etc.], (Ort1,2,3,56,58,65,66,115,174,189; also referred to 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)), published at his own expense by Plantin in 1569. Ortelius refers to this work 11 times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), unjustly praising its etymologies, 4 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), noting that a new version of this work has not yet been published and that his information has been taken from Becanus’ manuscript. Ortelius bought 3 copies of this book from Plantin in 1569 and another copy in 1570. Posthumously, Plantin published “Opera hactenus in lucem non edita, nempe Hermathena, Hieroglyphica, Vertumnus, Gallica, Francica, Hispanica, Antwerpen, 1580” (Ort194) of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1580 and to which he refers twice in his “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), particularly to the France and Spain-sections. In lemma ARBORICHAE and STRYMON of “Thesaurus” (1596) this work is called “Francicarum”. Ortelius holds him in high esteem, which, as far as Goropius’ linguistic observations are concerned was totally unfounded. In lemma GAMBRIVII of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius seems finally to have lost his faith in Becanus’ etymologies and says that those of Erpoldus’ “Chronicon Caroli Magni” are to be preferred. Becanus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 15 times in “Synonymia” (1571L),  22 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and occurs as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and is mentioned as a source in its text 66 times. Altogether, he is mentioned 64 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 69 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Becanus contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” ((ff. 9 vo,10). Becanus argued that the Dutch language derives from Douts which in Dutch means “the oldest”, concluding that Dutch was the oldest language in the world.

Ort 12.23, 12.47, 63.2, 63.8, 178.7, 179.7, 197.2, 198.2, 199.35, 200.5;

Origin and nature of the World, Becceselana: Ort1.57, 2.57, 3.62, 56.3, 56.17, 57.3, 58.7, 59.7, 65.14, 66.14, 115.12, 174.5b, 174.10; Bk.8-9: Ort189.32-34;

Gallica: Ort194.29, 194.32.

Beccadelli, Antonio, see Panormitanus.

Beda Venerabilis, the venerable Bede, 673 – 735, was a Benedict clergyman who wrote “Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum”, an Anglo-Saxon ccclesiastical history much quoted by later British historians, which first appeared in print in Strasbourg, 1475. It is the most important work of the “greatest English Historian” and gives an account of Christianity in England from its beginnings to Bede’s own days, scrupulously citing earlier sources. Ortelius refers to this work as a source 6 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), in lemma METALLOFANENSIS calling it a martyrology. Ortelius bought a copy of his “Ecclesiastica” in 1584 from Plantin. Beda is the only source providing information on Cædmon, 670, one of the earliest English poets, whose only authentic fragment is included. Beda is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 13 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 66 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 71 times.

Beda is mentioned 3 times on the mapsheet of Ort190, and twice on Ort192; further in map texts:

Ort16.10, 16.24, 16.70, 19.19, 19.45f, 23.4, 192.44, 192.60, 192.62, 192.63, 192.72.

Beke, Liévin van der see Torrentius Lævinus.

Belegerius see Belgius.

Belerium does not seem to be an author but rather an attribute meaning: “coming from Land’s End”, the most western point of Cornwall.

Ort192.15.

Bellanus see Thorius.

Bellarmatus, Hieronymus or Girolamo Bellarmati, 1493 – 1555, was an engineer in Italy and France who published a 4-sheet map of Tuscany, published  in  Rome, 1536, which was used by Ortelius for his own Tuscany map (Ort130). Ortelius refers to this map in his “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1570 onwards, and once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), and in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma PRILLE. Bellarmati is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Tuscany map as its maker, Ort130. Further in the map texts:

Ort1.50, 1.61,2.61,3.54, 3.67, 34.8, 36.20, 37.13, 37.15,

Bellarminus, Robertus or Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino, Montepulciano, October 4, 1542 – Rome, September 17, 1621, was een Italian jezuït en Roman Catholic cardinal. He wrote a catechism. In lemma MASSA of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Instrumentum publicum Germanorum principium” is mentioned as a source.

Belleforest, François de, see Belleforestius, Franciscus.

Belleforestius, Franciscus, 1530 – 1583, mostly worked as a translator. His “Cosmographie” (Ort37,38,43), Paris 1575, is an excerpt from Münster. Hence Ortelius calls him the French Münster. Ortelius bought his “Cosmography”  from Plantin in 1571. He is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 4 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 63 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 43 times.

Ort1.50, 1.61, 2.50, 2.61,3.54, 3.67, 34.8, 36.20, 37.13, 37.15, 37.25, 37.28, 40.5, 40.10, 41.4, 42.5, 43.10, 46.2, 46.8, 47.3, 47.7, 47.9, 47.21, 49.9, 49.19, 49.32, 53.14, 53.18, 54.3, 54.7, 54.12, 54.16;

Universal Cosmography: 37.23, 38.7, 38.15, 43.5.

Bellet, François, late 16th c., was a typesetter and ink maker at Moretus who translated the text of 10 new maps into French for the verso texts of the 1598 Fench edition of the “Theatrum”. 

Bellon see Bellonius.

Bellonius or Bellon, Pierre, 1517 – 1564, travelled in the Orient as a companion of Gilles. He wrote about these travels with particular attention to natural history in “Les Observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses mémorables, trouvées en Grèce, Asie, Judée, Egypte, Arabie et des autres pays estranges, rédigées en trois livres” (Ort39,146,147,148,149,159,170,171,172,174,181); also referred to 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), published in Paris, 1553, 1588. L’Ecluse has translated this work into Latin, published in Antwerp, 1589. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in the same year and refers to it as a source in lemma BORMISCVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Bellonius also wrote on fish, birds, the last subject referred to in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and in “Thesaurus” (1596) as Bellonius’ “De Avibus” [about birds]. Part of his “Observations” is mentioned as a source e.g. in lemma CASSANDREA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He also wrote on similar subjects (Ort106) in which he included a map of Lemnos, used by Ortelius (Ort149). Bellonius and his “Observations” are mentioned 27 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 84 times in “Synonymia” (1571L), 106 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 64 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587), he is mentioned as a source 63 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 67 times..

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Cyprus map as the maker of the inset map of Lemnos, Ort149. Further in map texts:

Ort147.2, 147.3, 147.5, 147.6, 147.9, 147.12, 147.25, 147.27, 147.28, 148.6, 148.7, 148.8, 148.9, 148.10, 148.19, 149.11, 149.12, 168.8, 169.3, 169.16, 174.2, 174.3, 174.5a;

Observations: Ort39.13, 147.11, 147.29, 148.14, 170.8, Bk.1: 146.13, 146.14, 146.21, 149.14, 159.8, 170.8, 171.8, 172.27, 174.10, 174.16, 181.11.

About Fish: Ort105.12, 106.12;

Bellovacensis, Vincentius see Vincentius of Beauvais.

Bellunensis, Urbanus, 15th century, wrote the first Greek grammar in Latin.

Ort175.6.

Belon see Bellonius.

Belvacensis, Vincentius see Vincentius of Beauvais.

Bembo see Bembus.

Bembus, Petrus, 1470 – 1547, was a Venetian Cardinal and humanist who wrote about Mount Ætna in “De Ætna ad Gabrielem liber” (Ort141), Venice 1495, 1530, Lyon 1552. He also wrote “Hieroglyphical Egyptian Table” (Ort221), also referred to as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573), where Ortelius says that he possessed a copy of this work.

Mount Ætna: Ort141.6;

Hieroglyphical Egyptian Table: Ort221.37.

Benedetto Giovio see Jovius Benedictus.

Benedictinus, Henricus, 16th c., was a clergyman from Auxerre, France, who wrote “Divi Germani quondam Altissiodorensis episcope vita, carmine conscripta”, published by Colinæus in Paris, 1543. Ortelius refers once to his “Vita St. Germani”, contained in this book, as a source in lemma VELLAVNODVNVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Benedictus Arias Montanus see Arias Benedictus Montanus.

Benedictus Monachus, 8th c., was a German monk who wrote “Annales Francorum” , 741 – 821, which is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596), sometimes without mentioning the author.

Beneventus de Rambaldis of Imola, 1338 – 1390, was an Italian monk who wrote “Romuleon”, a compendium of texts on Roman history. Ortelius refers to it once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma AEQVI.

Benjamin see Tudela.

Benzo or Benzoni, Girolamo, 1519- after 1572, of Milan, Italy travelled in America between 1541 and 1556. His travel report “Historia del mundo nuovo libr. III” [History of the new world, 3 books] (Ort14,15), Venice 1565, Geneva 1578, and a description of the Canary Islands, Venice 1572, were translated into Latin by Urbanus Calveton, Geneva 1578, 1581, and 1600. A copy of the 1578 Latin edition was bought by Ortelius from Plantin in 1578. A German translation by Abel Scherdinger was published in Basel in 1579 and 1582.

Ort9.45, 10.45, 11.48;

History of the New World: Ort14.12, 14.24, 15.15, 15.19.

Benzoni see Benzo.

Benzonius see Benzo.

Beotio see Boazio.

Beregisus, saint, died after 725, was a French priest and confessor for Pepin of Heristal. Pepin helped him found the monastery of Saint Hubert in the Ardennes. Beregistus may have served as its abbot and is quoted in the “Book of Saints”, written by the monks of Ramsgate. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma ANDAINVM.

Bergamus, Georg Jodocus, fl. mid-16th century, was an Italian Benedictine monk and poet from Verona who made a map of Lago di Garda, Verona, 1556, and who praised Lake Garda in his “Benacus” (Ort120). He and his map were included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1592 onwards, but not used.

Description of Lake Garda Bk.1-5: Ort120.9.

Bergen, Willem van see Grimbergen.

Bergomas, Jacobus Philippus, also Jacobo Filippi Foresti of Bergamo, Italy, 1434 – 1520, is a historian best known for his “Supplementum Chronicarum Libri X”, Venice, 1483,. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is twice mentioned as a source, e.g. in lemma ZEVGITANA.

Bermudez see Bermundez.

Bermundez, or Bermudezus, or Bermudesius, Jodo or Ioannes, 16th century, was a Portuguese physician and the first Portuguese envoy in Æthiopia. Pope Paulus III appointed him as patriarch of Æthiopia and Alexandria. Alvarez usually calls him “mestre Joan”. He wrote “Esta he huma breuve relecao da Embeixada quo patriarcha da Ethiopia, chamado vulgarmente Presto Joannis” (Ort175), Lisbon 1561. Ortelius refers to this work once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma CATARRACTAS.

Experiences of the Abessines: Ort175.20.

Bernaerts see Bernartius.

Bernardino Arluno see Arluno Bernardino.

Bernardino Corio see Corio Bernardino.

Bernardinus Scalantus see Scalantus Bernardinus.

Bernhardinus Gomez see Gomez Bernhardinus.

Bernartius, Johannes or Bernaerts, 1568 Mechelen - 1601 Mechelen, studied law in Leuven  and obtained from Justus Lipsius a doctor’s degree. He became a lawyer in Mechelen. Next to his activities as a lawyer he worked as a historiographer and published a book in Flemish in 1588 about Maria Stuart. He also wrote comments on Publius Papinius Statius’ “Opera” (1595) , of which Ortelius bought a copy in the same year, and on Boethius’ “De consolatione philosophiae” (1607). His best known work,  dealing with the philosophy of history is “De utilitate legendae historiae libri duo” (1593). Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in the same year. Bernartius wrote a letter to Ortelius in (Hessels 222) with which he included a copy of the same work..

Berno the abbot, died in 927, of St. Baume, abbot of Cluny, Burgundy was born from a noble family and was held in great esteem. He was a friend of King Rudulphus, wrote “Testamentum” in 926 and is quoted by Irenicus.

Quoted by Irenicus: Ort114.4.

Beroald see Beroaldus.

Beroaldus, Matthaeus or Matthias, fl. late 16th c., wrote “Chronicon sacrae scripturae”, published in Geneva in 1575. Ortelius refers to this Beroaldus as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578) and in the text in the lemma EMATH of “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In the text of this “Synonymia” he is altogether mentioned as a source 5 times. His “Chronicon” is also mentioned as a source in lemma SILOE of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1598) and in lemma TVBAL of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is mentioned altogether as a source 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in  “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma GOG.

Beroaldus, Philippus or Filippo Beroaldo the elder, 1472 – 1518, from Bologna, Italy, published works by Cæsar and Florus and wrote a “Chronicle” (Ort178,179); also referred to as a source in “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma SILOE. He also wrote “Declamatio ebriosi, scortatoris et aleatoris”, a satirical debate between a drunkard, a gambler and a pimp, printed in Bologna, 1499. Another work written by him is “Oratio de Terremotu”, published in Helmsted. Ortelius bought a copy of it from Plantin in 1591. Beroaldus is mentioned 6 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Chronicle: Ort178.8, 179.8.

Berossus see Berosus

Berosus “the Imaginary, the Turncoat, the Unreliable”, about 340 - about 270 BC, also Pseudoberosus to emphasize his unreliability, from Chaldea, wrote a history of Babylonia and also commentaries quoted by Annius Viterbiensis (Ort117,118); also in lemma ROMÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) where Berosus is called “fabulosus”. In the lemma FORVM VVLCANI of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to Berosus’ “Vocabulum Etruscum” “if this is to be believed”. Berosus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 4 times in its text. He is altogether mentioned 15 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 20 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Berosus is mentioned once as a source.

Ort1.19, 2.19, 3.21, 55.8, 56.2, 57.2, 193.3, 194.31, 197.7, 198.7, 199.2, 199.40, 199.42, 200.10, 200.12, 207.5, 208.5, 211.8;

Commentaries as quoted by Viterbiensis: Ort117.33, 118.5, 118.33.

Bertius, Petrus or Pieter Bert, 1565 – 1629, grew up in Beveren in Flanders and as a young man travelled widely in Europe. In company with so many of his compatriots he moved to Amsterdam as a refugee, escaping from religious persecution and after completing his studies there, he was appointed a professor of mathematics and librarian at Leiden university. Being a prolific writer on mathematical, historical and theological subjects he is also known as a cartographer for his editions of Ptolemy's “Geographia”, based on Mercator's edition of 1578 and incorporating some of Ortelius’ Parergon maps, and for miniature atlases. In 1618 he moved to Paris and became Official Cosmographer to Louis XIII. He was related by marriage to Jodocus Hondius and Pieter van den Keere. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1593 (Hessels 234).

Bertrand Argentre see Argentre Bertrandus.

Bertrandus de Turre, abt. 1265 – 1332, was a clergyman who wrote “Sermones Quadrigesimales Epistolares”which was published in Strasbourg, 1502. Ortelius refers to this work as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) once and Bertrandus also occurs as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma OCEANVS ATLANTICVS and in lemma RATIASTVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Beuter see Beutherus.

Beutherus, Pedro Antonio , 16th century, was a theologian from Valencia, Spain who wrote a history about Valencia in which he takes the imaginary Berosus to be real. Alonso de Ulloa translated this work into English in 1556. Ortelius refers to his “Annales” (Ort29,30) and 4 times to his “Chronicon Hispaniæ” in his “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587), where he altogether is mentioned 35 times as a source and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) where he is altogether referred to as a source 37 times. Beutherus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 25 times in its text.

Ort29.2, 29.7;

Annales: Ort29.6, 30.2, 30.8, 30.9.

Bible see Sacrae litterae.

Bilibaldus Pirkeimerus see Pirkeimer.

Bion, 2nd c. BC., from Alexandria is a mythological and pastoral poet. He is quoted by Plinius, and is reported as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is also once mentioned as a source in lemma ESAR.

Biondo Flavio see Blondus.

Birckheimer see Pirckheimer.

Bisschop see Episcopus.

Bizarro, Pietro see Bizarrus, Petrus.

Bizarrus, Petrus or Pietro Bizari, Perugia 1523 - 1583, an Italian who died in Antwerp, was mostly active as a publisher but also as a poet, historian and as a professor in Cambridge. He wrote a history of Genoa: “Senatus populique Genuensis rerum domi forisque gestarum historiæ atque annales”, Antwerp,1579, (Ort125,126). Bizarrus travelled widely in Germany, but by January 1578 he was established in Antwerp, where he frequented the circle of the printer Christopher Plantin. In 1583 he published his Persian history, “Rerum Persicarum historia”, (Ort167), dedicated to August of Saxony, although two presentation copies were also sent to England: one for the queen and one for Walsingham. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1583. Bizarrus wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1570, (Hessels 33). Ortelius calls him “my good friend” and he contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 70 v.) in 1575.

Ort125.10, 126.11;

History of Persia: Ort167.11.

Blacuodæus, Adamus,16th c., is a Scottish author who wrote “De principis augustissimi Francisci ducis Guisiani obitu” published in Paris in 1563. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma ELGOVÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Blanchon Joachim, born in 1553, of Limoges, France, was a poet who wrote “Premières œuvres politiques”, Paris, 1583. A laudatory poem by Blanchon is included on Ortelius’ Lemovicum map (Ort43b).

Poem on the Greeks in bottom cartouche of Limousin, map Ort43b

Blason d’armories is an anonymous work dating from the 10th century dealing with heraldry. Ortelius bought a copy of this work, printed in Lyon, from Plantin in 1581.

Blasius, Vigenerius see Vigenerius Blasius.

Blondius see Blondus.

Blondus, Flavio, 1392 - 1463, “most famous among historians”, became secretary to the Curia in 1434. He wrote “Historiarum ab inclinatione Romanorum imperii decades”, a history of the Middle Ages, Venice 1483, referred to by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578) three times, in his “Thesaurus” (1587) 4 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 5 times as a source. Further a historical-geographical lexicon about Italy (Ort120,122,129,131); also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578)) called “Italia Illustrata”, referred to as a source in lemma VIRENA of “Thesaurus” (1596) and a topographical work about Rome called “Roma instaurata” which appeared in 1471, referred to as a source in lemma CLASSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius also refers to his “Historiae Aquilegiensis” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in his “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma NITIOBRIGES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), and in lemma VITIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Blondus’ “Decades” are mentioned as a source. In lemma PRILLE of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius calls Blondus “vir doctissimus”. Blondus is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578) and 98 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 101 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 117 times.

Blondus is mentioned once on the map sheet Ort209. Further in texts Ort117.5, 117.27, 117.33, 118.5, 118.27, 118.33, 119.3, 127.9, 128.10, 129.14b, 129.14c, 132.12, 133.19, 134.15, 136.3, 137.11, 137.14, 137.33, 138.3, 138.6, 138.8, 210.24, 210.25;

Description of Italy: Ort120.8, 122.10, 129.17, 131.2, 131.8.

Boazio, Giovanni Baptista, late 16th century, is most probably an Italian who resided in Great Britain between 1585 and 1606. He designed approximately ten maps, including the model for Vrients’ map of Ireland (Ort22,23). He is also mentioned as a source once in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma COSILAVS.

Ort22.43.

Mentioned as its designer on map Ort23.

Boccacio or Boccatius or Bocatius, Ioannes, 1549 – 1621, or János Bogáthy should not be confused with his famous namesake Giovanni from the 14th century. This Bocatius was a German humanist who moved to Hungary and was appointed Poet Laureate by emperor Rudolph II. He wrote “Comments on Italian Rivers” (Ort133); also referred to as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma FORVM ALIENI and “Hungaridos libri poematum V”. He is referred to as a source in “Synonymia” (1578) 6 times, and he is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). He is also mentioned as a source in the address to the reader of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and occurs 29 times as a source in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he is mentioned 29 times as a source. In the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Ortelius refers to Bocatius’ “De Genealogica Deorum” as a source. Ortelius met Bocatius in 1576 in Frankfurt.

Ort133.4, 133.8.

Bochius or Bocchius, Jean or Boch , 1545 – 1608, was an engraver and secretary of the city of Antwerp. He wrote a complimentory “Elegia” of 50 lines in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587). He also wrote a 28-line poem in Franciscus Sweertius’ “Lacrymae”, a bundle of mourning poetry that appeared shortly after Ortelius’ death. It was reprinted in the 1603 Latin, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612L edition. It begins: “HEM, quam pauca satis…” and ends: “… lucem quam tuus Orbis habet”.  He also wrote “Descriptio Publicae Gratulationis … in adventu Sereniss. Principis Ernesti”, Plantin, 1595, and C. Valerij Flacci … Argonauticon Lib. VIII. Ortelius possessed both books and annotated them. They are now in the Plantin-Moretus museum, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Bochius writes a laudatory poem in its introduction. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma TERNESII of “Thesaurus” (1596), where Ortelius calls him “vir linguarum rerum peritißimum” [a man who in matters of languages is very knowledgable]. In his “Lacrymae” Sweertius calls Bochius a close friend of Ortelius.

Bodeghem, Bartholomæus, fl. late 16th century, died in 1609, from Delft, Holland, was a catholic lawyer who edited a “Martyrium”. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 72 v. in 1575).

Bodin, Jean see Bodinus.

Bodinus, Ioannes or Jean Bodin, Angers 1530 - Laôn 1596, from Angers, France, was a professor of law in Toulouse who wrote “Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem” [Method for the easy comprehension of History] (Ort115), Paris, 1566, an important treatise on historiography, appreciated by his contemporary Montaigne, referred to by Ortelius in Hessels (24). Bodin’s “Chronologia” was by Ortelius given to Mercator shortly before March 26, 1575 as reported by van Durme (1959), letter 98. Ortelius refers to him in the “Catalogus Auctorum”, and twice in its text as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and  in lemma OENOPLIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma BABYLON of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers once to his “Compendium Historicum” (= “Methodus”). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Bodinus is censured as a heretic. Ortelius recommends his works in a letter to Rotarius (Hessels 24). Bodin wrote in Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” but his contribution was removed at a later stage, see Jason Harris (2005) in De Gulden Passer, p. 131.

Ort19.14, 36.8, 36.9;

Methodus historica: 115.12.

Bodius or Boyd, Marcus Alexander, fl. late 16th c., was a Scottish neo-Latin poet who composed whilst in exile in France during the 1580s and early 1590s a work called “Epistolae Heroidum”. Boyd's engagements reflect the priorities of contemporary humanist interpretations of the Heroides, on the one hand positioning Ovidius’ poems as models for elegant Latin verse composition, and on the other reading them as guides to female sexual (mis)conduct. Such an approach tended to reinforce Renaissance prejudices about sex and gender, as Boyd's efforts reveal. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1593.

Boece see Boëtius

Boekel, Peter, 1530 – 1599, was born in Antwerp and died in Wismar, Germany. He wrote “Bescribung vom landt zu Ditmers” [Thietmarsia] and made a map of this area,Antwerp, 1559, used by Ortelius (Ort88a,89a,90a). He and his Thietmarsia map were included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the half sheet Holsatiæ map as its maker, Ort88a, Ort89a, Ort90a.

Boethius, about 480 – about 524, was a Roman statesman, author and philosopher who served under the East-Gothic king Theodoric the Great., He fell in disgrace and was emprisoned. There he wrote “De Consolatione Philosophiae” [Solace of philosophy], a work in prose and verse where the (female) personification of Philosophy offers solace to the injustly accused author who is waiting to be executed. She points out to him that his fortune is unpredictable, as a form of providence distributed by God. This philosophical work was read and commented on very frequently in the Middle Ages. Ortelius refers to it in lemma ACHÆMENIA of his “Thesaurus” (1596).

Boëthius or Boece, Hector, 1465 – 1536, was a Scottish humanist who became vice-chancellor of the university of Aberdeen, Scotland. He wrote a history of Scotland “Scotorum historiæ a prima gentis origine”,  published in Paris by Jodocus Badius Ascensius in 1527, the second history of Scotland, the first being that of John Major (1521). Ortelius refers to this work twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in his “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma TOLIAPIS. Although acclaimed upon publication, Boëthius’s “History” began to receive criticism from John Leland, 1506 – 1572, and from Humphrey Llhuyd in his “Commentariolo Descriptionis Brittannicæ Fragmentum”. Boëthius’s history was expanded with many fables by Ferrerius from Piemont, Italy, who published his version in Paris, 1574. Ortelius bought a German and a Latin copy of his work from Plantin in 1588. Boëthius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 21 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 24 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 26 times.

Ort16.11, 18.5, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.20, 18.27, 18.28, 18.29, 18.30.

Bohemus or Böhm, Johannes or Aubanu, 16th century, from Aub is the writer of “Omnium Gentium mores, leges et ritus etc.” (Ort114), published in Augsburg in 1520 and in Freiburg in 1540.

Ort1.60, 2.60, 3.66, 56.7, 57.8, 100.4, 110.7, 145.18, 158.7, 158.26;

De moribus gentium: Ort114.3, 114.4..

Böhm see Bohemus.

Boileau de Boullion, Gilles, 1510-1560, was a Flemish diplomat and geographer who is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards as the maker of a map of Gallia Belgica (1557), which is considered the source for Ortelius’ Savoy maps (Ort48,49).

Boissard, Jean Jacques, Besançon 1528 - Metz 1602, of Metz was an archaeologist who wrote “Methodo historica”, “Emblemata” (mentioned in Hessels 167 and 237), “Varii gentium habitus” (mentioned in Hessels 16) and “Theatrum vitae humanae”, a work in seven volumes. Ortelius bought this work from Plantin in 1593 for the hefty sum of 34 and a half florins, and again in 1595 for the same price. Boissard wrote a poem dedicated to Ortelius in 1589, rejoicing their friendship and sent Ortelius his “Portraits” and “Emblemata”. In a letter of 1593 (Hessels 233) Boissard tells Ortelius that he has sent him two manuscript volumes he has written on Roman inscriptions. Boissard wrote 3 letters to Ortelius in 1589, 1591 and 1593 (Hessels 167, 194, 233).

Ort129.17.

Boissartus see Boissard.

Bolgius see Belgius.

Bommeln Lambertus à, fl. late 16th c., was a Polish historian and diplomat who wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1579 (Hessels 88) and sent him a map of Prussia.

Bompario, Ioannes, fl. end 16th century, or Pierre-Jean or perhaps Jean-Pierre de Bompar was an engineer in Grasse, France, who published a single sheet map of Provence, Torino, 1551, which is followed very closely by Ortelius (Ort47). He and his map of a province of France are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1595 omwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Provinciæ map as its maker, Ort47.

Bonacciolus see Buonacciolus.

Bonaventura Borchard see Borchard Bonaventura.

Bonaventura Brochardus see Borchard Bonaventura.

Bonaventura Castiglioni see Castiglioni Bonaventura.

Bonaventura see Vulcanius.

Bonfini or Bonfinius, Antonio, 1427 – 1503, was an Italian by birth. He was by Mathias Corvinus called to the Hungarian court. His “Rerum Hungaricarum decades tres, nunc demum industria” was published by Martinus Brenneri Bistricensis Transylvani in Basel in 1543 and 1568 (Ort105,150,152,154,155,162,163). He is called the Hungarian Livius. He often relies on Blondus. Bonfinius is mentioned twice as a source in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 12 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned 13 times as a source.

Ort152.13, 153.2, 153.4, 153.73, 203.3, 203.15;

Decades of Hungary: Ort150.13, 150.19, 150.22, 152.13, 154.16, 155.16, 163.8;

Decade 1, Bk.1: 152.2, 152.5, 153.5, Bk.1&2: Ort162.8, Bk.4 Ch.4: Ort105.7, 106.7.

Bonfinius see Bonfini.

Bongarsius, also Johan Bongers, Orléans 1554 - Paris 1612, humanist and historian, printed five maps derived from 14th century manuscripts including an untitled world map credited to Marino Sanuto, as well as a Holy Land map. He contributed a one-page Latin laudatory poem to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 5) in 1584. His maps were published after Ortelius’ death as Volume 2 of “Gesta Dei per Francos”, Hannover 1611. Ortelius refers to Bongarsius’ “Notae” in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas CALAMA and THABORTENVM. In lemmas BERGOMVM, FANTVS and SEGOREGII of “Thesaurus” (1596), Bongarsius is mentioned as a source quoting Trogus Pompeius. Altogether Bongarsius is referred to 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 13 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort193.6.

Bonifacio see Bonifacius.

Bonifacius, Ioannes, 1547 – 1635, also Giovanni Bonifacio, was born in Rovigo, Italy. He studied law and practised this in Rovigo. From 1593 onwards, he was a civil servant for the Republic of Venice, working in Treviso and Padua. He was also active as a poet and historiographer, and was a member of various academies. He is mentioned in the cartouche of the inset map of the Rovigo - Adria area in Italy as its maker (Ort134). His main work is “Historia Trivigiana” (1591), a regional history on Treviso (Ort122).

Description of Treviso: Ort122.13.

Bonifacius, Natale, 1538-1592, engraver from Sebenici who worked in Venice and Rome, made a single sheet map of the Abruzzi, Rome, 1587. In the cartouche of Ortelius’ Aprutti map he is mentioned as its maker (Ort138). He and his Aprutti map are first included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” in 1592.

Bonifacius is mentioned in the lower left corner of the Aprutti map, Ort 138, as its maker.

Bonifacius or Bonifatius, Saint, c. 680 – June 5, 754, the Apostle of the Germans, born in Winfrid or possibly in Crediton in the kingdom of Wessex, now Devon, England, was a missionary who propagated Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He is the patron saint of Germany and the first archbishop of Mainz. He was killed in Frisia near Dokkum in 754. His tomb is in the crypt of Fulda Cathedral. Ortelius refers once to Bonifacius’ “Life” in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BORTNA.

Book of Remembrances see Liber Notitiarum.

Borchard Bonaventura or Brochardus, first half 16th century, was a French monk who wrote about his travels in the Sinai and Jerusalem. He made a map of Palestina of which no copy survives and is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards. He is also mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L).

Bordone or Bordonius, Benedetto, 1470 – 1539, from Padua, Italy is known because of his guide of islands “Isolario” (Ort1,2,3,141,147,148,149) Venice 1528, 1534, 1562, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), and twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards for his Corsica map. Bordonius is mentioned 42 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 16 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 24 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 19 times.

Ort147.9, 147.11, 147.23, 147.29, 147.37, 148.4, 148.11, 148.14, 149.5, 149.10, 149.17, 149.20, 149.21, 149.22, 181.11;

Islands of the World: Ort1.54, 2.54, 3.59, 141.5, 141.8, 141.15, 148.4, 148.21, 149.8, 149.18, 149.24.

Bordoni, Girolamo, c. 1520 – 1615, was a poet in Genova who drew a Corsica map now lost. He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of 1601.

Bordonius see Bordone.

Bosius, Simeon or Siméon du Bois,1536 – 1581, was a Belgian author who wrote comments on Cicero’s “Ad Atticum” and on Manutius’ comments on this work, published in Frankfurt am Main 1580, and by Plantin, 1582, 1585. This work is referred to as a source in lemmas PEDNELISSVS and PONS in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas FRANGONES and IANVVIVM in “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Botero, Giovanni, 1544 – 1617, was a priest and geographer of Piemont, Italy, who published “Le Relationi Universali” (Ort3), “Tabulae Geographicae” (1596) and “Discorso de Vestigii”, Rome 1615.

Le Relationi: Ort3.67a; Ort126.11.

Boucher, Jean, born in 1551, taught humanities in Reims and Paris. He wrote “De Justa Abdicatione”, a plea for tyrannicide, first published in Lyon in 1589. Ortelius bought a copy of this work in 1591 from Plantin.

Bouchet, Jean, 1476 – 1550, of Poitiers wrote “Annales d’Aquitaine” (Ort38),  Poitiers (1524), often reprinted.

Chronicle of Aquitania: Ort38.7, 38.15.

Bouille see Bouillus.

Bouillus or Bovillus, Carolus or Charles de Bovelles, 1470 – 1553, of Vermandois, France, was a mathematician, theologist en philosopher of Picardie and a very productive writer. Bovillus was influenced by mysticism, notably of Dionysius de Areopagiet, and developed the philosophy of science of Nicolaus Cusanus, 1401 – 1464, into an encyclopedic system. His “Chronicon” is his most important publication. He also wrote “De differentia vulgarium linguarum et gallici sermonis varietate” (Ort69,70; also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), in “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemma MAGETROBIA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)), Paris 1533 dealing with etymology. Bouillus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 10 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is 10 times referred to as a source.. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578).

Ort44.6, 45.6, 48.9, 48.10, 48.12, 49.5, 49.15, 49.25, 49.26, 55.12, 70.2, 70.8, 70.17, 71.2, 71.8; Discourse on languages: 69.3, 70.3.

Bovillus Carolus see Bouillus.

Boyis see Boëtius.

Braccius see Baccius.

Bracellius or von Brachel, died 1650, published a Latin edition of Braun and Hogenberg’s “Civitates Orbis Terrarum”.

Ort126.11.

Brandt or Brant, Sebastian ,1458 - 1521, born in Strasbourg and educated in Basel became a professor of jurisprudence. He  published “Chronicon Germaniæ, præsertim Alsatiæ”. In the 1608/1612 Italian edition, he wrote an 8-line obituary for Ortelius in Latin beginning: SOL oriens orbem radijs..” and ending: “… alij, tu despicis unus.”

Ort56.7, 57.8.

Brantius, Johannes or Johannes Brants, fl. early 17th c., was an administrator of the city of Antwerp.  He wrote an 8-line obituary on Ortelius which was published in the 1603 Latin and the 1609/1612 Latin Theatrum, beginning: SOL oriens orbem radijs …” and ending “… tu despicis unus.” Sweertius mentions Brantius as a close friend of Ortelius in his “Lacrymae”.

Braun or Brunus, Georgius Agrippinensis, 1541 – 1622, of Cologne was a theologist and teacher who together with Hogenberg wrote  and published “Civitates Orbis Terrarum” or “Theatre of Cities”, (Ort1,2,3,31,32,51,52,53,161). Ortelius refers to this work and its author twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 3 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Also, he refers specifically to Braun’s Calcar map as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma TANFANÆ, and to Braun’s Novesius [Neuss] map in lemma GELDVBA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Ortelius bought a copy of the first two volumes from Plantin (118 city maps) in 1580, and volume 3 and 4 (118 city maps) in 1595. Braun wrote a letter on Turkish rulers to Ortelius in 1572 (Hessels 37), another letter in 1580 (Hessels 96) and another in 1595 (Hessels 263).  He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 99 in 1575).

Ort161.23, 161.72, 168.5, 169.4;

Theatre of Cities (in Latin) Ort1.53, 2.53, 3.58, 31.9, 31.29, 32.10, 51.9, 51.19, 52.10, 53.10, 161.26, 161.74.

Bravonius, Florentinus, 12th c., was an English monk who wrote a church history “Chronicon” from the beginning of the world to 1118. It was printed in London in 1592. Ortelius possessed a copy of this work as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006).

Bredenrodius, Pieter Cornelis, fl. late 16th c., of the Hague, Netherlands, wrote a “Thesaurus” dealing with matters of law, which was bought by Ortelius from Plantin in 1588.

Breidenbach or Breitenbach or Bredenbachius or Breytembachius, Bernhard von, 1440 - 1497, a German author of Mainz, wrote “Peregrinatio in terram sanctam”, an account of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, published in Mainz in 1486,and in  Speyer, 1502. He is also mentioned 3 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas MACHMAS and MALEA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas MAGEDDO and SCYTHOPOLIS.

Ort180.15.

Breitenbach see Breidenbach.

Bresson or Brissonius, Jacques, Grenoble 1540 – Orléans 1576, was a French engineer who wrote “Theatrum Instrumentorum”, published in Lyon 1569, 1578, a book on mechanical engineering. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1579. He also wrote “De formulis” of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1594.

Breventanus, Angeles or Angelo Breventano, died in 1597, was an Italian historian of Pavia who drew the map “Mons Circæus”, used by Ortelius in 1595. His map of Longobardia is mentioned as a source in lemma TICINVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) as showing a silver coin. He wrote a letter to Ortelius from Rome in 1593 (Hessels 227; also in lemma VENERIS of “Thesaurus” (1596)). In lemma VITERBVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Brevetanus quotes the Edict of king Desiderius. He is also mentioned as a source in lemma CIRCÆVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Mentioned in the cartouche of the inset map of Mount Circæus as its maker; further in map texts : Ort209.30, 209.32.

Brinckhorstius, Hugo, 16th century, from England, lived for some time in Erfurt, Germany and provided statistical information to Ortelius in a letter dealing with Thüringen, Germany.

Ort96.2.

Brinctus or Brinctius, Cornelius or Corneille, fl. mid-16th century, of Amersford in West-Flanders was a humanist and philologist who wrote epigrams in Greek and Latin which were published by Goltzius in 1576. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff81v-82, in 1574).

Brion, Martin de, fl. 1st half 16th c., made a map of the Holy Land , Paris, c. 1540, of which no copy has survived. He and his Palestine map, which Ortelius did not use, are first mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” of 1570.

Brisson or Brissonius, Barnabas, 1531 - 15 November 1591. was a French lawyer and politician. Born as the son of the king's lieutenant in Fontenay-le-Comte, Brisson studied law in Orléans, Bourges and Poitiers, where he stayed as an advocate. Between 1553 and 1556, he moved on to Paris, where he swiftly gained repute for his learning and rhetorical skills. He wrote “Antiquitates” a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1586 and again in 1588.

Britannus Gildas see Gildas, Britannus.

Brocard see Burchard

Brochardus see Burchard.

Broderith, Stephan or Stephanus, died in 1540, was a Hungarian state official. He reports on the battle of Mohacz in his “De Claude Ludovici II regis Hungariæ” (Ort152,153) which he experienced as one of the retinue of the king, printed in Basel. Broderith is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned once as a source.

Ort150.13, 150.22, 203.15;

Treatise printed in Basel: Ort152.2, 152.4, 153.2.

Brodeus, Ioannes, “a man of good judgment”, 16th century, a personal acquaintance of Ortelius, wrote “Miscellanea” (Ort224); also mentioned as a source in lemmas ANAVRVS, CALANI, CEOS and EBOSIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Brodeus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) but he does not occur in its text. In lemma VEGETI of “Thesaurus” (1596) he quotes Plinius and Strabo. Altogether Brodeus is mentioned 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Miscellanea Bk.3: Ort224.15-18.

Broecke, ten see Paludanus.

Brognoli, Bernardo or Brugnoli, 1538 - 1583, artist and engineer, made a map of Verona published by Forlani in Venice in 1574. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” for this from 1575 onwards, and also appears on the cartouche of the Veronæ map as its maker (Ort120).

Brooman, Carolus, fl. late 16th c., was a Belgian humanist, numismat, and friend of Winghe. He wrote from Brussels two letters to Ortelius in 1590 (Hessels 187, 188).

Bronovius, Martin, 16th century, was a Pole sent as an envoy to Tartary by king Stephan. He was taken captive there, and learned about this land and its people. His book “Descriptio Tartariæ” appeared in Cologne, Germany in 1595, usually bound together with Reichersdorf’s “Moldaviæ quæ olim Daciæ pars, chorographia” which was written in 1541.

Ort163.8.

Brontius, Nicolas or Le Bron, flourished 1541, was a poet and philologist and teacher from Douai, Belgium, who wrote “De laudibus Hannoniæ” (Ort69) and also “Libellus de utilitate et harmonia Artium”, Antwerp, 1541, an attractively illustrated work for students.

Ort70.3, 71.3;

Discourse on Hannonia: Ort69.3.

Brotuff, Ernst, Merseburg 1497 – Merseburg 1565, was a German author who wrote “Historia Viperti”, published in Leipzig in 1520. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1580.

Brueghel. Pieter the Elder, Brueghel near Eindhoven 1530 - Brussel 1569, was a painter and scholar, and one of the great masters of the 16th century Flemish school. He was a friend of Ortelius and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (f. 12 v).

Brulartus, Claudius or Claude Brulart, fl. late 16th c., of Rouen, France, was a physician and friend of Schottus whose comments he sent to Ortelius and Lipsius. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1595 (Hessels 268).

Brunius see Braun, George.

Bruno, 10th c., was archbishop of Cologne, later saint. His “Life” was described by Ruotgerus, referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)) in the lemma CARTHVSIA.

Bruno, Georgius, see Braun, George.

Brunsema, Mellæus or Mello Theodorus, 1560-? was a Dutch lawyer, professor in Helmstad and Leiden, and friend of Reinerus Reineccius and Justus Lipsius. His manuscript “Oratio pro nova juridicæ facultatis Groningæ institute prælectione habita ad vi Julii A.S. MDXCVI” has been preserved. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1594 (Hessels 256).

Brusch see Bruschius.

Bruschius or Brusch, Caspar, 1518 – 1557, of Eger, Germany was a teacher, poet, and a productive geographer. He wrote (1) “Chronologia Monasteriorum Germaniæ præcipuorum” (Ort56,57); (2) “Magnum opus de omnibus Germaniæ episcopatibus”, Nürnberg, 1549; (3) the map “Beschreibung des Fichtelgeberges”, 1542. The “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards mentions a map of Fichtelberg made by Brusch in Ulm, 1538. (4) “G. Bruschii iter Rheticum fragmentum ad Hier. Pappum carmine elegacio” Basel 1580; (5) “G. Bruschii Iter Helveticum ad Culenium carmine elegacio”, Basel. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Bruschius is censured as a heretic. Bruschius is mentioned in 2 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 9 times in “Synonymia” (1571L),  10 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L),  in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in its text he is mentioned 7 times. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned 7 times as a source. On the Bohemia map (Ort101), next to Egra (in Bohemian called Cheb) it has been written that he was born there.

Ort93.7, 107.4, 108.4, 111.6, 112.6;

Monasteries of Germany: Ort56.8, 57.9.

Brussius, Guilelmus, 16th century, wrote “Ad principes populumque christianum de bello, adversus Turcos gerendo”, Cracow 1595, and “De Tartaris Diarium”, Frankfurt, 1578, 1598.

Ort214.38.

Brutus, Michael Johannes,16th c., was a French author who wrote “Odes ac Epodes” [odes and verses], Paris, 1567, referred to as a source in lemma ACHERONTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) and also “Epistulae clarorum virorum” [letters of famous men], referred to in lemma CORYTIOS of “Thesaurus” (1596) and “De rebus Carolo V”. In lemma NORTMANNIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Brutus’ “Epistula ad Vespanius Gongazam” is mentioned as a source.

Buchanan, George, 1506 – 1582, from Scotland wrote the unfinished poem “Sphaera” and the satirical poem “Franciscanus”. He also translated Euripides’ Tragedies, Bordeaux, 1544, and he wrote a “History of Scotland”, 1582, also mentioned in Hessels (127) which includes a tale about MacBeth’s tragic fate. His metrical translations of the Psalms were used until well into the 18th century. Ortelius bought a copy of his psalms from Plantin in 1566, and refers to him 15 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Ort19.13.

Buchananus see Buchanan.

Bucretius see Rindfleisch, Daniel.

Budé see Budeus.

Budeus or Budæus, or Budé, Guillaume, 1467 – 1540, from Paris was a scholar in Roman Law who was honoured with a biography during his lifetime. He corresponded with Erasmus, latinised Greek concepts, and wrote “De studio literarum tecte et commode instituendo” and also “De transitu Hellenismi ad Christianismus”, 1535. His “Breviarum De Asse et partibus eius”, 1535, is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578),  and once in lemma CEMMENVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius retained in his correspondence a letter from Budeus to Morillionus (Hessels 4). He is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and is mentioned as a source in the “Cata1ogus Auctorum” of  Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text.

Ort221.21.

Bugnonius see Bugnyon.

Bugnyon or Bugnonius, Philibert who died in 1590 was a poet and lawyer from Mâcon, France, who wrote “Chronicon urbis Matisconensis” Lyon, France, 1559 (Ort53,54); also referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 3 times in lemmas FORVM SEGVSIANORVM, MATISCONA and SEQVANI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Bugnyon is mentioned twice in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and once in its text.

Ort53.17, 54.6, 54.15.

Bulonius, Ægidius, 1510 - 1563, also Gilles Boileau de Bouillon was a Flemish writer, poet, diplomat, cartographer and printer. He made a two-sheet map of Sabaudia or Savoye published by Hieronymus Cock in 1556, used by Ortelius in 1570 (Ort48b), and also a map of “Gallica Belgica” in 1557, see Karrow 83/88.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Sabaudiæ et Burgundiæ map as its maker, Ort 48b, 49b;

Ort55.2.

Bundvica, 1st century AD., was a British queen who in 61 AD led a revolt against the Romans.

Ort192.32, 192.38.

Buonacciolus or Bonacciolus, Alphonsus, early 16th c., was an Italian scholar who translated and edited Strabo in Italian, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma NICOMEDIA. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Synonymia” of 1578 as a source, and is mentioned 14 times in the text, of which four times in four consecutive lemmata called HERACLEA. He also edited and translated Plinius into Italian. He is mentioned 20 times in  the 1573L, 1574L, 1575L “Synonymia” as a source, and frequent references are made to his Italian Strabo in “Synonymia” (1578) and in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587). In “Thesaurus” (1596) Buonacciolus’ Strabo, translated from Greek into Italian, is mentioned 6 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas HERACLEA, NICOMEDIA, PASVMENA TERRA, THERMOPYLÆ, and VOMANVS. In lemma VOMANVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Ortelius compares this Italian translation with that of Xylander’s translation into Latin and concludes that this Italian version is far superior. Buonacciolus is included as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 18 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is altogether mentioned 19 times as a source.

Buonsignori, Stefano, who died in 1589, by Ortelius called Stephanus Florentinus Monachus Orvieti, was a Florentine monk and cartographer who made a map of the Territory of Florence, Florence, 1584, used by Ortelius (Ort131) and of the Territory of Siena Florence, c. 1585, not used by Ortelius. He and his Florentine and Siena map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from  1592 onwards.

Burchard or Brochardus Monachus, second half of the 13th century, was a German monk from Magdeburg who travelled in Palestine and wrote a treatise published as “Borchardi Monachi Germanici circa annum 1283 descriptio terræ sanctæ et regionum finitimarum.” published Plantin in 1567, of which Ortelius bought five copies. Burchard is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) as Brochardus Monachus, and 7 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 24 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 26 times.

Ort170.8, 171.8, 172.27, 173.3, 174.10.

Busbechius or Busbequius, Augerius Gislenius or Ogier Ghiselin Busbecq, 1522 – 1592, of Boesbeke, South Flanders wrote four long and fascinating letters as imperial ambassador to the Turkish sultan Süleiman the Great in Constantinople from 1532 to 1562, called “Legationis Turcicæ Epistolæ IV”, Paris, 1589; mentioned as a source in lemma COLCHIS, MÆOTIS and TAVRICA CHERSONNESVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) in which he reports about his most diverse political, ethnical, cultural and other experiences, from tulips to the testament of emperor Augustus which he discovered there. He also wrote commentaries called “Codex” on Dioscorides (Ort149), and he edited Corippus’ “Itinerarium”, referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas AMISA and AXYLON, of which a copy was bought by Ortelius from Plantin in 1581 and two copies again in 1583. Altogether in“Thesaurus” (1587) Busbechius as a source 6 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 14 times.

Ort114.4, 159.2, 159.5;

Commentaries on Dioscorides: Ort149.14, 149.24.

Busbequius see Busbechius.

Butingus, Henricus, fl. late 16th c., wrote “Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae” of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1598.

Byzantinus Stephanus see Stephanus Byzantinus.

Cabot or Caboto, Sebastiano, c. 1476 – 1557, was born in Venice as the son of the maritime explorer Giovanni Caboto. In 1495 he moved to Bristol, England. He studied navigation and learned to design maps. In 1509 he sailed to North America and tried to find the North-West passage. He moved to Spain and travelled on request of Spanish authorities to South America and East Asia, returned to Spain and taught navigation and cartography in Sevilla. In 1548 he returned to England. He published various world maps, e.g. a world map published in Antwerp, 1544, 4 sheets, which were not used by Ortelius. Yet, he and his world map are mentioned in Ortelius’ “Catalogus Auctorum” in his “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards.

Ort160.18.

Cabato see Cabot.

Cadamosto see Cadamostus.

Cadamostus, Alvise or Aloysius da, 1426 – 1483, was a Venetian sea explorer who worked for the Portuguese king Henricus on the African West coast in 1455 and 1456. He wrote down his experiences in “Navigazione nell’ Africa” which Ramusio included in his collection. Ortelius refers to him once in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once  in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) as a source in the lemma LIBYÆ. Ortelius also refers to his “Letters” (Ort12) written in 1454.

Ort8.15, 12.25, 12.49, 75.12, 76.13, 77.13;

Epistles: Ort12.25, 12.49.

Cadmus or Kadmos, Greek Κάδμος, in Greek, Roman and Phoenician mythologies, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa. He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she had been abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus. Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named “Cadmeia” in his honor. Most significantly, he was accredited by the ancient Greeks like the famous Herodotus with the introduction of the original alphabet or Phoenician alphabet “phoinikeia grammata”, [Phoenician letters] to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet,which later on was introduced to the rest of Europe. Herodotus, who gives this account, estimates that Cadmus lived sixteen hundred years before his time, or around 2000 BC. Cadmus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Cæcilius Firmianus Lucius, see Lactantius.

Cæcilius Plinius Secundus, see Plinius Cæcilius.

Cælius Augustinus see Curio.

Cælius Secundus see Curio.

Cæriolanus see Furius Fredericus Seriolanus.

Cæsar Cæsarianus or Cesar Cesariano, early 16th c., was an Italian architect who helped to build the cathedral of Milan. He was commentator on Vitruvius and translated him into Italian (1521). He is mentioned once as a source in lemma TIBVR in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Cæsar, Julius, 100 - 44 BC., was military commander of the Romans. His works are written in the third person to convey an impression of objective history rather than personal memoir. They were often published and commented on, for instance by Phil. Beroaldus from Bologna, by Rhellicanus, and by Gaguin in French (Paris, 1539); also in lemma MAGETROBIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and by Blasius Vigenerius (1576). His best known work which survived in its entirety is “De bello Gallico” [the war against the Gauls] (Ort36,37,39,42,55,78,190,192 194,196,197,198,199,200), to which Ortelius refers 4 times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 9 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 24 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Also “Commentaries” on the wars in Africa, Alexandria and Spain, written by members of his staff, (Ort25,33,34,36,70,71,73,115,189,190, 192,194,196,200) which first appeared in print in 1471 in Venice, with numerous subsequent editions, including one by Manutius, and numerous references in “Synonymia” (1578), and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Ortelius bought a copy of these “Comments” from Plantin in 1570. These “Comments” are quoted by Vigenereus (Ort194). Caesar was edited by Rhellicanus. Caesar also wrote a report to “Arriovistus” (Ort199,200) and “De Bello Civili” [about the civil war] or “Civilium” (Ort47,192,196); also referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 14 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 25 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Cæsar is mentioned twice referring to his “Comments” in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L), 12 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), three times in “Synonymia” (1578), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 233 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Cæsar is altogether mentioned 236 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 273 times. In lemma VAHALIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a manuscript by Cæsar. This may be the manuscript described in a letter of Lipsius to Ortelius (Hessels 201) in which he thanks Ortelius for lending his Caesar manuscript.

Cæsar is mentioned once on mapsheet Ort17, once on Ort115, seven times on Ort191, twice on Ort192, three times on Ort197 and three times on map sheet Ort198; further in map texts:

Ort16.11, 16.24, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.30-32, 16.38, 16.42-43, 16.45, 16.48, 16.59, 16.62, 16.70, 17.5, 19.7, 19.67, 20.6, 25.8, 37.11, 38.2, 38.10, 39.2, 39.12, 44.4, 45.10, 47.2, 53.15, 54.4, 54.13, 58.40, 59.40, 63.2, 63.4, 63.10, 69.7, 72.2, 72.9, 72.10, 72.16, 72.23, 72.24, 73.2, 73.9, 73.10, 99.5, 107.2, 108.2, 115.3, 115.4, 115.5, 115.12, 119.3, 129.14b, 152.2, 153.2, 190.2, 190.4-6, 190.12, 190.15-19, 190.21, 190.31, 190.35-42, 190.47, 190.51-55, 190.58, 190.61, 191.8, 192.5, 192.9-15, 192.21, 192.26, 192.27-31, 192.34, 192.37, 192.62, 192.64, 192.86, 193.26, 194.3, 194.5, 194.8-12, 194.19, 194.20, 194.30, 194.31, 196.3, 196.4, 196.11, 196.17-19, 196.36-38, 196.43, 196.52, 196.62, 196.62, 196.63, 196.65. 196.72, 196.73, 196.81, 196.89, 196.96, 196.107-111, 196.116, 197.5, 197.15, 198.5, 198.15, 199.5, 199.8, 199.16, 199.18, 199.19, 199.20, 199.23, 199.25, 199.26, 199.28, 199.30, 199.36, 199.45, 199.48, 199.59, 199.61-63, 199.66, 199.67, 199.69, 199.70, 199.72, 199.73, 200.6, 200.8, 200.16, 200.20, 200.33, 200.36, 200.37, 200.38, 200.42, 200.43, 200.45, 200.48, 200.54, 200.60, 200.63;

De Bello Gallico [Wars against the Gauls]: Ort54.5, 54.14, 192.6, 196.7, 196.11, 196.43, 196.44, 196.77, 197.2; Bk.1: Ort55.11, 197.8, 197.9, 198.2, 198.8, 198.9, Bk.2: Ort42.4, 197.9, 197.15, 198.9, 198.15, Bk.5: Ort191.7, 192.62, 192.85, 197.3, 197.4, 198.3, 198.4, Bk.6: Ort78.12, 194.4, 199.16, 199.59, 200.33, 200.58, 200.59, Bk.7: Ort36.11, 37.15, 39.6, 196.43, 196.91, 196.100, Bk.11: Ort54.5;

Commentaries: Ort25.8, 33.61, 34.3, 34.9, 69.7, 70.7, 70.16, 71.7, 115.5, 115.7, 189.21, 190.34, 192.8, 192.30, 194.2, 194.3, 196.75, 196.91, Bk.1: Ort36.2, 36.3, 36.10, 36.15, 36.21, Bk.3: Ort196.8, 196.43, 196.44; Bk.4: Ort200.73, Bk.6: 196.75, 196.91, Bk.8 198.10;

Civil Wars: Bk. 5: Ort47.3, 192.6, Bk.3: Ort196.7;

Comments on French Wars Bk.1: Ort190.34, Bk.4: Ort200.73;

Cæsar’s Comments quoted by Vigenereus: Ort194.32;

Reporting to Ariovistus: Ort199.28, 199.72, 200.60, 200.73;

Rhellicanus' commentaries on Cæsar: Ort115.5, 115.12.

Cæsar Orlandi see Orlandi, Cæsar.

Cæsarius of Heisterbach, 1180 - 1240, born in Cologne, brother of Nazianzenus, became a Cistercian monk at the monastery of Heisterbach. Cæsarius wrote “Memorabilia” (Ort22,23) and “Dialogues Miraculorum” or “Libra VIII miraculorum” (Ort178,179,212), printed five times between 1475 and 1605. Ortelius bought two copies of this work from Plantin in 1591.

Memorabilia Bk.12: Ort22.29, 22,38, 23.26;

Dialogues: Ort178.7, 179.7, 212.26.

Caffaro, 1080 – 1164, was a Genoan crusader and chronicler who wrote the “Annals of Genoa”.

Ort126.11.

Cagno, Paolo or Paulus Canius, died about 1582, was a cartographer, born in Genova, who lived in Naples, and who designed a map of the Kingdom of Naples, Naples, 1582. Cagno and his Naples map were included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1595 onwards, but not used.

Caius, Ioannes or John Kees or John Keys, 6 October 1510 Norwich - 29 July 1573 London, was an English physician. In 1529 he was admitted as a student at what was then Gonville Hall, Cambridge, founded by Edmund Gonville in 1348, where he seems to have mainly studied divinity. After graduating in 1533, he visited Italy, where he studied under the celebrated Montanus and Vesalius at Padua; and in 1541 he took his degree in physics at Padua university. In 1543 he visited several parts of Italy, Germany and France and then returned to England. He wrote books about medicine such as “De libris Propriis” which is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text in the lemma FESVLÆ, and twice in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas FESVLÆ and VENTA.

Calaber or Calabrius or Calabrus Smyrnaeus, Quintus, also known as Kointos Smyrnaios, Greek: Κόιντος Σμυρναίος, late 4th c. AD., was a Greek epic poet whose “Posthomerica” continues the narration of the Trojan War. This epic in fourteen books covers the period between the end of Homerus “Ilias” and the end of the Trojan War. Its primary importance is as the earliest surviving work to cover this period, the archaic works in the Epic Cycle, which he knew and drew upon, having been lost.  The “Editio princeps” by Aldus Manutius was published at Venice, 1504 under the title “Quinti Calabri derelictorum ab Homero libri XIV. Venetiis: in aedibus Aldi”. Aldus calls him Quintus Calaber, because the only known manuscript of his poem was discovered at Otranto in Calabria by Cardinal Bessarion in 1450. His familiar name was first given him by his editor Lorenz Rhodomann, in 1577, who included a Latin translation by Michael Neander. He is quoted as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)  in the lemmas AMYRVS, CAVNVS, CEDEI and ELATAS, and is mentioned altogether 21 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 33 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Calaber is mentioned once as a source.

Calamæus, Joannes or Jean Chameau, fl. mid-16th century, seigneur of Lessay and Portail-Milly, was a lawyer in Bourges, France, with an interest in geography who wrote “L’histoire de Berry, contenant l’origine, antiquités, gestes, prouesses, priviléges et libertés des Berruyers avec particulière description du dit pays”, Lyon 1566, which includes a Berry or Biturigum map used by Ortelius (Ort39a), to which Ortelius refers as “Liber Gallicum” in his “Synonymia” (1578) and his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He was included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, mentioning his Biturigum map. He is mentioned twice as a source in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L). Calamæus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and twice in its text. He is also mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1598).

Mentioned in the cartouche of Ort 39a Berry as the maker of this map Ort39
Ort39.2, 39.3, 39.8

Calaminus, Georg see Röhrig.

Calcagninus, Cœlius, 1479 – 1541, from Ferrara, Italy wrote “Opera aliquot”, Basel, 1544, containing essays of encyclopedic learning. He is regarded as a forerunner of Copernicus. He is mentioned in the text of Ort213, Pontus Euxinus. In lemma TOMIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Calcagninus is mentioned as a source.

Ort213.13.

Calcedonensis concilium or the Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD, is considered by the Roman Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, the Old Catholics, and various other Western Christian groups to have been the fourth Ecumenical Council of seven. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon, or the city of Bithynia in Asia Minor, under the auspices of emperor Martianus, as indicated in lemmas QVIRENSIS and THESSALONICA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius refers to it 29 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 95 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Calcondylas see Chalcocondylas.

Calderinus or Caldoninus, Domitius, 1446 – 1478, was an Italian author who published and commented on Martialis’ “Epigrams” and Juvenalis’ “Satires”, Venice, 1488. He is mentioned as a source in lemma SVEL and VATINESSA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), and in lemma CARDVARVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is called Martialis’ commentator, and also in lemmas HERCVLEA VIA, PETVSIA, POTERON and RISA MORI, and in Calderinus’ more recent edition in PETERON, all in “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 9 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Calisthenes, fourth century BC., was a Greek philosopher, historian and a friend of Plutarchus. He participated in the travels of Alexander the Great and reported about them. He is quoted by Stobeus (Ort196).

Quoted by Stobeus: Ort196.23.

Callimachus, Greek: Καλλίμαχος was a Greek sculptor, goldsmith and poet who lived  at the end of the 5th century BC. He is quoted by Plinius, Bk. 34, § 92. According to Vitruvius he was the originator of the Dorian style as a result of seeing a Ionian capital, overgrown with acanthus leaves. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), as quoted by Plinius, and 9 times in its text. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers to his hymn “Dania” twice and to his “Hymnes” as sources. In this “Thesaurus” he is altogether mentioned 36 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Diana” is mentioned as a source in lemmas AMNISVS and LIMNÆ; his “Hymnus Cereris” is mentioned as a source in lemma CALLICHORVS, and his “Hymnus ad Iovem” in lemmas PANACRA and THENÆ. He is also quoted by Strabo according to lemma ARMONIS in “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 23 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Callimachus, Philippo Experiens, 1437 – 1496, of Italy later went to Poland. He was a member of the Roman Academy of Pomponius Lætus, fled to Buda, and in 1469 to Cracow. His love poems for the Polish girl Fannia, his writings on rhetoric and his Histories on Hungary and Poland are literary landmarks. The titles of his publications: “Rhetorica”, “Ad innocentium VIII de bello Turcico inferendo oratio”, “Historia de Rege Vladislao” and “De his quæ a Venetis tentata sunt”. In lemmas LIMNÆ and PANACRA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and in lemma CERYNIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Callimachus’ “Hymnus Dianæ” is referred to as a source. In lemma THENÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemma PHILLYRA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Callimachus’ “Hymnus in Jovem” is mentioned as a source. In lemma NIGRITÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Hymnus in Cererem” is mentioned as a source. Altogether, he is mentioned 20 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In “Thesaurus” (1596) “Hymnus in Apollinem” is mentioned as a source in lemmas AZIRIS and INOPVS and “Hymnus in Delum” in lemma PARTHENIVS. Altogether, he is mentioned 59 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort216.41, 217.18, 224.29, 226.10.

Callisthenes see Calisthenes.

Callistratus, Domitius, 1st c. BC., was a Greek historian who wrote about Heracles. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas ARCIROESSA and MOCATA of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Stephanus Byzantinus.

Callistus, Nicephorus Xanthopoulos, Greek: Νικηφόρος Κάλλιστος Ξανθόπουλος, fl. around 1320, of Constantinople, was the last of the Greek ecclesiastical historians. His “Historia Ecclesiastica”, in eighteen books, brings the narrative to 610; for the first four centuries the author is largely dependent on his predecessors, Eusebius, Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen, Theodoretus and Evagrius, his additions showing very little critical faculty; for the later period his labours, based on documents now no longer extant, to which he had free access, though he used them also with limited discrimination, are much more valuable. Langius edited Nicephorus’ “Historia Ecclesiastica”, Paris 1566. It is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma CELA. The work includes remarks on Constantine the Great, which is referred to in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). The “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) also mentions his edition of “Tripartita historia” as a source in the lemmas DINOPOLIS, LEDRENSIS, LYCVS, and NEOCÆSAREA. However, in lemma MERO and other lemmata, this work is attributed to Sozomenes, and elsewhere to Cassiodorus. See also “Tripartita Historia” Callistus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 16 times  in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 167 times as a source. Callistus’ “De Vitaliano Historia” is mentioned as a source in lemma SISTINENSE of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether he is mentioned 180 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). Callistus is also mentioned as a source on the map of Geographia Sacra, (Ort178).

Ort222.29, 232.3, 232.9, 232.20, 232.23.

Calpurnus Flaccus see Flaccus, Calpurnius.

Calpurnius, Gaius Piso, 1st century AD., was a prominent Roman patron of literature who led a conspiracy against emperor Nero and was killed as a result of it.

Ort193.53.

Calpurnius Titus Siculus, 1st c. AD, was a Roman bucolic poet. Eleven eclogues or courtly poems have been handed down to us under his name, of which the last four, from metrical considerations and express manuscript testimony, are now generally attributed to Nemesianus, who lived in the time of the emperor Carus and his sons, latter half of the 3rd century. Calpurnius Siculus is mentioned as a source in lemma LVCANAM and THALEÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort209.16.

Calvetus de Estrella or Stella see Stella Calvetus.

Calvius see Calvus.

Calvuete see Calvetus.

Calvus, Fabius, died in 1527, of Ravenna was a physician who translated the works of Hippocrates. He wrote about ancient Rome: “Antiquæ urbis Romæ cum regionibus simulachrum”,  Basel 1532, 1558. He is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort129.17.

Cambrensis Giraldus see Giraldus Cambrensis.

Camden, William, London 1551 - Chislehurst 1623, from London worked at the School of Westminster and was appointed “Clarencieux King-at-Arms in 1597. He wrote a geographical description of Great Britain called “Britannia sive florentissiomorum regnorum, Angliæ, Scotiæ, Hiberniæ et insularum adiacentium ex intima antiquitate chorographica descriptio”, 1586, London, (Ort16,19,22,23,192,194,196); also in lemmas ICCIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596), LOVENTINVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), LVCOPIBIA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), OSTIONES of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), PATRICII of “Thesaurus” (1596), REGVLBIVM  of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), SIADÆ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), TOLIAPIS “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and VAGNIACVM “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). It was written after the model which Blondus developed when he wrote about Italy, called “Italia illustrata”. He has some claim to be considered the founder, not merely of antiquarian studies, but also of the study of modern history. He founded the chair of history at Oxford, and claimed that political and ecclesiastical history cannot be separated. He wrote 4 letters to Ortelius in 1577 (twice) , 1578 (twice) (Hessels 71,72,78,145), in the first one mentioning the recent visit Ortelius paid to him in London. The British museum possesses in volume Jul.C.V six letters written by Ortelius to Camden on 7 November 1578, 10 October 1579, 1 April 1584, 25 November 1588, 5 October 1589 in which Ortelius recommends Lucas Deutecum as an engraver who can do better than he has done for an Epitome (the only time Ortelius refers to “his” Epitomes), and a letter on 20 March 1591. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma ADVRNVM Ortelius refers to Camden’s “Codex membraneus”, a manuscript on transparent parchment, as a source. In Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers 10 times to his “Brittannia” as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 12 times. Altogether, Camden is mentioned 236 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 288 times. Ortelius calls him “my good friend” (Ort192), lemma ICCIVS in “Thesaurus” (1596). He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (113.v, 21 September, 1577). Sweertius in his “Lacrymae” calls Camden a close friend of Ortelius.

Mentioned as contributing to the Great Britain map in cartouche Ort17;

Ort16.24, 16.70, 112.10, 161.6, 191.15, 192.8, 192.18, 192.42, 192.51, 192.77, 192.78, 192.90, 192.91;

Brittania: 16.61, 19.10b, 19.20, 22.30, 22.38, 23.26, 192.61, 194.30, 196.39, 196.64, 196.66, 196.105;

Scotland (probably a part of the work mentioned above): Ort19.32, 19.37, 19.45a, 19.45f, 19.45k

Cameracensis, Episcopus or Petrus de Alliaco or Pierre d’Ailly, 12th c., was bisbhop of Cambray, France, and author of sermons and homilies, first published in Strasbourg, 1490. Ortelius refers to his “Vita Gaugerici” in the lemma FANOMANTIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Camerarius or Kämmerer, Elias, c. 1530 – 1581, from Nürnberg was professor of mathematics in Frankfurt an der Oder. He contributed to Ortelius’ Brandenburg map (Ort97), and is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1592 onwards.

Camerarius, Joachimus the elder, 1500-1574,  was a humanist and philologist at the university of Leipzig, Germany. He is often confused with his son and namesake. Camerarius’ “Aeolia” explaining Greek and Latin terms for winds, printed in Nürnberg in 1535, was owned by Ortelius, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Together with Gilelmus Bussus he wrote “Diarum de fracturis” of which work Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1598.

Camerarius, Joachimus the younger, 1534 – 1598, of Nürnberg, Germany was a physician, botanist and scholar who corresponded with Mercator and Ortelius between 1577 and 1597 (Hessels, letters 70, 160, 169 & 304). He wrote “Symbola et Emblemata”, Nürnberg, 1590-1604, translated Symphosius into Greek, 1540, and wrote “De Philippi Melanchtonis ortu, totius vitæ curriculo et Morte”, Leipzig, 1592. He also wrote Letters to Ortelius (Ort194) which were published by Hessels, see above. The Itala Græcia maior map (Ort210) is dedicated to Camerarius. He refers to this Parergon map as a source in lemma MAGNAM GRÆCIAM of “Thesaurus” (1596). He was a good friend of Ortelius, Occo and Marcus Fugger. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 9 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 7 times as a source. In lemma TENEDOS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Camerarius quotes Ovidius. Altogether, he is mentioned as a source 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Sweertius in his “Lacrymae” calls Joachim Camerarius a close German friend of Ortelius.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Portugal map, Ort26, and also on the Itala Græcia maior map as the person to whom Ortelius dedicates this map, Ort210.

Letters to Ortelius: Ort194.32.

Camerarius, Philip, 1537 – 1624, was a German author who wrote “Meditationes Historiae”, first published in 1591. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1592. His “Comments on Homerus” are mentioned 7 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), among which he once refers to his Iliad b. Camerarius also wrote “Hortus”, published in Frankfurt, 1588, mentioned in Hessels (160) of 1588.

Camers, Johannes, 1468 – 1546, was born in Amerino, Italy. He was professor in Vienna from 1499, and published works by Claudianus Claudius in Vienna 1510, by Dionysius Apher in Vienna 1512, and Florus’ “Annotationum in Lucium Florum Libellus” in Vienna, 1511. He published and commented on Mela’s “De Situ Orbis”. Also: Plinius’ “Historiæ Naturalis”, Vienna 1514. Also Solinus as “G.J. Solinus, cum enarrationibus et indice Cameris” (Ort1,2,3), Vienna 1520. Camers is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 3 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 4 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) also 4 times, e.g. in lemmas SILVRVM and THANATOS (twice).

Commentaries on Solinus: Ort1.32, 2.32, 3.35.

Campanus, Flavius, also called Flavius Gioja, abt. 1300, was an Italian from Amalfi, and chaplain to Pope Urbanus IV. He is supposed to have invented the compass.

Ort12.22, 12.47.

Campanus, Joannes or Giovanni Antonio Campano, 1429 – 1477, was a learned bishop at the Italian court who wrote “Historia belli Ducis Braccii sive Brachii Perusini, ab anno 1368-1424” dealing with Andreas Braccius, and also a biography of Æneas Sylvius. Also “De Thrasymeni lacus præstantia” [On lake Perugia] (Ort130,136). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Campanus is censured as a heretic.

Lake Perugia: Ort130.13, 136.2, 136.5, 136.9.

Campegius see Champier.

Campense see Campensis.

Campensis, Albert, end 15th – beginning 16th century of Italy wrote “Lettera intorno le cose di Mascovia”, included in Ramusio’s Volume 2, Rome 1543.

Ort162.8.

Campi, Antonio see Campus, Antonius.

Campo, Florian del see Ocampo, Florian d’.

Campus, Antonius, 1525-1587, from Cremona, Italy worked as an architect, sculptor and painted church windows. Ortelius may have met him on his third journey to Italy (1577 - 1578). He wrote about the antiquities of Milan (Ort127), but also about his native city Cremona in “Cremona fedelissima citta nobilissima colonia de Romani rappresentata in disegno con suo contado”, Cremona, 1583 – 1585, which contains a map of Cremona that Ortelius used in his Theatrum (Ort127). He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1579 onwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Cremona map as its maker, Ort127; further in the map text:

On the antiquities of Milan: Ort127.5.

Candidus Panthaleon see Panthaleo, Candidus.

Candidus, Joannes or Giovanni Candida, abt. 1450 – 1500, was an Italian lawyer, historian and diplomat who wrote “Commentariorum Aquileiensium libri VIII” (Ort119,129), Venice, 1521. Candidus is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. He is once mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587).Candidus quotes Appianus Alexandrinus in lemma DESITIATES of “Thesaurus” (1596) and is mentioned as a source in lemma VERVCAM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

History of Aquileya: Ort119.11, 129.14c.

Cano, Melchior, 1508 – 1560, was an Italian professor in theology who wrote “Relectiones duae, una de sacramentis in genere, altera de sacramento poenitentiae”, published in Milan in 1580. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1592.

Canterus, Guilielmus or Willem Canter, Utrecht 1542 – Leuven 1575, studied history and the classics in Leuven and Paris and acquired a reputation as a lyrical poet. He was only 33 when he died in Leuven. He wrote a grateful letter to Ortelius in 1575 (Hessels 54) and wrote “Comments on Lycophron” which is referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) twice in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), and also “Novae Lectiones”, mentioned as a source in lemma MEDVANA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma LEVCOSIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 5 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 10 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 21 times.

Caoursin, Guilelmus, late 15th c., was a Belgian author who wrote “Rhodiorum vicecancellarii Rhodie obsidionis descriptio” on the siege of Rhodos under emperor Muhamet in 1480, printed in Brugge, 1484. Ortelius owned a copy of this book, now in the Royal Library of Brussels, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006).

Capella, Marcianus see Marcianus Capella.

Capelloni, Lorenzo, fl. late 16th c., of Ferrara, Italy published the book “Vita del principe Andrea Doria”. This Italian ruler lived from 1466 to 1560. The book was published in Ferrara, 1565. Ortelius bought a copy of it from Plantin in 1579 and another in 1580.

Capitolinus, Iulius, 4th century AD., is supposed to have written together with other historians “De Historia Augusta”, consisting of biographies of Roman emperors, including “Clodius Albinus” (Ort80), “Macrinus” (Ort218), “Maximinus” (referred to as a source in lemma HISTRICA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), “Marcus Aurelius” (referred to 2 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in lemma NARISCI of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in  VARISTI of “Thesaurus” (1596, of which Ortelius has various copies), “Gordianus” in lemmas FLAMINIA, NISIBIS and PRÆNESTINÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) and “Pertinax” (Ort211,218; also mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma SICILIA and in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma BARDAICI. In lemma ARCHIMEA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Capitolinus’ own “Vita” as a source. Capitolinus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 5 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 22 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 37 times as a source. In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Capitolinus is once mentioned as a source.

Ort80.35, 200.24, 232.10;

About Emperor Maximus 199.11, 199.52;

Life of Clodius Albinus: Ort80.9;

Macrinus: Ort218.27.

Life of Pertinax the Emperor: Ort211.14, 218.26.

Capiton Hieromartyr of Cherson, 4th c. AD., was one of seven bishops of the fourth century, known collectively as the Hieromartyrs of Cherson, who carried the Gospel of Christ into the northwest area of the Black Sea. Of the seven, all but one were martyred while pursuing their missionary activities. Capiton is mentioned as a source via Stephanus Byzantinus in lemmas MENEDEMIVM and PSIMADA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Capreolus or Capriolus, Elias or Helias, who died in 1519, from Brescia, Italy wrote a chronicle in twelve books about his native city: “Chronica de rebus Brixianorum ad Senatum populumque Brixianum opus” (Ort123), Brescia 1585. He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text, as quoted by Leander. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is once mentioned as a source in lemma VOBERNVM. In “Thesaurus” (1596) he is altogether mentioned 4 times as a source.

History of Brescia Bk.1-12: Ort123.2, 123.10, 123.13.

Capriolus see Capreolus.

Caraffa or Carrafa, Giovanni Battista, 16th century, from Naples, Italy, was a globe maker who wrote a history of Naples: “Dell’ historia del Regno di Napoli”, 1572. Ortelius refers to this as a source once in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma SIRENVSÆ. He is also mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) twice, e.g. in the lemma SAMNITES. Altogether he is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In “Thesaurus” (1596) Caraffa is also altogether mentioned as a source 4 times, e.g. in lemmas PARTHENOPE and SAMNITES.

Ort139.10.

Caranus or Corinus, Lælius, Greek: Κάρανος, 808 - 778 BC., was the first king of ancient Macedonia according to later traditions. According to Herodotus, the first king was Perdicas. King Caranus is first reported by Theopompus (FGrH, No. 115, Frag. 393). It is unclear what he has written. He is mentioned 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is mentioned once as a source in lemma SYRTES.

Cardanus, Hieronymus or Girolamo Cardano, 1501 – 1576, of Gallerate near Milan, was the author of many scientific words, such as “Ars magna”, Nürnberg 1545, on algebra, “De subtilitate rerum”, Nürnberg 1550, Paris, 1561, the most advanced presentation of physical knowledge at the time, and a very remarkable autobiography “De propria vita liber”, a true masterpiece completed at the end of his life. Cardanus follows Suetonius as his model, which means that he does not offer a systematic chronological survey of his life, but short chapters on various aspects of his life and work, such as chapter 37 on his famous dream of about 1534.

Ort19.21.

Cardondelet, Jacobus de see De Carondelet.

Cardulus, Fulvius or Fulvio Cardulo, 12th c., was an Italian author who wrote “In urbem Romam”, “De componenda Oratione” and “Vitae sanctorum martyrum”, published in Rome, 1584, 1588. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas CAPREOLVM, GAVIS and in TIBVR of “Thesaurus” (1596), where his “Notes ad Getulius” is mentioned as a source.

Carilephus, Saint of Calais, fl. 6th c., was abbot of Anille, Northwest France. His “Life” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma ANINSVLA.

“Carmina Feminarum” is an anonymous book of poetry printed by Plantin in 1567. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1572.

Carolus Bovillus see Bouillus.

Carolus Clusius see Clusius, Carolus.

Carolus of Malines see Malines, Carolus of.

Carpenteius, Juan, fl. late 16th c., was a Spanish author who wrote “In Vaticinis Isaiae Prophetae”, published by Plantin in 1588. Next year, Ortelius bought a copy of this work.

Carrion or Carrio or Cario or Carrius, Louis, Brugge 1547 - Leuven 1595, was a humanist of Spanish descent who taught civil law in Leuven and who edited works by Cassiodorus, Sallustius and Valerius Flaccus. This last author is referred to as a source by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578)). He edited and published Caius Flaccus’ “Argonautica” (1565), and Sallustius (1579) of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1580, and edited the first Turkish letter by Busbequius, Antwerp 1581. Ortelius bought a copy of his “Emendatio” from Plantin in 1583. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In its text, he is mentioned once. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 4 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 6 times. He was a friend and contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 44 v., 45, 1575)

Cartari, Vincenzo, born in Reggio Emilia in Italy, 1531 – 1569, wrote “Le Imagini con la Spositioni de i Dei de gli antichi” [Images of the gods], published in Venice in 1556 by Francesco Marcolino. A second edition appeared in the same year, published by Francesco Rampazetto. A third edition was published by Giordani Ziletti in 1571. This book was a treatise on the Graeco-Roman pantheon. Cartari is referred to as a source in “Deorum Dearumque Capita” but wrongly spelled as Catarrus. Ortelius bought (another?) copy of Cartari’s book from Plantin in 1592.

Carthago, Council or Synod: the first council, held in 251 is mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596); the 3rd Council, 397 AD., is mentioned 9 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). The 4th Council, 401 AD., is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). The 7th council is mentioned 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). A council of Carthago without number is given 49 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 80 times in  “Thesaurus” (1596). See also Cyprianus, who was one of its organisers and Augustinus’ “Collatio Carthageniensis” .

Cartier, Iacobus or Jacques, 1491 – 1557, was a French sea explorer who provided material to Gastaldi for his China map.

Ort9.46, 10.46, 11.49.

Carthier see Cartier.

Carvajal Mármol Luis see Mármol Carvajal Luis de.

Casas or Casavo, Bartholomé de las, 1474 – 1566, was a Spaniard appointed as a bishop in Chiapa, Mexico. He wrote “Brevissima relacion de la destruccion de las Indas” [a short history of the destruction of the Indies] (Ort15), Sevilla, Spain 1552, and also “Tyrannies et cruantez des Espangols perpetréez aux Indes occidentales” Antwerp 1579, possibly a translation of the first work. He complained bitterly about the Spanish atrocities committed in America.

The Destruction of the Indies: Ort15.16.

Casaubonus see Causabonus.

Caspar Peucer see Peucer, Caspar.

Casparo Balbi see Balbi Casparo.

Cassianus, Ioannes, Saint, 360 – 435, was a theologian and hermit who wrote “De institutis coenobiorum”, “De institutes renuntiandum” and “Confessio Theologica”. His complete works were published in Basel in 1575. Ortelius refers to him as a source in the lemma DIOLCOS of his “Thesaurus” (1578) and twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587), e.g. in lemma PANEPHYSIS. In lemmas DIOLCOS and PANEPHYSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Cassianus is again mentioned as a source.

Cassiodorus, Flavius Magnus Aurelius, 485 – 580, was a Christian Roman statesman and writer. He was consul and pursued a public career until the 540s. He then retired to his estate to devote himself to scholarship and the Christian life as a monk in a monastery. He founded a monastery for this purpose at Vivarum in Calabria. He published twelve books of “Variarum Epistulæ” (Ort121,122,129,140,143,196,200,203,206,210,224; also mentioned 6 times as a source by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578), 60 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 56 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In it: “Letter  to“Gaudiosus” (Ort129), to “Theonem”, mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in lemma HYDRVS of “Thesaurus” (1596), to “Faustus” mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma CHATHALIENSIVM. Further to “Beatus” in “Thesaurus” (1587), to “Sabinianus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), to “Severus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, twice in 1596) to “Ioannes Liquatarius” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)), to “Maximus Cancellarium” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), to “Domitianus” in “Thesaurus” (1587), to “Voila” in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), to “Theobaldus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), to “Theodoriolus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and to “Florianus”, to “Feltrinos” and to Herminafridus” in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). and in lemma HOSTILIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) to “Dromanarios” of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Cassiodorus also wrote “Institutiones”, a guide for the religious and secular education of monks, including how to copy manuscripts. Ortelius refers to his “De Orthographia” in the lemma DALMANA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma HISTER of “Thesaurus” (1596). Cassiodorus also wrote or contributed to “Tripartita Historia” which Ortelius includes in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578) as a separate source. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers 5 times to his “Chronicon”, also mentioned as a source in lemmas BRONTOTAS, DVCA, ISONTIVS and PONS of “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he refers 8  times to his “Tripartite History” published in Lyon in 1534 (sometimes without mentioning its author), twice to his “Variorum ad Saturninum”,  and twice to his “De Divinis Lectionibus” in lemma PELLENA in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and VIVARIENSE in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) as sources. His “Chronicon” is mentioned once as a source twice in “Thesaurus” (1596). Cassiodorus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and is mentioned 10 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 60 times as a source, including a “letter to Anastasius”. In lemma DELMATIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Geographia” is mentioned as a source, in lemma NERONIANA his “Ad Aloisium”.and in lemma SANNII his “Ad Guduim Saionem” is mentioned as a source. In lemma VVLTVRNVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Cassiodorus quotes Cuspinianus. Cassiodorus is altogether mentioned 96 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort3.20, 124.8a, 196.49, 199.18, 199.61, 200.36, 209.13-18, 214.25;

Epistles: Ort121.4, 122.4, Bk.8, last Epistle: Ort210.15;

Variarum: Ort140.19, 196.49; Bk.2 Ch.35-36: Ort129.4, Bk.3 Ch.50: Ort200.33, dedicated to Symeon: Ort203.32, Bk.7 Sect.15: Ort208.9, Bk.7 Ch.37: Ort196.16, Bk.12: Ort121.8, 122.8, 143.16, 203.43, 210.14, 211.2, 224.28, Bk.12 Sect.24: Ort206.10;

Variæ to Gaudiosus Bk.2: Ort129.14.

Cassius Dio see Dion, Cassius.

Cassius Dionysius , 2nd c. BC., of Utica was an ancient Greek agricultural writer. The Roman name Cassius, combined with the Greek cognomen, Dionysius, make it likely that he was a slave or perhaps a prisoner of war, originally Greek-speaking, who was owned and afterwards freed by a Roman of the “gens Cassia”. Cassius Dionysius compiled a farming manual in Greek, now lost. Its title was “Georgika [agriculture]; it was divided into twenty books, and was dedicated by its author to the Roman praetor Sextilius. He is referred to as a source in lemma ACRAMAVMORIVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1596).

Cassius Hemina, 2nd century AD., was a Roman writer who is quoted by Solinus (Ort223). Cassius is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in lemma CRVSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Servius.

Quoted by Solinus: Ort223.10.

Castaldi see Gastaldi.

Castaldus see Gastaldi.

Castalio, Josephus or Giuseppe Castiglione  of Ancona, Italy, who died in 1616, was a lawyer who wrote a book about ancient first names and their meaning. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma CENTVM CELLÆ. Altogether, he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In “Thesaurus” (1596) Castalio is mentioned 8 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas GOG, PENEVS, RAGEIA and SERRA.

Castanheda Lopez de, Ferdinand see Lopez de Castanheda.

Casteels or Castelius or Castellus, Jan of Gheluwe, who died in 1573, was a philologist and grammarian who became a priest in Zomergem and who published various works including “L’Epithetorum farraginem ..” Plantin, 1573. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1574 (Hessels 51). He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 116 on July 31, 1573).

Castiglioni or Castilleonius, Bonaventura, 1487 – 1555, who died in 1573  was a monk and historiographer of Milan, Italy who wrote “De Gallorum Insubrum antiquis sedibus” (Ort125); also mentioned as a source in lemma ATISO of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), of which only the first volume was published by the printer Antonio Castiglioni in 1541. He prepared a map of Lombardy and is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards. Castiglioni is also mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 12 times in its text. He is mentioned 10 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 16 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort 206.10; Treatise on the Insubres: Ort125.7.

Castillion see Castiglioni.

Castro, Fernando de, and Andrade, late 16th century, Count of Lemnos, of Villalva and Andrade, Arques de Sarria etc.

Mentioned as the person to whom the Galizia map (Ort32)is dedicated in the cartouche.

Catarrus, Vincentius, 16th c., is an Italian author who wrote about images of gods in antiquity in Italian. He is mentioned as a source in the preface of Ortelius’ “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Cato, Marcus Porcius Maior, 234 - 149 BC., was a Roman statesman with very pronounced opinions, particularly about the necessity for Rome to destroy Carthago. He wrote “Origines” (Ort130,206,207,208); also referred to 10 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), also via Barrius, 28 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), also via Probus Grammaticus, and “Fragmentae” which is part of “De Originibus” as appears from lemma LARTHENIANVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). To this work Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587) repeatedly. Ortelius also mentions his “Oratio de Consulatu” once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma GALLICVS. In “Thesaurus” (1587), Ortelius refers to Cato’s “Fragment”, see above, 7 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 11 times. Cato quotes Cicero (Ort211). He is mentioned 12 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 8 times in “Synonymia” (1571, 1573, 1574, 1575), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 29 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 81 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 83 times.

Mentioned four times on map sheet Ort207 and five times on Ort208; further in texts: Ort23.8, 117.33, 118.33, 193.53, 204.4, 205.4;

Origines: Ort130.13, 206.5, 207.2, 207.4, 208.2, 208.4;

Quoting Cicero: Ort211.5;

Quoted by Annius: 131.25.

Catullus, Gaius Valerius the Poet, 87 - 54 BC., wrote “Argonautics (Ort231); also referred to as a source in lemma GOLGI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), something which has now been challenged by classical scholars, and “Carmina”. He was commented on by Ianus Dousa (Ort222); also in lemma MELA of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and three times in “Synonymia” (1578). In his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to Catullus’ “Ad Sirmionem” as a source in the lemma BENACVS. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 7 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Catullus’ “Ad Lesbiam” is quoted as a source in lemma BATTI, and Catullus is altogether mentioned 13 times. Catullus is mentioned as a source 3 times in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Catullus is once mentioned on map sheet 206 as having been born in Sirmio. Further in map texts:

Ort123.11, 123.13, 123.15, 159.8 [wrong attribution], 193.18, 193.54, 213.8, 226.97 231.23;

Argonautics: Ort231.5, 231.14;

Commented on by Ianus Dousa: Ort222.33.

Causabonus, Isacus or Casaubonus, or Casaubon or Hortibonus, Isaac, 1559 – 1614, “the learned and industrious” from Geneva was a philologist who also wrote about satires in his “De satyrica Græcorum poesi et Romanorum satira libri II”, Paris, 1605. He translated Polybius and commented on Straboes “Geography” (Ort196,209); also mentioned as a source in lemmas AEMARORVM, ARBIS, CALOS LIMEN, CVTILIÆ, MERODIPA and PYDNA of “Thesaurus” (1596) where he is called “doctissimus”, and also on  Cæsar, (Ort196), and Tacitus. Ortelius bought a copy of the last mentioned work from Plantin in 1583. Causabonus also edited Theocritus, a copy of which Ortelius bought in 1595. Causabonus quotes Dion Prusæus (Ort212). In lemma ARTACENA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Causabonus’ “Commentaria” as a source, and in lemmas COLON, LALETANI and SARDA to a manuscript by Causabonus. Altogether Causabonus is mentioned 175 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort193.52;

Commenting on Strabo: Ort196.79, 209.24;

Commenting on Cæsar: Ort196.37;

Quoting Dion Pruseus: Ort212.16.

Cavitellio, Ludovico,whodied in 1586, was an abbot in Cremona, Italy who published “Annales Cremonenses”, printed by his nephew Cæsar Cavitellio in 1588, and also a “History of Milan” (Ort127).

History of Milan: Ort127.5.

Cavriolo see Capreolus.

Çayas, see De Çayas.

Cedrenus, George, 11th century, wrote “History of Theodosius the Great” (Ort214) as part of his “Annales seu Chronicon”, relating lives of Roman Emperors, including Hadrianus. His “Bellum Heraclij cum Cosroe” is mentioned as a source in lemmas NARBAS and SIAZVR of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Cedrenus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 14 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 389 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 425 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Cedrenus is mentioned once on map sheet Ort214; further in texts Ort224.10, 224.18, 224.24, 224.25, 232.15, 232.24, 232.33;

History of Theodosius the Great: Ort214.34.

Cella, Christopher & Ancelmus see Zell, Christoph.

Celsius, fl. late 16th c., was a classical scholar who wrote “Historia Biblica Regiae” and also “Epistolae”, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1586.

Celsus, Aulus Cornelius, abt. 25 BC – abt. 50 AD, was a Roman encyclopedist about whom little is known. Of his encyclopedia “Artes” 8 books dealing with medicine survive. These survey the whole field of medicine then known in Rome, including diets, diseases, pharmaceuticals and surgery. It was rediscovered in the 15th century and became very popular because of its simple but elegant style, published in Lyon, 1554.

Ort196.91, 203.28, 217.4.

Celsus Cittadinus Angelerius, 1553 – 1617, was an Italian writer who discussed the relation between Latin and Italian. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas ARICIA, INTE RAMNIA,MVTVSCÆ, MYRTHETA, SABBATVS, SERNICIVM, SVMMVRANVM and VIBO VALENTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) in the form of a letter from Rome to Ortelius. In lemmas BVCA, DOMITIANÆ, IANVVIVM, PRVSA, TACINA, TEANVM, TIFERNVM, TRVNOVS, TYRVS and VERETVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers again to a work written by Celsus which was sent to Ortelius from Rome, concerning comments on Antoninus’ “Itinerarium” . Celsus wrote comments on Strabo, as appears from the letter L’Heureux wrote to Ortelius in 1595 (Hessels 269). Celsus also wrote comments on Frontinus’ “De coloniis”, of which L’Heureux sent a copy to Ortelius in 1597 (Hessels 310). In lemma SYMBRII of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius calls Celsus “my friend”. Altogether Celsus Cittadinus is mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 78 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Celtes see Celtis.

Celtis, Conradus Protucius Peutingerius, 1459 – 1508, of Nürnberg wrote “Septenaria sodalitas litteraria Germaniæ”, published in Vienna in 1500. It is a celebration of German literary brotherhood in which he lets seven poets speak from the banks of the rivers Danube, Vistula, Oder, Elbe, Drave, Rhine and Neckar. He initiated German classical and historical scholarship, and established a number of learned societies after the model of Italian academies. He discovered in a monastery a poem called “Ligurinus sive de gestis Frederici I libri X”, a description of the battles which Frederick Barbarossa fought with the Milan people whom he calls Ligures, written by Guntherus Ligurinus. Celtis gave it to K. Peutinger who published it in 1507. In 1531 an edition appeared by J. Spiegel in Strasbourg. In 1569 a new edition was published by Otto von Freising in Basel, Switzerland which also included a biography of Friedrich I. He also published “Protucii primi inter Germanos Imperatoris manibus Poete laureati IV libri Amorum,” Nürnberg 1502. Ortelius calls him Poet Laureate (Ort99),.

Ort56.7, 57.8, 111.6, 112.6, 194.32, 194.33, 227.3-6, 227.11, 230.12;

On Nurnberg: Ort99.21.

Cenalis see Cœnalis.

Ceneau, Robert see Cœnalis.

Censorinus, Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer, fl. 3rd century AD. He was the author of a lost work “De Accentibus” and of an treatise “De Die Natali”, which is still extant, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift. The contents are of a varied character: the natural history of man, the influence of the stars and genii, music, religious rites, astronomy, and the doctrines of the Greek philosophers. The chief authorities used were Varro and Suetonius. Some scholars, indeed, hold that the entire work is practically an adaptation of the lost “Pratum” of Suetonius. The fragments of a work “De Natali Institutione”, dealing with astronomy, geometry, music and versification, and usually printed with the “De Die Natali” of Censorinus, are not by him. Part of the original manuscript, containing the end of the genuine work, and the title and name of the author of the fragment are lost. Ortelius refers once to his “De Die Natali” as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma CYDROPIA. Ortelius bought a copy of “De Die Natali” from Plantin in 1582.

Cepha, Moses Bar who died in 950, was an Armenian theologian translated by Masius (Ort178,179).

Translated by Masius: Ort178.8, 179.8.

Cepio see Coriolanus.

Cerceau, Baptiste du, 1545 – 1590, was a French architect who wrote “Les plus excellents bastiments de France” in two volumes, published in Paris, 1576, 1579. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1579.

Chalcedonensis, Concilium see Calcedon.

Chalcocondylas or Chalcondylas or Chalkondylas, Laonicus, abt. 1423 – 1511, of Athens, was a Byzantine historian who wrote about the Turks in “Apodeixis ‘istoriwn” or “Pedigree of the Ottomans” (Ort168,169), which was translated into German by Konrad Clauser and published in Basel, 1556. Its contents have been included in the Chronology of David Chytræus (Ort155). He also seems to have written “Peregrinations” (Ort130). Chalcocondylas is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 10 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 96 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 109 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort56.9, 57.10, 125.8, 144.15, 163,9;

Pedigree of the Ottomans: Ort16.15, 16.24, 168.9, 169.8;

Bk. 1 & 3: Ort155.16; Bk. 2: Ort34.9, 36.21, 155.17; Bk. 5: Ort25.9, 125.10, 153.8; Bk.10 Ort145.20, 147.18;

Peregrinations Bk. 6: 130.13.

Chalcondylas see Chalcocondylas.

Chalcondyles see Chalcocondylas.

Chaldæus, Antipater, 2nd c. BC., was a Chaldaean astrologer from Syria who lived in Greece. He is quoted by Vitruvius. Ortelius refers to him as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in the lemma ACHOR, and in the lemma ALLON BACHVT. Altogether Chaldæus is mentioned 69 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 83 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Chalderinus, Domitius, late 15th c., was an Italian scholar who commented on Suetonius’ “Twelve Caesars” and on Silius Italicus. He is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Chaloner, Sir Thomas, late 16th c., was an English poet and diplomat who wrote “De Republica Anglorum instauranda”,  London, 1579. Ortelius instructed Jacob Cools to send a copy of this book to Jacob Monau in 1592 (Hessels 212).

Chameau, see Calamæus

Champier, also Campegius Symphorian or Symphorianus, 1472 – 1533,  of Lorraine, and his son Claudius, were productive authors whose works contain much geographical information. Father Symphorian, who was a physician, wrote “Recueil ou chronique des histoires du Royaume d’Austrasia ou France orientale , dite à présent de Lorraine” Lyon, 1505. Also “Les grands Chroniques des princes de Savoie et de Piedmont, ensemble les généalogie et antiquités de Gaule”, Paris 1516, and “Traité de l’anciennité et noblesse de l’antique cité de Lyon et de la rébellion du populaire de ladite ville contre les conseillers de la cité et notables marchands, à cause de bleds” 1529, also translated into Latin under the anagram “Pierchamp”, and “Campus Elysius Galliæ amœnitate refertus, in quo quicquid apud Indos, Arabas et Pœnos reperitur apud Gallos reperiri demonstratur”, Lyon 1533. Claudius, the son, wrote “Traité des fleuves et fontaines admirables des Gaules” (Ort34,36), Paris, 1560, Lyon, 1573, by Ortelius wrongly attributed to the father. Claudius also wrote “Singularitez des Gaules”, Paris, 1538, “Catalogue des villes et cités assises ès trois Gaules” (Ort34,36), and “Traité des lieux saints des Gaules, où Notre-Seigneur, par l’intercession des saints, fait plusieurs miracles” Lyon, 1556. He is mentioned twice in the “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L).

Ort50.2, 50.11, 50.14, 50.23

Rivers and Waters of France: Ort34.9, 36.21;

The First French Towns: Ort34.9, 36.21.

Charcus see Charke.

Charisius Flavius see Sosipater.

Charke or Charcus, William, Cambridge 1530 – 1600, was one of the leading puritans in England, which led to his expulsion from Cambridge, where he taught. He wrote attacks against Jesuits. He collected coins and medals, wrote 3 letters to Ortelius in 1582, 1583 & 1584 (Hessels 115, 121, 140) and also contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (100v-101, November 4, 1577).

Charlemagne or Carolus Magnus or Charles the Great, 2 April 742 – 28 January 814, was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned “Imperator Augustus” by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 which temporarily made him a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, he helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the rulers lists of France, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. He is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius “Synonymia” (1578), 3 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in Thesaurus” (1596). Those who have described his deeds are mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemma AVSTRASIA. Egeinhardus wrote “sua vita” or his “Life”. It is mentioned in the same “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemma CAMPI LAPIDEI and in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas DATALARIA and HARISTALLIVM, again mentioning “sua vita”, written shortly after his death. Charlemagne’s “Contra Imagines” is mentioned as a source in lemma FOCIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Chassanæus see Chasseneux.

Chasseneux or Chasseneuz, Barthélemy de, 1480 – 1501, wrote “Catalogus gloriæ mundi” (Ort34,36), Lyon, 1529, Frankfurt, 1579. Also “Commentaria in consuetudines ducatus Burgundiæ principaliter et totius fere Galliæ consecutive”, Lyon, 1517. He is once mentioned as a source in lemma SAMAROBRINA of“Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

De Gloria Mundi Bk.12: Ort34.8, 36.20.

Chaumeau, Jean see Calamæus.

Checus, Ioannes or Sir John Cheke, 1514 – 1557, wrote “De pronuntiatione Græcæ …”, Basel, 1555, and “De bellico apparatu liber e Græco in Latinum conversus Leo Imperium Byzantinum ”, Basel, 1554, (Ort203).

Ort203.39.

Chemnitius, Martin, fl. late 16th c., of Chemnitz, Germany, was a humanist who wrote “Harmonia Evangelia”, a work continued by Polycarpus Lyserus. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1592.

Chiaves, Hieronymus or Jeronimo de Chavez,1523 - 1574, a Spanish cosmographer from Sevilla, Spain, was the son of cartographer Alonso de Ch(i)aves. Hieronymus went to Portugal and published a work on astrology in 1543, and also one on cartography, called “De Sphera Mundo”, published in Sevilla. Ortelius’ “Catalogus Auctorum” in the “Theatrum” from 1573 onwards mentions a manuscript map of America by him, which has been lost. Ortelius used Chiaves’ manuscript map of Andalusia (Ort28). Chiaves provided Ortelius with data for his Florida map (Ort15) on the basis of an expedition to that area by Hernando de Soto, made from 1539 to 1542.

Mentioned as author of the Florida map in cartouche Ort15.

Mentioned in cartouche as the maker of the Hispalensis map Ort28.

Chius Scytinus see Scytinus.

Choniates, Nicetas see Nicetas Choniates.

Choul see Du Choul.

Choyselat, Prudent, fl. 2nd half 16th c., was a French author who wrote “Discours Oeconomiques”, published in Paris in 1569. It was translated into English in 1580 and is the first book on poultry. Ortelius bought two copies from Plantin in 1569.

Christianus Prolianus Balbanensis, Roman times, was an astronomer who wrote “Astronomia”. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578).

Christmann, Jacob, 1554 – 1613, was a German Orientalist who also studied problems of astronomy. Christmann, a Jew who was converted before 1578 to Christianity, studied Orientalistics at the University of Heidelberg's Collegium Sapientiae and became teacher at the “Dionysianum”. His “Epistolae” are mentioned in a letter from Lipsius to Ortelius in 1591 (Hessels 201).

Christophersonius, Ioannes, fl. middle 16th c., was an English theologist who wrote “Jephtha”, published in Canterbury in 1544, and “Historia Ecclesiastica”, published in Cologne. Ortelius bought two copies of this “Historia” from Plantin in 1589.

Christosomus Zanchi see Chrystosomus.

Christoval Juan see Calvetus.

Chrysantus Boiß (unidentified), is a German author who reports “very humanly and learnedly” about inscriptions in German Dallendorf, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemma TALLIATES, and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas CAESIA and TALLIATES, quoting him at some length.

Chrystosomus, see Chrysostomus.

Chrysostomus, Ioannes, Saint of Naples,345 – 407, came from Antiochia. He wrote letters/sermons. He also wrote a letter to Count Nugarolo (Ort79), and is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote “Homiliae”, mentioned in Hessels (145), mentioned as being sent to Ortelius by Camden. See also next lemma.

Ort232.12, 232.15, 232.17, 232.33;

Letter to Count Nugarolo: Ort79.21; 

Chrysostomus, Zanchus,15th century, (but see previous item) from Bergano, Italy, was an Augustine monk. He wrote “Sermo de Penitentia” published in 1483, and “De Orobiorum Cenomanorum origine libri III” (Ort123) which is of little significance since it is mainly based on Annius’ falsifications, and since he tries to derive Italian words from Hebrew. He is mentioned 6 times as a source, e.g.  in lemma OTESINI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas BRIXIA, CENOMANI, IVVENATIVM and OTESINI.

Origins of the Orobij and Cenomanes: Ort123.10.

Chyonarinus, Antonius (unidentified) wrote a work called “Bacchanalibus cum Cromero” referred to as a source in lemma CHRONVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Chytræus, David, 1531 – 1600, of Kochafe, professor in Greek and Latin in Rostock and Bremen continued “Saxonia” (Ort58,59,85,87,90,91,92,97,144,145,155,157,158,159,160,161,162,163; also mentioned as a source in lemma CHALVSVS, PHABIRANVM and VANDALI of “Thesaurus” (1596)) begun by Krantz. He also published a description of Kraichgau, Germany, and a “Chronology” containing work by Chalcocondylas, translated into Latin by Konrad Clauser, Rostock, 1573, Frankfurt am Main, 1583. Chytræus also wrote “De Russorum et Tartarorum Religione”. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin of this work in 1582. David Chytraeus is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma TARSVS.

Ort93.4, 114.4;

Saxon history: Ort58.7, 59.7, 85.13, 87.9, 90.12, 91.8, 92.2, 92.15, 92.17, 97.19, 144.15, 145.20, 155.16, 157.18, 158.8, 158.17, 159.6, 160.18, 161.29, 162.8, 163.9

Bk.5 Ch.27: 92.11;

Chytræus, Nathan, Mensingen 1543 – Bremen 1598, was a brother of David. He was a poet, and professor in Greek and Latin in Tübingen, Rostock and Bremen. In 1565 he travelled through Italy, France, England and Poland resulting in “N. Chytræi variorum in Europa itinerum deliciæ”, published in Rostock, 1579, and Bremen, 1594 & 1599. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1594. Chytræus also wrote a collection of travel tales in hexameter verse: “Hodœporica, sive itinera a diversis clarissimis doctissimisque viris, tum veteribus tum recentioribus, carmine conscripta”, published in Frankfurt in 1575. See also above. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1593 (Hessels 238).

Ciaccones, F. Alphonso, 16th century, wrote “Vitæ et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum” (Ort212) and is reported on by Philippus van Winghe in a letter to Ortelius (Hessels 170.46). Ortelius owned Ciaccones’ work “Historia utrusque Belli Dacici a Traiano Caesare Gesti, ex Simulachris quae in Columna Eiusdem Romae Visuntur Collecta, Rome” (1576), signed with his name, now in the Plantin Moretus Museum, as reported in Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). In lemma ITALICA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to this work as a source twice, and in lemmas MACALLA and MACELLA once. In lemma PONS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Ciaccones’ quoting Cuspinianus.

Ort212.8.

Ciacconius, Petrus Toletanus or Pedro Chacon, 16th c., was a Spanish author from Toledo who wrote commented on Varro’s  “De re rustica”, referred to as a source sent to Ortelius in 1592 (Hessels 213).

Cicero, Marcus Tullius “the Orator”, 106 - 43 BC., wrote “Orations”, as edited by Carbone, and Giorgio Merula (Ort141,186,196,210,211,214,215); also referred to as a source in “Synonymia” (1578) and in lemma PHRYGIA of “Thesaurus” (1596),
“Tusculan Disputationes” (Ort1,2,3); also referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596),
“Offices” (Ort19), once in “Thesaurus” (1596) and twice in “Deorum Dearum” (1573),
“Scipio’s Dream (Ort221; also referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596),
“Republica” (Ort3),
“Letter to Trebatius” (Ort16, 190, 192), also mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 3 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), which form part of his
“Epistulæ”, 14 times referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further
“De Provincijs Consularibus” (Ort196), also mentioned as a source in lemma HIGNATIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).
“De Divinatione”, referred to 3 times by Ortelius as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587), 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).
“De finibus”, mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and once in “Thesaurus” (1596),
“Natura Deorum” (Ort3,220,221); also mentioned 7 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 10 times in “Deorum Dearum” (1573),
“De Legibus agrariae contra Rullum” (Ort224); also referred to 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), 10 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 3 times in “Deorum Dearum” (1573),
“De Consolatione”, edited by Sigonius of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1584,
“Ad Verrem”  to which Ortelius refers 14 times in his “Synonymia”(1578), 36 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), 32 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and twice in “Deorum Dearum” (1573),
“Academica” to which Ortelius refers once in his “Synonymia” (1578), and twice in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemmas CIMMERII and HORTENSIS.
“Ad Fonteius”, mentioned twice in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) as a source,
“Ad P. Quinctius”, mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma GALLICANVS.
“Pro Cluentius” to which Ortelius refers once in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587), and twice in “Thesaurus” e.g. in lemma LARINATES.
“Oratio ad Vatinium” (Ort203)
“Pro Cneius Plancius”, mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).
Ortelius refers to his work “De inventione” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) under the lemma EVROTAS.
Ortelius refers once to Cicero’s “Ad Catalinam” in “Synonymia” (1578), 10 times in “Thesaurus (1587), and 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).
Twice to his “Philippica” in the lemma REMONTIVM and VICVS VALERIVS of “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemmas CASSIA, REMONIVM, RVBRA SAXA and VICVS and 6 times in lemmas CASSIA, PRÆMONSTRATVM, REMONIVM, RVBRA SAXA, TIBVR and VICVS in “Thesaurus” (1596).
“Ad Quintum fratrem” is mentioned twice as a source in lemmas LABRO and VITVLARIÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in lemmas BOVILLÆ, DIONYSIOPOLIS, LABRO and VITVLARIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596).
“Ad Papirium Pætum” in lemma SELICIANA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).
Cicero also wrote “Oratio pro L. Flacco (Ort215, also referred to 4 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).
“Pro A. Cæcina” in lemma TARQVINIENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).
Cicero quotes Marcus Cato (Ort211; also mentioned as a source in lemma AMANVS of “Thesaurus” (1596)).
Ortelius bought “Opera” by Cicero from Plantin in 1578.
Cicero also wrote “Letters to Atticus”, mentioned 5 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 32 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 58 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) of which Ortelius bought two copies from Plantin in 1586.
Cicero’s “Familiaribus ad Leptam” is mentioned as a source in lemmas PETRINVM and STATELATES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas ARAE, ARDA, ARGENTEVS (twice), CYBISTRA, PETRINVM and STATELATES of “Thesaurus” (1596).
Cicero’s “Pro Milone” was bought by Ortelius in 1590 and once referred to in lemma XENIÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and once in lemma ALSIENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).
Cicero’s “Epistolae Familiariae” are mentioned 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) to refer to Cicero’s numerous letters.
”Contra Rullus” is mentioned as a source in lemmas ABANA and RECENTORICVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).
”De Divinatione” [about prediction] in lemma CHARONIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).
Cicero’s “Papyri” are mentioned as a source in lemma HERCVLANEVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).
Cicero’s “Piso” is mentioned as a source in lemmas NAVPACTIS, SEPLASIÆ and THRACON of “Thesaurus” (1596).
Cicero’s “Oratio pro T. Annio Milone” is mentioned as a source in lemma PRECIVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).
Cicero’s “Oratio pro Sexto Roscio Amerino” is mentioned as a source in lemma SERVILIVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).
Cicero’s “Oratio pro L. Muraena” is mentioned as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).
Altogether, Cicero is mentioned as a source 9 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L), 11 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 65 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Cicero is altogether mentioned 198 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 275 times. In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Cicero is altogether mentioned 46 times as a source.

Cicero is mentioned twice on map sheet Ort209 in connection with where he lived and where he was born.

In texts: Ort124.8a, 193.12, 196.49, 207.8, 208.14, 209.16, 209.20, 209.30, 209.43, 211.7, 217.26, 217.27, 218.9, 228.8;

Orations Bk.2: Ort210.11,

Oration for Marcus Fonteius: Ort196.8, 196.99;

Oration for Flaccus: Ort215.3;

Orations, as given against Verres: Ort141.6, 186.6, 211.5, 211.12, 216.36;

Offices Bk. 2: Ort19.22;

De Provincijs consularibus: Ort196.13, 196.58;

Scipio's Dream: Ort221.5;

Nature of Gods Bk.3: Ort220.3, 221.35;

Book of Laws: Ort224.5;

Letter to Trebatius: Ort16.33, 190.7, 190.42, 192.16;

To Vatinius: Ort203.34;

Quoting Marcus Cato: Ort211.5.

Quote from Tusculan Disputationes 4.37 in cartouche Ort1

Quote from Tusculan Disputations 4.37 in cartouche Ort2

Quote from Tusculan Disputations 4.37 in cartouche Ort3

Quote from Republica 6.15 in cartouche Ort3

Quote from Natura Deorum 2.37 in cartouche Ort3.

Cieça or Cieza, Pedro Legionensis (de Léon), 1518 – 1560, was the first historian to write a history on Peru which he had visited: “La primera parte de la Crònica del Peru”, Sevilla, 1553. It was translated into Italian as “Chronica del grandissimo regno del Peru”, Rome 1555, and perhaps expanded as “Istorie del Peru, dove si tratta l’ordine delle province, della citte, i riti et costumi degli Indiani Agiuntovi in dissegno tutte le India”, Venice 1557.

Ort9.29, 10.29, 11.32, 15.14, 15.19.

Ciecus see Cieca.

Ciofanus, Hercules, 14th century, was a humanist and scholar on Ovidius. He is mentioned as a source found in a manuscript and also as the author of “Descriptio Sulmonis orbis” mentioned 3 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) e.g. in lemma SVLMO, where this work is called “pulcherrima descriptio” [a very beautiful description]. In lemma VERETVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ciofanus’ “Metamorphoses” is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned 10 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 12 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort213.13.

Cisnerus, Nikolaus, 1529 – 1583, was a German scholar who wrote a preface to Crantzius’ “Saxonia” to which Ortelius refers once in his “Synonymia” (1578).

Citolinus, Alexander, 16th century, was an Italian poet who had to flee from Italy because of his support of Luther. His main work is “Typocosmia” (Ort1,2,3).

Typocosmia or Pattern of the World (in Italian) Ort1.43, 2.43, 3.46.

Clarævallensis, Bernardus or Bernard de Clairvaux, 1090 – 1153, was a Frenchman who was sanctified. His “Opera Omnia” was first published in 1572. Ortelius refers to this author as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) via Surius in the lemma ARDINACHIA.

Clarenceux, 16th century, was a title of honour meaning King of Arms, Herald with jurisdiction. It was bestowed on William Camden, as mentioned in the text of Ortelius’ Anglia, Ort19.

Ort19.45-l.

Claudianus Claudius “the Christian poet”, 370 – 404, from Alexandria, Egypt, was the last of the Roman poets in the classical tradition. He wrote at the court of the young emperor Honorius whose work he celebrated in his poems. Claudianus was a poet of Latin and Greek verses such as “De Bello Gildonico” (Ort217), “Panegyris Serenæ Reginæ”(Ort192,203); also mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius calls this “De laude serenæ” (Ort25), published in Italian in Venice, 1470, Vicenza, 1482, Parma, 1493, as also by Camers in Vienna, 1510, and by Pulmann in Antwerp, 1572. Also “Metamorphosis (Ort192), “De Laude Stiliconis” [In Praise of Stilicon] (Ort200,203), referred to once by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Wars of the Goths” (Ort231; ). Ortelius refers to Claudianus’ “De Bello Getico” once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus”(1596), e.g. in lemma SCINTHI and VRBEM, and to his “Proserpina” in “Thesaurus (1587, 1596). Further, Claudianus wrote “Panegyrics” (Ort192,196,203); also in lemma VTENS of “Thesaurus” (1596) a Panegyric to Probus. In lemma QVINTIANÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), he refers to Claudianus’ “Epigrammatibus” as a source, and in lemmas TITANA and ZARINENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Claudianus’ “De Phœnice” is mentioned as a source. In lemma THYNI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Claudianus quotes Eutropius. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Claudianus’ “De nuptiis Honorij” is mentioned twice as a source. Ortelius bought an unspecified work of Claudianus from Plantin in 1570. In 1591 (Hessels 199) Ortelius asks Jacob Cools to obtain from Daniel Rogers a manuscript of Claudianus and to send it. Claudianus is mentioned as a source 3 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 9 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 10 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) 47 times and in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) 8 times, once referring to his “De raptu Proserpinae”.

Claudianus is mentioned once on map sheet Ort197 and once on map sheet Ort198; further in map texts: Ort30.3, 121.3, 122.3, 192.7, 192.24, 192.25, 192.42, 196.7, 196.11, 196.41, 196.52, 199.22, 199.65, 200.40, 206.7, 209.13, 209.16, 209.19, 212.11, 212.20, 213.3, 217.15, 219.12, 221.15, 226.98, 231.22, 231.23, 232.21;

De Bello Gildonico: Ort217.14;

De Laude Serenæ: Ort25.8, Ort203.22;

Metamorphosis Bk.15: Ort192.24;

In Praise of Stilicon, Bk.1: Ort200.62;

Wars of the Goths: Ort231.21;

Second Panegyric to Stilico: Ort203.24;

Panegyricus: Ort192.24;

Fourth Panegyrick on the consulship of Honorius: Ort196.61.

Claudius Appius, third century BC., was a famous Roman censor, an obstinate man with original views. He built the first Roman aquaduct and the Via Appia which leads from Rome to Brindisi. He is the first Roman prose writer, and was by Cicero considered as a notable orator. He composed aphorisms in Saturnian verse, a few of which have survived. They include: “faber est suæ quique fortunæ” [a man is the creator of his own fate].

Ort136.4.

Claudius Champierus Lugdunensis see Champier, Symphorian.

Claudius Claudianus, see Claudianus Claudius.

Claudius, Tiberius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD., was the fourth Roman emperor, a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 24 January 41 AD to his death in 54 AD.  He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had virtually excluded him from public office. This infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many other Roman nobles during the purges of Tiberius' and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat to them. His very survival led to his being declared emperor after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of political experience, he proved to be an able administrator and a great builder of public works. His reign saw an expansion of the empire, including the conquest of Britain. Ortelius finds in Ammianus that Claudius gave his name to the city called Claudiopolis, also called Isauria, in Cappodocia, as he reports in his “Synonymia” (1578). In  the same work, Ortelius refers to Claudianus’ “”De Bello Getico” as a source. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), emperor Claudius is mentioned as a source 4 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 5 times.

Claudius Mamertinus see Mamertinus, Claudius.

Claudius Marius Aretius see Aretius Claudius Marius.

Claudius Senensis Ptolemæus or Tolomei, 16th century, wrote Epistles to Gabriel Cæsano (Ort137), Venice, 1547.

Epistles to Gabriel Cæsano Bk.6: Ort137.12.

Clauserus or Clauser, Conrad, 16th century, published works by Chalcondylas on the Turks in Basel, 1556. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Clauserus is censured as a heretic

Ort16.16, 56.9, 56.10, 56.11, 56.12, 57.10.

Clavius, Christoph, Bamberg, 1538 – 1612, was one of the foremost astronomical authorities of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. He is also known for his early printed edition of Euclid's “Elements” and for his important role in the formulation, promulgation, and defense of the Gregorian calendar reform. He taught mathematics in Rome for nearly half a century, and in the process firmly established mathematical studies in the curriculum of the far-flung and influential network of Jesuit colleges. The many books he wrote cover all aspects of the traditional field of mathematics and include also applied aspects such as instruments and practical computation. Clavius's “Commentary on the Sphere of Sacrobosco” was published from 1591 onwards many times in many places across Europe for over forty years and employed as an introductory text book at many schools. Ortelius bought a copy of this work in 1595 from Plantin.

Clazomenius, Alexander, Klazomenai, abt. 500 BC - 428 BC., was a Greek philosopher who is quoted once by Ortelius in his “Synonymia (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Clemens, Alexandrinus Titus Flavius, saint , c. 150-215 AD., was converted to Christianity at an early age. He was born in Athens, moved to Alexandria and fled the persecution of Christians there. He was a founder of the first school of theology in Alexandria. He wrote “Paidagwgos” giving guidelines to converted Christians, further  Strwmateis” (Ort16, 190, 192,203,214,220,221,222), literally meaning “Tapestry” on a variety of subjects, trying to provide a scientific basis for religion, 3 times mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemma CANI, MAGI, and NOROPES and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas ATHYRIA, CANGANORVM, MAGI, NOROPES, PERATICI, PLANGONIVM, SACIDÆ, SEMNI and TARAXANDRA. Further, Clemens wrote “Recognitium, Greek title unknown, (Ort16, 192,196,200,221); also referred to as a source in lemma PLISTONICENSEM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas MAGVSÆI and PALTOS of “Thesaurus” (1596), which are now considered to be “Pseudo-Clementina”, not written by Clemens. Clemens’ “Ad gentes” is mentioned as a source in lemmas CALLICHORVS, EVENITÆ, GERANDRYVM, HALIMVSII, NEAPECHA and SAGRA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, Clemens is mentioned 7 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 24 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He quotes Plutarchus (Ort199,200).

Ort196.40, 196.49, 196.99, 199.72, 200.55, 220.2, 221.33, 221.42, 221.43, 232.24;

Stromateis 222.18, Bk.1: Ort203.25, Bk.3: Ort222.40, Bk.6: Ort16.36, 190.10, 190.45, 192.19, 220.10, 221.45, Bk.7: Ort214.15;

Recognitions: Ort200.52, Bk.5, Ort220.9, 221.42, Bk.9: Ort16.43, 190.16, 190.53, 192.29, 196.77, 196.99, 200.52,

Quoting Plutarchus: Ort199.28, 200.60.

Clement I, pope and saint, fl. 96 AD., also known as Clemens Romanus is listed from an early date as a bishop of Rome. He was the first Apostolic Father of the Church. He is mentioned as a source in lemma GITTA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In lemma THISBE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Clement’s “Recognitiones” is mentioned as a source. He is mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus (1596). In lemma PARÆCII of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Constitutiones Apostolorum” is mentioned as a source without giving its author.

Clément, Nicolas Trellæus Mosellanus, born in Viseline near Nancy in 1550, was a humanist, poet and schoolmaster who taught in Lorraine, and friend of Ortelius. He wrote an anagram on the name Abraham Ortelius: Urbis laetus amor [Happy [in his] love for [his] city] and a 4-line epigram which appeared in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587). Clément is mentioned twice as a source in lemmas NASIVM in “Thesaurus” (1596) where he is called “doctissimus” and in OBRINCVS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Clement wrote “Austrasiae Reges et Duces Epigrammatis” published in Cologne in 1591. It contains a collection of finely engraved portrait medallions by Woeiriot, sculptor to the duke of Lorraine. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1592. Clément wrote Ortelius a letter in 1583 (Hessels 124) and contributed to his “Album Amicorum”, (f. 51, on July 1, 1582).

Cleobulus, 4th. c. BC., of Lindus or of Rhodos, Greek: Κλεόβουλος ὁ Λίνδιος; Κλεόβουλος ὁ Ῥοδίος, was a Greek tyrant, philosopher and poet from Lindus on Rhodos, and the son of  Euagoras. He is quoted by Plinius, as reported in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he also occurs once as a source.

Cleodemus, Malchus, the prophet, 2nd c. BC., was a Hellenistic writer. His Semitic name, "Malchus," a very common one in Phoenicia and Syria but not found among the Jews, combined with the pagan traditions abounding in his work, has given rise to discussions concerning his origin. Cleodemus was the author of a history of the Jews in Greek, in which Jewish traditions are blended with Greek mythology. A short notice of this history, which is no longer in existence, is quoted by Josephus (Ant. i. 15) from Alexander Polyhistor. He is referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma AFRA.

Cleomenes, 260 - 219 BC, was the third King of Sparta from 235 – 219 BC. He attempted to restore Spartan power by rehabilitating Lycurgus’ constitution, including redistribution of land. The reforms were partly carried out but in 222 Cleomenes was defeated at Sellasia by the Achæans and fled to Egypt.

Ort186.9.

Cleon, died 422 BC., was a prominent Greek politician during the first part of the Peloponnesian war.

Ort226.2.

Clitarchus or Cleitarchus, Greek: Κλείταρχος, abt. 300 BC., one of the historians of Alexander the Great, son of the historian Dinon of Colophon, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at least spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy Lagus. Quintilianus (Instit. x. I. 74) credits him with more ability than trustworthiness, and Cicero (in “Brutus”, II) accuses him of giving a fictitious account of the death of Themistocles. But there is no doubt that his history was very popular, and much used by Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius, Justinus and Plutarchus, and the authors of the Alexander romances. His unnatural and exaggerated style became proverbial. His work, completely lost, has survived only in some thirty fragments preserved by other ancient authors, especially by Aelianus and Strabo. He is mentioned as a source in lemma MANDRI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Clur, Ioannes, late 16th century, was a citizen of Gdansk to whom the Prussia (Ort 88b) map was dedicated.

Clur is the person whose name appears in the dedication contained in the cartouche of the half sheet map of Prussia Ort88b

Clusius, Carolus or Charles de l’Écluse, Arras 1526 - Leiden 1609, of Arras, France (Ort49) was a famous Flemish-born doctor and botanist who wrote among other works “Rariorum plantarum historia” (1601) describing rare plants in countries Clusius visited such as Spain, Italy and Hungary, and has extensive notes on tulips. He introduced the potato in the Low Countries. In 1567 Ortelius bought a copy of his “Historia Aromatum” and again in 1582. In 1583 Ortelius bought a work described as “Opuscula” from Plantin. Clusius also wrote “Les vies des hommes illustres Grecs et Romains”, Paris, 1583, richly illustrated with old coins. He also wrote “Rariorum aliquot stirpium, per Pannoniam, Austriam, & vicinas quasdam provincias observatarum historia” (1583) with descriptions of plants of Austria and adjacent regions. Ortelius bought two copies of this work from Plantin in 1583. Ortelius’ map of Spain, Antwerp 1570, and six-sheet map of Spain, 1571, were designed in co-operation with Clusius and Ortelius used Clusius’ manuscript map of Gallia Narbonensis for his maps Ort48a and 49a. Clusius was appointed as professor in botany in Leiden in 1593 and designed its “hortus”. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1570 onwards as the author of a 6-sheet map of Spain. Clusius is mentioned 375 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), mostly referring to his map of Spain, or simply his maps, 378 times in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L),  in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 127 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he appears 133 times as a source. In lemma PAX IVLIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius calls Clusius “”mihi fide dignus auctor” [an author worthy of my faith]. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Clusius is altogether mentioned  138 times as a source. Clusius wrote six letters to Ortelius in 1591, 1592, 1593 (twice) (Hessels 197, 207, 231, 237, 305). He also contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum ” (f. 23 v°. on September 20, 1579).

Ort48.4, 48.17, 49.3, 49.13, 49.23.

Cnoyen, Jacobus, 14th c., was a Dutch or Flemish traveller to the Northern regions, who wrote an “Itinerarium” about this journey. He is quoted in a letter by Mercator to John Dee in 1577 (Imago Mundi XII, p. 103-106). Ortelius knew about this “Itinerary” or he was familiar with Mercator’s account of it. Cnoyen is mentioned as a source in lemma VMBILICVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Cocceius or Coccianus, Dion, fl. end 2nd c. AD., was a Greek from Nicea who was appointed senator in Rome. He became a historian who wrote “Historiae Romanae liber” about the history of Rome from 749 BC to 229 AD. Cocceius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in the text itself. He is mentioned as a source via Tzetzes in lemma NARBONENSIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and occurs twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma CHOERADES of “Thesaurus” (1596) he is again mentioned as a source via Lycophron, where he is altogether mentioned twice as a source.

Coccio, Marcantonio see Sabellicus.

Cock, Hendrik see Coquus.

Cock, Hieronymus, 1510 – 1570, was an engraver and colourist who travelled to Italy in 1546 to learn about engraving and who joined the St. Luke guild in Antwerp in 1547. His enterprise “De vier winden” produced 1100 prints between 1548 and 1570. He is mentioned by Ortelius in his “Catalogus Auctorum” as the engraver/publisher of “Gilles Boileau’s “Sabaudiae et Burgundiae” (Ort48b,49b), of Heydanus’ Germania, Schrot’s “Gelria et Clivia” (Ort61,62), Gutiérez’ “America” map, Lannoyo’s “Burgundia” map (Ort51,53b), Septala’s “Mediolanensis” map and Schrot/Laicksteen’s “Terra Sancta” map (Ort173). His wall map of Spain in 4 sheets of 1553 was the model for Clusius’ 6-sheet map of Spain, published by Ortelius in 1571.

Codex or Caudex is a manuscript document in book form. It may but need not be a manuscript. Ortelius refers hundreds of times to Greek and/or Latin codices e.g. of Strabo, Ptolemaeus, and Plinius in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In the same works, Ortelius also often quotes “meus Codex” without specifying the author. Ortelius refers to a “Vetus Codex Plinij” in the lemma VIRGI of his “Synonymia” (1578) as well as to “excusis exemplaris Plinij” which simply means “made” without saying how. Gruberus is mentioned as a manuscript in all “Synonymia” and “Thesaurus” editions. In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a “Codex Theodosianus” as a source. In the same works, in the lemma AEGETINI, Ortelius refers to three Codices owned by him which show different spellings for this place name. Unidentifiable “codices” occur quite often in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In the lemma ILORCI in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to the “Codex Venetus” the “Codex Coloniensis” and the “Codex Parisiensis” as Plinian sources, and in METELLA to his “Codices Basilienses”.

Codex of Books see Giustiniani.

Codex Castigatus is an anonymous work, published in 1521. Ortelius refers to it once in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus, 1587,1596) in the lemma NOEGA VCESIA.

Codinus, Georgius, end 15th century, was a Byzantine author who wrote “Patria” about Constantinople, as also “Curopalatae de Officialibus” about ceremonies and “Chronology” about Byzantine history. Ortelius bought a copy of this work, published in Lyon, from Plantin in 1588, and refers to this work in lemma BRYSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort214.35

Coecke van Aalst, Pieter, 1502-1550,  was a Flemish painter, known for his Crucifixion and Archangel Gabriel. He was a friend of Ortelius.

Coenalis see Cœnalis

Cœnalis, Robert, or Robert Ceneau, died in 1560, was a bishop of Avranches, France, who wrote an adventurous “Historia Gallia” (Ort21,34,36,37), Paris 1557, probably also referred to by Ortelius (Ort16,21,34,36,37,44,45) as “De re Gallica”.[About French matters], which is referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1568. Cœnalis is mentioned 16 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L) and 23 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and mentioned 33 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 76 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 82 times.

Ort16.5k, 16.14, 16.18, 37.5, 37.11, 37.12, 37.13, 37.15, 37.28, 44.13, 46.2, 46.8, 47.5, 48.7, 48.8, 49.5, 49.9, 49.31, 51.9, 51.19, 52.10, 53.11, 53.16, 69.4, 70.5, 70.14, 71.5;

History of France: Ort34.8, 36.20, 37.16;

De re Gallica Bk.2: Ort21.17, 21.30, Bk.2, Ch.3: 44.2, 44.3, 44.6, 45.2, 45.3, 45.6, 45.12, Bk.3, Ch.2: Ort16.10, 16.24, 16.70.

Cognatus, Gilbert Nozeremus or Nozorenus or Noxeranus, 1505 -1567, also Cousin, Hugo, of Nozeroy, France, was a Burgundian nobleman, officer , friend and secretary of Erasmus to whom the saying is attributed that one should always take the first advice of a woman, but not the second. He wrote “Opera multifarii argumenti, lecta et incunda, et omnis generis professoribus, veluti grammaticis, oratoribus, poëtis, philosophis, medicis, iure consultis, ipsisque theologis apprime utilia”, Basel, 1562. He also wrote about Lucianus. Not much is known about him as the author of a manuscript Burgundy map used by Ortelius (Ort52). As Hugo Cousin, he is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1584 onwards, and he probably supplied his manuscript map of Burgundy, to which Ortelius refers as a source in lemma GANODVRVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Since he worked for Philip II, there may be political reasons behind the inclusion of this map, which is inferior to that of Lannoy, viz. Ort 51, (Meurer p. 131). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Cognatus is censured as a heretic. He is twice mentioned as a source in “Synonymia” (1571L) and 4 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 5 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is 11 times mentioned as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 19 times. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Cognatus is censured as a heretic.

Mentioned in the cartouche of Burgundiæ Comitatus as the maker of this map Ort52;

Ort34.8, 36.20, 48.7, 51.9, 51.20, 168.8, 169.8;

City Book: 51.10, 51.19, 52.10, 52.11, 53.10, 53.11.

Coignet, Michael, 1544 - 1623, was a native of Antwerp, where he spent his working life. He was an instrument maker and a friend of Mercator and Ortelius who modelled his work after the Arsenius school. It is significant, and typical of the practice of geometry at the time, that although we know Coignet best as a maker of instruments and an engraver of maps, he identified himself in a Latin manuscript now in the Bodleian Library as 'Michaelis Coignêti Mathematici Antverpiani' and is described in an English work of the period as 'Mathematician of Antwarpe'. As well as making instruments, he wrote general books on mathematics. As we have seen with Mercator, the roles of geometer and instrument maker were not sharply differentiated: it is characteristic of Renaissance geometry that these were complementary aspects of a single discipline. He wrote a seven-page mathematical introduction to the 1601L Theatrum, translated into Italian by Filippo Pigafetta for the 1608/1612 Italian edition and reappearing in its original form in the 1609/1612 Latin edition. Together with Arsenius brothers, he made Epitomes after Ortelius’ “Theatrum” in Latin (1601, 1609), French (1602), Italian (1602), English (1603)and German (1604).

Coins: Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1578 and again in 1593 Occo’s “Imagines imperatorum Romanorum numismata a Pompeio magno ad Heraclium”. Jacob Cools also owned a copy of this book in which he wrote that in 1597, Ortelius possessed 1925 ancient coins. Colius himself, in 1603, owned 1179 ancient coins. In 1592 Ortelius writes to Jacob Cools (Hessels 214) that he has coins of all Roman emperors in gold as far as the 25th (viz. Geta) except Commodus. Ortelius also refers frequently to Goltzius’ publications on coins. The “Synonymia” and “Thesauri” contain a considerable amount of information on coins:
In the lemma ABASENI in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he mentions a coin from Goltzius “Thesaurus” showing emperor Severus, and a coin showing Antoninus Brittanicus.
In lemma ABILENI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers via Goltzius to a coin showing emperor Antoninus Brittannicus and the inscription Abilena.
In the lemma ADERCON of the “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Traianus with the inscription
aderkwnitwn mentioned in Goltzius’ “Thesaurus”.
In the lemma AELIA HADRIANA AVG. of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus.
In the lemma AENIANES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he refers to a copper coin with the inscription
OINIANWN which also shows a bull’s head.
Via Goltzius in lemma AESANITORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Agrippina and the inscription AESANITORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma AGESSVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Gordianus with the inscription
agesiwn.
In lemma AGRIPPA COR. Ortelius refers to a coin from Goltzius’ “Thesaurus” in his own “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) inscribed with AGRIPPA COR.
In lemma AGRIPPINA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a reference is made to a coin showing Claudius and the inscription COL. AGRIPPINA VBIOR and another showing Vitellius, both with COL. AGRIPPINA VBIOR. LEGIO XIXon them.
In the lemma ALEXANDRIA in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin with the inscription:
ALEXANDREIA FI KOINON  QRAKON.
In lemma ALEXANDRIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers via Goltzius to a coin showing emperor Elagabalus or Varius Avitus Bassianus (203 – 222) with the inscription ALEXANDRIA AVG. COL.
Via Goltzius in lemma AMBASITORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers twice to a coin showing emperor Claudius with the inscription
ambasitwn mhtropolewn.
In lemma ANAPLYSTVS of“Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to an old coin in Goltzius’ “Thesaurus” showing the Anaphlysti.
Via Goltzius in lemma ANGETORVM in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Antoninus Brittanicus with the inscription
Aggetwn.
In lemma ANTIOCHIA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius observes that there is an ancient coin showing Marcus Aurelius and containing the inscription ANTIOCHIA COLONIA.
In lermma ANTIPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titis and the inscription ANTIPOLIS COLONIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma ANTIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Nero and the inscription COL. ANTIAT. LEG. IIII. ITALICA.
In lemma ANXVR of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing consul Vibius Pansa and (part of?) the inscription AXVR.
In lemma APHRYSUS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius says that Goltzius mentions a coin showing Domitilla (spouse of emperor Vespasianus) with the inscription
amfrusewn kai daulidwn omoia.

In lemma APOLLONIA his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with Hadrianus on it, and with an inscription of the Roman colony “APOLLONIA”.

In lemma AQVAE SEXTIAE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription COLONIA IVLIA AQVAE SEXTIAE LEGIO XXV, via Goltzius.
In lemma AQVILEIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianius and the inscription AQVILEIA COLONIA.
In lemma ARA FLAVIA COLONIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)  Ortelius refers to a coin in Goltzius showing Domitianus and the inscription ARA FLAVIA COLONIA.
In lemma ARGAEVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus with the inscription ARGER EORVM via Goltzius.

In lemma ASTA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus with the inscription COL. AST. AVGVSTA, via Goltzius.
In lemma ASTVRICA AVGVSTA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COLONIA ASTVRICA AVGVSTA.
Via Goltzius, in lemma AVGVSTA EMERITA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription AVGVSTA EMERITA COLONIA.
In lemma AVGVSTA PRÆTORIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription COL. AVGVSTA PRÆTORIA.
In lemma AVGVSTA RAVRICORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus Tiberius and the inscription COL. AVG. RAVRACOR.
Via Goltzius in lemma AVGVSTA TIBERII of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription COL. AVG. TIB., i.e. Regensburg.

in the lemma AVGVSTA PRÆTORIA of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius with the inscription COL. AVGVSTA PRÆTORIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma BÆSAMPSA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Traianus and the inscription
BAIKAMYINWN.
In the lemma BARBESOLA of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius mentions a coin showing emperor Galba with the inscription COL. BARBESVLA LEG. XVIII.
Another coin showing emperor Galba has the inscription COL. BARCINO FAVENTIA in the lemma BARCINO of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).
Based on Goltzius’ “Thesaurus”, Ortelius writes in his own “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma BARGASA about a coin showing emperor Vespasianus with the inscription
bargashnwn.
In lemma BARCINO of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Galba with the inscription COL. BARCINO FAVENTIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma BARGASA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription
bargashnwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma BARGIACIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Galba and the inscription BARGIACIS MUNICIPIVM.
In lemma BASERA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Goltzius who has a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription
bashrewn.
In  “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BATAVODVRVM Ortelius mentions a coin showing emperor Ludovicus, and a ship, with the inscription DORESTATVS.
In lemma BEDVNIA of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), on the basis of Golzius’ “Thesaurus” Ortelius reports a coin showing emperor Claudius with the inscription BEDVNIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma BER of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Commodus and the inscription COL. BER. SEC. and a coin showing emperor Philippus with the inscription COL. BER IO. M.H. Ortelius professes not to know what these inscriptions refer to.
Via Occo in lemma BEROELIORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Traianus with the inscription BEROELIORVM.
In lemma BERYTOS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription COL. AVGVSTA BERYTVS FELIX IVLIA.
In the lemma BILBILIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription AVGVSTA BILBILIS.
In the lemma BISGARGITANI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) reference is made via Golzius to a coin showing emperor Germanicus and the inscription BICARGIS.
In the lemma BITHYNIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus with the inscription BITHEINIA.
In lemma BOSTRA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing empress Julia Mammea and the inscription COL. BOSTRA. N.T.R. ALEXANDRIANÆ.
In lemma BRVNDISIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing the inscription BRYNDISIVM.
In lemma BRVTII of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription BRETTI.
Via Goltzius in lemma BVRDOA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription BVRDOA.

In lemma CABITORVM in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he mentions a coin via Goltzius’ “Thesaurus” showing emperor Vespasianus and the text CABITORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma CADO of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Goltzius’ reporting about a coin showing emperor Marcus Aurelius with the inscription COLONIA CADO.
Via Goltzius in lemma CAESAREA ARCHELAIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Pescennius and the inscription KAICAREIAC
GERMANIKHC.

Via Goltzius in lemma CALAGVRIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription MVN.CALAG.IVL.

Via Occo in lemma CARCHENORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Decius and the inscription CARCHENORVM.
In lemma CASCANTENSES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription MVNICIPIVM CASCANTVM.

Via Goltzius in lemma CELENNA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription CELENA.
Via Goltzius in lemma CEPHYRÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Domitanus and the inscription CEPHYRÆ EDORVM.

In lemma CERETAPEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Commodus and showing Hercules and the inscription keretapewn.
In lemma CHREÆTAPORVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Commodus with the inscription
keretapewn.
In lemma CLAVDIOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Occo, Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription GENESIS ANTINOOU KIQINDOS.
In lemma CLVNIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Galba and the inscription CLVNIA SVL. Which stands for Clunia Sulpicia.
Via Occo in lemma COLCARRENORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius mentions a coin showing emperor Gordianus with the inscription COLCARRENORVM.
In lemma COLONIA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius describes two copper coins showing emperor Augustus and Tiberius found in Spain with the inscription COL. V. I. CELSA, which according to Goltzius means COLONIA VICTORIA IVLIA CELSA. VICTRIX where VICTORIA refers to Antoninus Augustus.
In the lemma CONSTANTINOPOLIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Caracalla with the inscription ANTONEINIA BYSANTION SEBASTA.
In lemma CORDVBA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COLONIA PATRICIA CORDVBA.

Via Onuphrius in lemma CORINTHVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription COLONIA IVLIA CORINTHVS.
Via Goltzius in lemma CORTHOSIEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription CORTHOSIEORVM or korqwsiewn.
Via Goltzius in lemma COSSA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Nerva and the inscription COL.IVL.COSSA.
Via Goltzius in lemma CRAMBONIDES of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus with the inscription koinon krambwnidwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma CYNONNESOS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription kunwnhsiwn.
In lemma CYZICVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Gordianus and others from Cyzicus and the inscription NEOKORWN KUIIKHNWN.
In lemma DAMASCVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Volusianus and the inscription DAMAS.METRO.SELACOC and also KOL.DAMASKOS MHTROPOLEWN. Ortelius also refers to a coin showing Herennius and the inscription MHTROPOLEWC. IERACOC, via Goltzius.
Via Goltzius in lemma DAMASCVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Herennius and the inscription KOL DAMACKOC MHTROPOLEON IERACOC
In lemma DAMASCVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius also refers to a coin he owns showing empress Otacilla
and the inscription COLONI.DAMASCO.METROPOL. SEBACMIA . DAMASCVM
In lemma DAPHNE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Alexander the Great and the inscription CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE.
In lemma DELMATIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Flavius and the inscription DELMATIA.
In the lemma DESSÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), he refers to coins with the images of Gordianus and Severus, both with the inscription DESSENORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma DEVNANA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Geta and the inscription DEVA.
In the lemma DINDRYMÆORVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers via Goltzius to a coin showing emperor Augustus with an inscription identical to the lemma.
In lemma EBVRACVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Severus and the inscription LEGIONEM VI. VICTRICEM.

In the lemma ERGAVICA of his “Thesaurus” (1587) Ortelius refers to a copper coin showing emperor Tiberius with the inscription ERCAVICA.
In lemma ERMIONE of “Thesaurus” (1578,1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing empress Julia Domna and the inscription
ERMIWNH and a depiction of Mercurius.
In lemma ERYX of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a silver coin he owns showing Considius Nonnius (Praetor in late-Republican Rome) and the inscription ERYCEM.
In the lemma ETHNESTÆ of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin in Goltzius showing emperor Augustus and the inscription ETHNESTÆ.
In Goltzius’ “Thesaurus”, Ortelius finds a coin showing emperor Nero in the lemma EVLEORUM of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) with the inscription EVLEORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma ETHNESTÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription ETHNESTÆ.

Via Occo in lemma ETIMÆVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a British coin with the inscription MHTRO POLEWN ETIMINAUOU BAL/////////NCO.
Via Goltzius in lemma EVLEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Nero and the inscription EVLEORVM.
Via Occo in lemma EVPHVSORIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Antoninus Pius and the inscription EUFUCIWN DIC. NEWKORWN.
Via Goltzius in lemma FIRMIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Galba and the inscription COLONIA AVG. FIRMA.
Via Goltzius in lemma FLAVIOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Domitianus and the inscription flafiopolin samareiwn.

Via Goltzius in lemma FORVM IVLIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COL. IVL. OCTAV.
In lemma FRANCIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a silver coin showing Constantine the Great and the inscription FRANCIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma GEMELLA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Claudius and the inscription COL.AVGVSTA.GEMELLA. LEGIO.XXV.
In the lemma GEPHYRÆEDORVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), he refers via Goltzius to a coin showing emperor Domitianus and the description GEPHYRÆEDORVM.
In lemma GERMANICOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Septimus Severus, and on the other side Diana and the inscription
GERMANIKOPOLEWC ECTIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma GESENÆSIORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Decius and the inscription
SEP. KOL. GHSAINHSIWN.
In lemma GORDIANI of “Thesaurus” Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Decius and the inscription
PICAICAINHCIWN.
In lemma GRACVRIS in “Synonymia”/”Thesaurus” (1578, 1587, 1596) Ortelius mentions a copper coin displaying Tiberius Augustus with the inscription GRACCVRIS.
In the lemma HADRIANI in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription AELIA ADRIANA referring to emperor Hadrianus.

Via Goltzius in lemma HYRAMENORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription HYRAMENORVM and in the same lemma also via Goltzius to a coin showing emperor Severus and the inscription HYRANORVM.
In lemma IADERA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Domitianus and the inscription COL. AVGVSTA IADERA.
In lemma ILERCAONES of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Tiberius and on the other side a ship with bulging sails with the inscription DERT and along the edge ILERCAVONIA.
In the lemma ILERGETES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, not in 1596) reference is made to a coin showing emperor Tiberius with the inscription ILERCAVONIA.
In lemma ILIPVLA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius says that Plinius mentions a very old coin with the inscription MVN.ELEPLA.
In lemma ILLICI of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to two coins mentioned in Antonius Augustinus’ “Dialogo 7” showing the letters C.I.I.A. which Ortelius supposes to mean Colonia Immunis Illice Augusta, and the other coin showing the letters C.V.IL. meaning Colonia Victrix Illice.
In lemma ILLYRICVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Traianus Decius and the inscription ILLVRICIANORVM.
In the lemma IOL of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) there is a reference to a coin showing emperor Claudius and the inscription COL. IOL. CÆSAREA IVBÆ REG.
In lemma IOPETORVM
iophtwn of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers via Goltzius’ “Thesaurus” to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription of the shape of this lemma.
In lemma ITALICA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription DIVI.AVG.MUNIC.ITALIC.PERM.
Via Goltzius, in lemma IVLIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a coin is mentioned showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COL.IVL.OCTAV (Colonia Iulia Octavia).
Via Onuphrius, Ortelius refers in lemma IVLIA APVLVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) to a coin with the inscription COL. IVL.SERT.SAC.AVG.FELIX.
Via Goltzius in lemma KAMARAS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing empress Faustina and the inscription KAMARAS.
Via Goltzius in lemma KARCENNA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Otho and the inscription COLONIA AVGUSTA KARCENNA.
In lemma LARIGNVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a silver coin showing senator P. Accoleis Lariscolus and an inscription with that name.
Via Antonius Augustinus in lemma LEPTIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to a coin with the inscription COL.VIC.IVL. LEP. which Ortelius indicates to stand for Colonia Victrix Iulia Leptis.
Via Goltzius, in lemma LYCOSTHENA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a coin is mentioned showing emperor Titus and the inscription of the metropolis of LYCOSTHENA.
Via Goltzius in lemma MAGDOLVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Antoninus Pius and the inscription
magdwlitwn.
Via Trebellius Pollius in lemma MAGVSANI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a copper coin showing emperor Postumus, with on the other side an image of Hercules Magusani and the inscription HERCVLI MAGVSANO M.PRIMIIS V.S.L.M.
In lemma MANDROPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription MANDROPOLIS or
Mandropolis.
Via Goltzius in lemma MARANTHESIORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Nero and the inscription MARANTHESIORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma MAREDESSVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Antoninus Britannicus and the inscription
KWLWN MAREDESS.
In lemma MASANORADA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription MASANORADA.
Via Goltzius in lemma MATYDIANOPOLIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a coin is mentioned showing emperor Traianus and the inscription MATYDIANOPOLIS.
In lemma MEDIOLANVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to an ancient coin showing consul Marcus Valerius Messala and the inscription INSVBRIÆ.
In lemma MENANINI of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Greek coins with the inscription
MHNANINOI.
In lemma MERMESSVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription MERMESSVS.
In lemma METALLVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a silver coin showing emperor Ludovicus the 4th and the inscription METALLVM
Via Goltzius in lemma METROPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Gallienus and the inscription COL.AVR.METRO.
Via Erizzus in lemma MILETOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Commodus and the inscription HILETOPOLIS.
In lemma MINTVRNÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius writes that he owns a copper coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription MVNTVRN.
In lemma MVRGANTIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Prosper Parisius’ map of “Magna Graecia” which depicts a coin with the inscription
MERTINWN BRETGIWN.
Via Goltzius in lemma NAGIDOS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Lucius Verus and the inscription
Nagidos.
Via Goltzius in lemma NEPR.COL. of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Gordianus and the inscription NEPR. COL.
Via Goltzius in lemma NICATORIVM in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription
Nikatoritwn.
In lemma NISIOBENSES of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelkius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Traianus and the inscription NISIOBENSIS.
Via Occo in lemma ODANEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Caracalla and the inscription ODANEORVM.
In lemma ONIENSIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a small coin showing emperor Postumus and on the other side a figure of Hercules and the inscription HERCVLES DEVS ONIENSI.
Via Goltzius in lemma OPHTHIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription
WfQitwn.
In lemma ORIENS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a golden coin showing emperor Traianus and the inscription PARTHICO.P.M.TR.P.COS.VI.S.P.Q.R.
Via Goltzius in lemma PAREMPHIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription PAREMPHIS.
In lemma PATRÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COL. A. AVG. PATREN.
Via Vivianus in  lemma PELLA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Gordianus and the inscription COL.IVL.AUG. PELLA.
Via Occo in lemma PETRA GEMOPOLI of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus and the inscription
petra ghmopoli.
Via Goltzius in lemma PHARATHVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Claudius and the inscription
faraqoneitwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma PHILIPPOS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription COL. IVL. PHIL.
In lemma PORTVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Traianus and on the other side the inscription PORTVS.
In lemma PRIVERNVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius describes a coin showing praetor Hypsæus and the inscription PREIVERNVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma PROCOPIAS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus and the inscription PROCOPIAS.
In lemma PROSOPVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Hadrianus and the inscription
PROCWPIAC.
In lemma QVINTANÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers nto a coin showing emperor Nerva and the inscription QVINTANORVM COLONIA AVGVSTA.
In lemma QVINTVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Justinianus and the inscription VVITICVS,
In lemma SADALIS
of Ortelius “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a coin is described showing emperor Galba with the inscription sandalitwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma SAMPHE in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus an the inscription
samfaiwn.
Via Goltzius, in lemma SAMPSIRA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) a coin is described showing emperor Hadrianus with the inscription
samyeirewtoi.
Via Goltzius, in lemma SANDALIVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), a coin is described showing emperor Claudius with the inscription sandaliewn.
In lemma SANGARIVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin he owns showing Iulia Pia Augusta (sister of emperor Titus) and the inscription IAGARIS.
In lemma SARDESSVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription
sardessiwn.
In lemma SARDICA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Caracalla and the inscription ulpia serdikh.
In lemma SCIRPHÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Claudius and the inscription
skirfaiwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma SCISCA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Nero and the inscription SCISCA COLONIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEBASTA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription SEBASTA COLONIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEGOBRIGA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription SIGOBRIGA.
Via Occo in lemma SEPFYRVS METRO in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Macrinus and the inscription SEPFYRUS METRO.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEPORENORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Traianus and the inscription
sepwrhnwn.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEPTIMIA.AVG.METROPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Severus and the inscription COLONIA SEPTIMIA AVG.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEVDREORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing empress Faustina and the inscription SEVDREORVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma SEVERIA OLYMPIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Severus and the inscription SEVERIA OLYMPIA in Africa.
In lemma SIDON of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing empress Iulia Soemia and the inscription COL. AVREL. PIA. METROPOL. SIDON.
In lemma SYSCIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius describes a Roman copper coin described to him by his friend Philippus Wingius which has on one side a head and the inscription IMP. C.M. AVR. PROBVS and on the other side a woman sitting at the bank of a river with a container from which an image appears which is thrown into the river and on the other side of the river a nude figure in water up to the navel.
In the lemma TARENTVM In the “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Ortelius says that he owns an ancient coin with TARAS on it.
In lemma TARRACON of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelus says that he owns a coin of Corinthian copper showing emperor Augustus and on the other side a temple with the inscription AETERNITATIS AVGVSTÆ C.V.T.T. which means Colonia Victrix Tyrrhenica or Togata Tarraco
Via Goltzius in lemma TAVROMENIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription COL. AVG. TAVROMEN.
In lemma THYELLA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he refers to a coin as a source showing emperor Claudius on a coin with the inscription
Quellaio.
In lemma THYESSOS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription quessewn.
In lemma TICINVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a silver coin showing the text FLAVIA PAPIA, displayed on Breventanus’ map of Longobardia.
Via Goltzius in lemma TIPHVLEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Augustus and the inscription TIPHVLEORVM or
tifulewn.
Via Goltzius in lemma TOLETVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) reference is made to a coin showing emperor Augustus with the inscription COL. TOLET.

In lemma TREVIRI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Vespasianus and the inscription COL. AVG. PAT. TREVIROR.
Via Goltzius in lemma TROIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), a coin is mentioned showing Philippus and the inscription COL. TROIAS ANTIGONIA ALEXANDRIA LEGIO XXI COL. AVG. TROAD.

In the lemma TVRIASO of “Synonymia” (1578) and of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius tells about a golden coin with the inscription TVRIASO and the effigy of emperor Augustus on it.
In lemma TVSCVLVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing Lucius Servus Rufus and the inscription TVSCVLVM.
Via Goltzius in lemma VALENTIA of “Thesaurus”  (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a copper coin with the inscription COL.IVL. VAL. which Ortelius interpretes as COLONIA IVLIA VALENTIA. However, in lemma VALERIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he explains this abbreviation as COLONIA IVLIA VALERIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma VIENNA LEG. of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he refers to a coin showing emperor Nero with the inscription VIENNA LEG. VII. CLAVDIANA.

In lemma VLPIA TRAIANA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he refers to a copper coin he owns showing emperor Caracalla and the inscription oulpias serdikhs.
In lemma VLPIA TRAIANA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1596)  a coin is mentioned showing emperor Traianus with the inscription COL. AVG. VLPIA TRAIANA.

In lemma VLPIA LEGIO of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a coin he owns showing emperor Caracalla and the inscription ULPIA SERDIKH.
Via Goltzius in lemma VOLOBRIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Tiberius and the inscription VOLOBRIA.
Via Goltzius in lemma ZARMEORVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to a coin showing emperor Titus and the inscription
zarmewn.
This is by no means a complete inventory of coins as can be found in Ortelius’
“Synonymia” and “Thesauri” but just examples that may contain sufficient information to allow identification. More about coins in the chapter “Deorum Dearumque Capita”.

Colineus, Jacobus Campanus, late 15th to early 16th c., is an author who wrote “De memoria artificiosa”, published  in 1515. He is mentioned as a source in lemma VERGELLVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Colius or Cools, Jacobus senior, father of Jacobus junior, around 1535 - 1591, married in his second marriage Ortelius’ sister Elizabeth, thus becoming brother in law of Ortelius. He wrote a letter to his children (Hessels 12) and received letters from Ortelius in 1574 (Hessels 50), in 1581 (Hessels 108),and in 1588 (Hessels 161).

Colius or Cools, Jacobus junior or Ortelianus or Carbonius, Antwerp 1563 - London 1628, was a nephew of Ortelius, but in fact almost an adopted son, who lived most of his life in London and who inherited many of Ortelius’ personal possessions, although (most of) Ortelius library was auctioned in Antwerp in September 1598. Many letters were exchanged between these two; Ortelius tried to convince him to come to Antwerp and settle in his house, promising him a fortune, but Jacob declined. 
Letters from Ortelius: 1575,1587,1589,1590,1591,1595(twice),1597 (Hessels 57,144,149,164,184, 199,261,265,278,303) plus 3 unrecorded letters between May 1597 and January 1598 referred to in Hessels 314 § 3. Further, the British museum possesses one letter (Harl. 6994 No. 22) written by Ortelius to Cools.
To Ortelius: 1591 (Hessels 192), 1596 (Hessels 294), 1597 (Hessels 309) plus 3 unrecorded letters between May 1597 and January 1598 referred to in Hessels 314 § 3. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. AA and  f. 78, on November 10, 1588), and wrote a 16-line obituary for his uncle Ortelius which was published in the 1603 Latin, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612 Latin edition, beginning:”IVPITER ut celsa  terram spectauit ab arce” and ending: “… artus occupat ORTELII”. In the introduction of “Thesaurus” (1596) he writes an anagram beginning: An noua..” and ending “.. iste VIVVS est”. Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1578 and again in 1593 Occo’s “Imagines imperatorum Romanorum numismata a Pompeio magno ad Heraclium”. Jacob Cools also owned a copy of this book in which he wrote that in 1597, Ortelius possessed 1925 ancient coins. Colius himself, in 1603, owned 1179 ancient coins, and probably inherited those that Ortelius possessed. The “Synonymia” and “Thesauri” contain a considerable amount of information on coins.

Mentioned in the cartouche as the person to whom the Lac Leman map is dedicated, Ort55;

Ort15.22, 15.43.

Collatius see Apollonius Collatius.

Collenutius, Pandulphus or Collenucio, Pandolpho, 1444 – 1504, wrote a “History of Naples” in 1468, first printed in Italian, Venice, 1558,  published in Latin by Stupanus in 1572.  Ortelius refers to him twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578). He was strangled in prison at the command of Pope Alexander VI. Collenutius is mentioned 24 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 28 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort139.10, 142.13.

Collimitius, Georg, 1482 – 1535, was a Bavarian cartographer and mathematician. He corrected Cuspinianus’ map of Austria, and quotes him.

Quoting Cuspianus: Ort114.4.

Collusius, Ludovicus, 15th century, from Florence, Italy wrote a book on the Duchy of Burgundy (Ort51).

Duchy of Burgundy: Ort51.10, 52.11.

Columbanus Saint, province of Leinster, ca. 540 - Bobbio, 23 november 615, was an Irish abbot, missionary and founder of various monasteries on the European continent. He received his education in the monastery of Bangor, where he also taught for 30 years. In 591 he left for France, where he founded the abbey of  Fontaines. He prescribed for this community strict rules. These rules were replaced in the 9th century by rules of Benedictus. His “Life” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BRVSCA.

Columbus, Christopher or Cristoforo Colombo or (Spanish:) Cristóbal Colón, 1451 - 1506, a navigator from Genoa, settled in Lisbon with his brother Bartolomeo. He is best known for having discovered America, which he thought to be East Asia.

Ort12.16, 12.41.

Columella, Junius Moderatus, c. 36 - c.65 AD., from Cádiz, Spain, wrote a book “De re rustica” [on farming] (Ort196,218)  of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1578. Columella cites Dionysius, Mago and Varro (Ort218). Ortelius refers to his “Hortus” once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma SEBETVS. Columella is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and altogether 5 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 23 times as a source and in Thesaurus” 27 times.

Columella is mentioned on map sheet Ort193 once. Further in map texts: Ort193.59, 196.13, 199.18, 199.61, 200.36, 218.6, 232.24;

On Farming Bk.1: Ort196.61, Bk.4 Ch.1: Ort218.8;

Citing Dionysius, Mago & Varro: Ort218.7.

Columna, Hieronymus, 16th century, was an Italian who wrote “Commentaries” about the Poet Ennius (Ort209,226; also in lemma RVDIÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) part of Columna’s “Fragmenta explicationibus” ), Naples, 1590 he is mentioned as a source.

Commentaries on Ennius: Ort209.6, 226.98;

Coluthus Thebaeus Lycopolitanus, 1st c.? was a Greek author who wrote about the ravishing of Helena, translated into Latin as “Raptus Helenae”. Ortelius refers to this work once as a source in lemma ENNEA CYCLVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma THERAMNÆ .

Comes, Hermannus Nuenarius or Hermann von Newenar or Neuenahr, late 16th century, was a provost of Cologne who wrote “Origines Francicae”(Ort100).

Ort100.4.

Comes, Marcellinus, who died in 534, contributed to “Chronicon quod rerum orientalium historiam Eusebii ex Hiernonymi usque ad Iustiniani tempora prosequitur”, also known as “Liber Notitiarum” [Book of Remembrances or Records], see also that entry, (Ort112,203,212,214,221) but also “Miscellaneous Stories” (Ort212). Comes is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. Ortelius calls him in lemma NAISVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) “auctor valde depravatus”, [an author who seriously distorts matters]. Altogether, Comes is mentioned 30 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 39 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort213.10;

Liber Notitiarum [The book of remembrances] Ort48.10, 112.8, 203.5, 212.6, 212.16, 213.10, 214.3, 214.34, 221.7;

Miscellaneous Stories: Ort212.6.

Comes, Natalis, or Natale Conti, Milan 1520 – Venice 1582, was an important Italian mythographer, and a poet, humanist and historian. His “Mythologiae”, in Latin, became a standard work on classical mythology for Renaissance Europe, and was reprinted in a large number of editions. Ortelius refers twice to this work of Comes Natalis in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin of this work in 1584. He also wrote a “History of Venice” which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1583.

Comitibus, Nicolaus de, who died in 1468, from Padua, wrote “Opus astrologicum” and “Commentarii in Aristotelem”.

Ort163.5.

Comitus see Comes, Marcellus.

Commelinus, Hieronymus, Douai 1550 - Heidelberg 1597. A very active press printing works in Greek operated in Heidelberg late in the fifteenth century, largely due to the arrival of this fugitive Belgian/French Calvinist, Hieronymus Commelinus. Having formerly studied at Heidelberg and began printing in Germany in 1587. Closely allied with the scholar Friedrich Sylburg, be published a series of fine classical editions before his death in 1597. Ortelius paid him 5 florins in 1595, without specifying the reason for this payment. Commelinus wrote two letters to Ortelius in 1590 and 1591 (Hessels 179, 203).

Comnenus, Alexius Emanuel, Greek: λέξιος Α' Κομνηνός, 1056 – 15 August 1118, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118, and the founder of the Comnenian dynasty. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor and the Normans in the western Balkans, Alexius was able to halt the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the "Comnenian restoration". His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that triggered the Crusades. He wrote “De Constitutionibus which is referred to by Ortelius 15 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587) e.g. in lemma SOZOPOLIS and 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is altogether mentioned 24 times as a source.

Complutensis Codex is a 10th century Latin manuscript of the Old and New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the Latin Vulgate Bible. In some parts of the Old Testament, it presents an Old Latin version. This codex is mentioned as a source in lemma RAPHAIM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Conciliorum Opus or Liber conciliorum is a book listing possibly written by Cyprianus, see lemma MARAZANA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). The “Libri conciliorum” are records of the transactions of the council of the order of the Hospitallers. The council, presided over by the Grand Master, constituted the government of the Order and was comprised of two parts: the Ordinary council, which consisted of the knights residing in the convent, and the Complete Council, which was the Ordinary Council plus two senior knights. The Ordinary Council decided on promotions, pensions, and admissions into the Order. The Complete Council was a tribunal and court of last appeal. The “Libri conciliorum” contain the minutes of the Council's meetings; they list the subject under discussion, but not necessarily the details of the discussion or the amounts of money allocated for its expense. The minutes record the names of knights who appeared before the council and the outcome of the cases it heard. Many of these cases involve cargos captured by the Order's fleet. Beginning in the 16th century, the chancery began copying volumes in the series and creating indexes. These contemporary finding aids are counted as part of the “Liber conciliorum”. The 186 volumes may be divided into 15 categories of which the first is of importance here: Arch. 73-167: “Liber conciliorum” (95 volumes) 1459-1797, contain the original records of the proceedings and deliberations of the Council. The “Liber conciliorum” is mentioned as a source in lemmas SEGGERA and VIVA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). It is altogether mentioned 57 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas APAMIA and CYCLENSIS

Concilium Alexandrinus see Alexandria.

Concilium Cartaginensis see Carthago.

Concilium Chalcedonensis, see Calcedonensis.

Concilium Constantinopolitano see Constantinople.

Concilium Eliberitanum see Eliberitanus.

Concilium Galiciæ see Galiciæ

Concilium Magotiensis see Magotiensis

Concilium Nicenensis see Nicene.

Concilium Lugdunensis see Lyon, council of.

Cononius, who died in 687, was a cardinal in Sicily of Greek descent, consecrated as pope in 686, an office which he only held for one year. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma AEGAEVM MARE.

Conradus or Konrad of Lichtenau or Lichtenavius or Abbas Urspergensis, whodied in 1240, was the abbot of a monastery in Ursberg, Bavaria who wrote a chronicle “De Renorum successione”, first printed in Strasbourg in 1537. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synomymia”  (1578) and occurs 8 times in this corpus, 7 times in Thesaurus (1587) and 21 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In the Papal Index he is censured as a heretic.

Constantinople, Council or Synod,
The first council or synod,
which took place in 382 under pope Samasus is referred to 27 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 10 times in “Thesaurus” (1596); the third council is 4 times referred to as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596);the fifth council, which took place in 553 is referred to 30 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 38 times in “Thesaurus” (1596);
the sixth synod, which took place in 680 is referred to 81 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 58 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)
A synod without a number is mentioned once in lemma RANIENSIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and 14 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Constantinus Africanus or Constantine the African, c. 1020 – 1087, was an 11th-century translator of Greek and Islamic medical texts. The first of his works of translation from Arabic to Latin was the “Complete Book of the Medical Art”, from the “kitab al-malaki (Royal Book) of the 10th-century Persian physician 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas, in 1087. This text was the first comprehensive Arabic medical text. Shortly after that, the work came to be known as the “Pantegni”, “complete art”. The significance of this text was that it was an important resource for the student of the transmission of scientific ideas inasmuch as the “Complete Book of the Medical Art” contains a compilation of 128 known manuscripts. This text also contains a survey of the 108 known Latin manuscripts of Constantinus Africanus or Constantine the African. This text rapidly became part of the standard medical curriculum for students. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma COMÆ and occurs altogether 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma SAMIES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius suggests that this author may also be called Caßius Dionysius. In chapter PANOS of “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Ortelius refers to Constantinus’ “Geoponicoon” as a source.

Constantinus Magnus Maximus or Constantine the Great or Constantinus Flavius Valerius Aurelius, Naissus, 27 Februari ca. 280 - Ancyrona, 22 May 337, was emperor of the East-Roman empire. In July 306 he was acclaimed by his troops as imperator and Augustus, but only recognised as such in 308. As a result of his military victories he was to rule an increasing part of the Roman empire until he was the single ruler of this empire as Constantine the Great. He is particularly known as the first emperor who became a Christian which ended persecution of Christians. He is referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) 4 times, e.g. in CALLISTVS. In the same work, Ortelius refers to his “Panegyricum” 5 times, and also twice in lemmas VINDONIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and OLACHAS of “Thesaurus” (1596). In the lemmas BOANÆ and GORDATVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) reference is made to his “Selectarum Praeceptionum de agricultura libri 20”, first published in Leiden, 1543 via Uticensus. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) Constantinus’ “Panegyricus” is mentioned 11 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 12 times. Altogether he is mentioned 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 16 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Constantinus Manasses see Manasses, Constantinus.

Constantinus of Lijskirchen, 16th century, was Senior Councillor of the Cologne Republic.

Mentioned in the cartouche as the person to which the Deutschlandt map is dedicated, Ort57.

Constantinus, Robert, flourished mid 16th century, was a teacher of ancient languages in Geneva who wrote a “Supplement on the Latin Language” (Ort210); also referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and twice in lemmas HIBERIA and TARBELLA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Constantinus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 7 times in its text. Altogether, he occurs as a source 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote a “Panegyricus” to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578). Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1572 calling this work a “Thesaurus”.

Ort210.23;

Supplement on the Latin language: Ort213.20.

Constantius, 2nd c. AD., was the first bishop of Perugia, Italy. He was emprisoned, tortured, martyred and beheaded in 170 AD by Marcus Aurelius. Ortelius refers to his “Life” as a source in lemma ICAVNA of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and to his “Life of saint Germanus Antissiodorensus” in lemmas MATOGENVS and METODORVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and also in lemma ICAVNA  of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Contarenus, Ambrosius or Gasparo Contarini, 1483 - 1542, bishop of Belluno, wrote “Persian Journies” (Ort162) and “Codex”, to which Ortelius refers twice in his “Synonymia” (1578). In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned as a source 3 times.

Ort167.10;

Persian journies: Ort162.8.

Contestagio, Hieronymus, died in 1635, from Genoa was Archbishop of Capua, Italy. He wrote “Dell’ Unione del regno di Portogallo alla corona di Castiglia” Genoa, 1585, translated into French by Nardin and published in Besançon in 1596, and in Latin, published in  Frankfurt in 1602. It contains information on the Azores. Ortelius calls this work “History” in the text on the Açores (Ort24). Conestagius is mentioned as a source in lemma ZILIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

History: Ort24.11

Conti, Niccolò de, 1395 – 1469, was a Venetian merchant, traveller and explorer from Chioggia. His information was used by Fra Mauro.

Ort163.14-15.

Contractus, Hermannus Augiensis of Reichenau, 1013 – 1054, was a scholar, composer, music theorist, mathematician, and astronomer. Hermannus was a son of the duke of Altshausen. He spent most of his life in the abbey of Reichenau, an island on lake Constance. He was renowned as a musical composer. He also wrote a treatise on the science of music, several works on geometry and arithmetics and astronomical treatises including instructions for the construction of an astrolabe, at the time a very new device in Western Europe. As a historian, he wrote a detailed “Chronicle” from the birth of Christ to his own present day, for the first time compiling the events of the 1st millennium AD scattered in various chronicles in a single work, ordering them after the reckoning of the Christian era. In the lemmas HEPHAD and ISTROS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) Contractus’ “Chronicle” is mentioned as a source. Contractus is mentioned 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma LIBIAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius calls him an imitator of Eusebius.

Cools see Colius.

Coornhert or Cornhert, Dirk Volkertszoon, Amsterdam 1522 - Gouda 1590, was a Dutch humanist, author and engraver who had Filip Galle as his apprentice, and printer. He translated Latin classical works into Dutch. His main work is “Zedekunst” or “Art of Living” which was published in 1586. He corresponded with Ortelius (Hessels 75), thanking him for sending engravings by Bruegel and Philips, and contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 120, 1579).

Cope or op or Copus, Lucas of Savoye, fl. 2nd half 16th c., was a translator who contributed 2 pages to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (22 vo), of which one page was later removed.

Copper plate of Genua see Æneas Sylvius.

Coppo, Petro, 1469 – 1566, was a Venetian cartographer who mostly lived and worked in Izola, Istria. He designed a map of Histriæ, Venice, 1515, which was used by Ortelius (Ort143b). He and his Istria map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Histriæ map as its maker, Ort143b.

Copus, Alanus, fl. late 16th c., was a theologian who published “Dialogi sex contra summi pontificatus monasticae vitae, sanctorum imaginam, expugnatores et pseudomartyres”, Plantin 1573, 1578. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1589.

Copus, Lucas, late 16th c., was a French author who wrote “Rabbelex” which was considered gravely impious. He contributed 2 pages to Ortelius’ “Liber Amicorum”  (f.22vo) but one page of his contribution was later removed.

Coquus, Henricus or Enrique or Hendrik Cock, born in Gorcum, Netherlands, 1550 - 1598, entered the service of Philip II. He wrote itineraries such as “Relacion del viaje hecho por Felipe II” en 1585 a Zaragoza, Barcelona y Valencia”. He also made a map of “Hispania Nova”, and designed a map of ancient Spain (Salamanca, 1581; also referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas IVLIOBRICA, LAVARE, OLIBA, SISAPONE and VLLA. He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1584 onwards. He wrote “Calendarium collectum imagines sanctorum martyrum et confessorum”, Carpetania, 1590. He is referred to in “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum”as contributing to the Parergon map of Spain (Ort193) and this map is referred to as a source 5 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Altogether he is mentioned 38 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 39 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Corbulus, Gnaeus Domitius, c. 7 - 67 AD., was a Roman general. He committed suicide as ordered by Nero. He wrote a book, now lost, on Asia which is quoted by Plinius and in turn once by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Corck van, Gerard see Van Cork

Corcquius, Gerardus Suberimus, born in 1526, was a Flemish lawyer who wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1595 (Hessels 270) relating military and political events in Western Europe.

Corinus see Caranus.

Corio, Bernardino, 1459 - 1519(?) of Milan wrote a “Patria Historia” about this city (Ort125) with a Latin title, but further in Italian, printed in 1544 and 1565.

Ort126.11, 132.12;

History of Milan: Ort125.8.

Coriolanus Cepio, 1425 – 1493, of Trogir, Dalmatia was the author of a biography of the Venetian military leader and statesman Pietro Mocenigo, called “De Petri Mocenici Venetæ classis imperatoris contra Othomannum Turcorum principem rebus gestis, libri tres”, printed in Venice, 1477. Ortelius refers to this work 3 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in lemma LABEATIS.

Corippus, Flavius Cresconius Africanus, 6th century AD, wrote “on the glorious king of great Judah, Salomon” (Ort214), the epic “De bellis Libycis” and “De laudibus Iustiniani” [In praise of emperor Justinianus], mentioned as a source in lemmas GARISÆI and IBALIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and “Itinerarium”, edited by Busbequius, of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1581. Corippus is referred to as a source twice in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort209.13, 209.16; Salomon Bk.4 214.32.

Corius see Corio.

Cornelis Antoniades or Anthoniuszoon, 1507 - c. 1545, was an Amsterdam artist and topographer who made a map of Oostland or Northern Europe (Ort86a); also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma BALTICVM, Amsterdam, 1543. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, and is referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Cornelis Anthoniuszoon is mentioned in the cartouche of the half sheet Denmark map as its maker, Ort86a.

Cornelis Nepos see Probus.

Cornelius, Aurelius, 1460 – 1523, from Gouda, Holland, was a humanist and friend of Erasmus. He wrote “Marias”, a long series of elegiac poems, a “Chronijcke van Hollant, Zeelant ende van Vrieslandt” or History of Holland (Ort79) which appeared in 1517. He tried to establish the location of “Insula Batavorum”.

History of Holland: Ort79.21.

Cornelius Lucius Balbus, 1st c. BC.,  called Minor to distinguish him from his uncle, received the Roman citizenship at the same time as his uncle. During the civil war, he served under Julius Caesar, by whom he was entrusted with several important missions. He also took part in the Alexandrian and Spanish wars. He was rewarded for his services by being admitted into the college of pontiffs. In 43 BC he was quaestor to Asinius Pollio in Spain, where he amassed a large fortune by plundering the inhabitants. Balbus appears to have given some attention to literature. He wrote a play of which the subject was his visit to Lentulus in the camp of Pompeius at Dyrrhachium, and, according to Macrobius in his “Saturnalia, iii. 6”, Balbus was the author of a work called χηγητικά dealing with the gods and their worship. He is referred to as a source once by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Cornelius Nepos see Probus.

Cornetus, Petrus, fl. late 16th c., was a Dutch chart maker from Rotterdam who is mentioned as a source in lemma ELEVSINA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Cornificius, Quintus, mid-first century BC., was the Roman author of a work on rhetorical figures, and perhaps of a general treatise on the art of rhetoric. He is mentioned once as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Cornutus, Annæus, 1st c. AD., was a Roman grammarian who among other works wrote “Vita Persi”, referred to as a source in lemmas LICINII and PARNASSVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas BOVILLÆ and VIRBI CLIVI of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Corradus, Sebastianus, fl. mid-16th c., was an Italian author who wrote a biography of Cicero called “Quæstura”, published in Bologna, 1555. Ortelius refers to Corradus in his “Synonymia” (1578) three times, e.g. in lemma CYZICVS. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is referred to 3 times as a source in lemmas CYZICVS, MILETVM and THVRIVM.

Corsali or Corsalis, Andreas, born in 1487, was an explorer of the sea in the service of king Emanuel of Portugal. He travelled to the Indies and China in 1516 and recorded this journey in “De navigatione maris rubri et sinus Persici”. His “Navigatione in Conchin” was included in Ramusio as well as in Temporal’s “Recueil Tom. II” Lyon, France 1556. He is mentioned on the mapsheet of Ort166 in connection with New Guinea. See also Giulia Grazi (2003) “Per Andrea Corsali”, Soc. Tip. Barbieri, Noccioli & C., Empoli, Italia. Corsali is once mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L),  twice in “Synonymia” (1573L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In lemmas IABADII and TAPROBANA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Corsali is mentioned as a source.

On mapsheet of Americas concerning New Guinea which he calls Piccennacola: Ort 9, Ort10, Ort 11, Ort166;

In text: Ort164.21.

Corsalis see Corsali.

Cort or Curtius, Cornelis, Hoorn 1533 - Rome 1578, was a talented engraver and painter who first worked in Antwerp and subsequently went to Venice to work for Titian. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f. 111).

Cortesius, Ferdinand or Hernándo Cortéz, 1485 – 1547, was a Spaniard who forcefully conquered Mexico and wrote down his experiences in 4 books, published by Ramusio. “His treatise “De insulis noviter inventis” was included in “Novus Orbis” (Ort13) by Simon Grynæus. He also wrote “Navigationes” (Ort13).

Ort9.31, 10.31, 11.34, 13.11;

Novus Orbis: Ort13.2, 13.18;

Navigations: Ort13.9.

Cortez see Cortesius.

Corvinus, Laurentius of Novof, 1495 – 1527, Neumark (Novoforensis) near Breslau, philologist and geographer, wrote “Geographia ostendens omnes regiones terræ habitabiles, diversa hominum genera” [geography showing all inhabitable regions and its various people], Basel 1496, published by his student Heinrich Bebel, and reissued in 1557 with the “Geography” of Dominicus Niger. He also wrote geographical poems such as “De Polonia et Cracovia” and “De Silesie et Novo foro”.

Ort1.36, 2.36, 3.39, 102.4, 102.18, 103.13, 174.5a.

Corvinus, Marcus Valerius Messala, 64 BC – 8 AD, was a Roman general, author and patron of literature and art. Messala was himself the author of various works, all of which are lost. They included memoirs of the civil wars after the death of Caesar, used by Suetonius and Plutarchus and referred to by Ortelius as “De Progenie Augusti” in “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas MEDOACVS and QVIRITIVM, without being certain of Corvinus’ authorship. Further he wrote bucolic poems in Greek; translations of Greek speeches, occasional satirical and erotic verses and essays on the minutiae of grammar. As an orator, he followed Cicero instead of the Atticising school, but his style was affected and artificial. Later critics considered him superior to Cicero, and Tiberius adopted him as a model. He is mentioned once as a source in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned twice as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 3 times, e.g. in lemma DARDANIA.

Cosmas of Prague, c. 1045 – October 21, 1125, was a Bohemian priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia. Between 1075 and 1081, he studied in Liège. After his return to Bohemia, he became a priest and married Božetěcha, with whom he probably had a son. In 1086 Cosmas was appointed prebendary (canonicus) of Prague, which was quite a prestigious position. As prebendary he also travelled through Europe on official matters. His main work is “Chronica Bohemorum”, 12th century. [Chronicle of Bohemians]. Ortelius bought a copy of this work in 1587 from Plantin.

 “Costuymen van Antwerpen”, published anonymously in 1582, is a city ordinance regulating insurance matters in Antwerp on the basis of instructions from Philip II. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1584.

Cousin see Cognatus Nozerenus.

Crafft von Craftheim see Crato.

Craneveldius or Franciscus van Cranevelt, Nijmegen, 3 Februari 3, 1485 - Mechelen, 8 September 8, 1564, was a Dutch humanist, hellenist and lawyer. In 1515 he became governor of Brugge. In 1522 Charles V appointed him councillor of Mechelen. He was a close friend of  Erasmus, Thomas More, Adrianus Barlandus and Juan Luis Vives. He wrote “Basilii magni Homiliæ tres. I. De utilitale capienda ex gentilium auctorum libris. II. De invidia. III. in illud attende tihi ipsi”, Leuven, 1534, a translation of homilies of the Greek church father Basilius. He also wrote “Procopii rhetoris et historiographi de Justiniani imperatoris oedificiis libri VI lectu dignissimi, nunc recens latinitate donati per Franciscum Craneveldium”, Paris, 1537. Ortelius refers to him once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma PERINTHVS.

Crantzius or Cranz or Kranz, Albertus, abt. 1448 – 1517, of Münster and Hamburg wrote “Saxonia” (Ort80,81,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,99,158). Ortelius also refers to the preface of this book, written by Cisnerus and used as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578). It is also mentioned as a source in lemma HILINONICVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Further, Crantzius wrote “Metropolis” (Ort85,87,90; also mentioned as a source in lemma LVITITII of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)), as well as a “Description of Wandalica” (Ort99,101,154,155,158,160,162); also mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) e.g. in lemmas HEIDEBA and ROXOLANI). He is also mentioned 13 times as a source in “Synonymia” (1570L), 15 times in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and 11 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Crantzius is altogether mentioned 17 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 21 times.

Mentioned on the mapsheets Ort87B and Ort89B; in texts:

Ort80.12, 80.36, 81.9, 84.5, 84.8, 85.6, 86.6, 87.8, 87.9, 87.12, 87.17, 95.14, 99.2, 100.6, 161.13, 161.17, 161.19, 161.29, 161.68-70, 161.75;

Chronicle of Saxony: Ort80.7, 81.9, 88.7, 89.7, 89.10, 89.15, 90.7, 91.8, 92.2, 93.3, 99.4, Bk.5 Ch.27: Ort87.2-6, 92.11, 92.15, 92.17, 92.18, 100.6, Bk.6 158.8, 158.15, 158.33;

Metropolis Bk.2, Ch. 13: Ort85.10, 85.11, Bk.3 , 90.9, 90.10, Bk.5, ch.27: 87.2, 87.6, 87.8, 87.9, 87.12, 87.17;

Wandalica: Ort99.4, 101.6, 101.22, 154.16, 155.16, 162.8, Bk.6: Ort160.17, 160.26-27.

Cranz see Crantzius.

Craterus, 3rd c. BC., was a Macedonian historian. He was brother of Antigonus II Gonatas and father of Alexander, the prince of Corinth. He distinguished himself as a diligent compiler of historical documents relating to the history of Attica. He made a collection of Attic inscriptions, containing decrees of the people (“psephismaton synagogue”) and out of them he seems to have constructed a diplomatic history of Athens. This work is frequently referred to by Harpocration and Stephanus of Byzantium. Craterus is referred to once as a source in the lemma ERIZENA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Crates Pergamenus (Roman times) is an unidentified source in Plinius the Elder, quoted once via Plinius as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma GYMNETAS. In lemma SAMARIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “De Pergamenis vetustis codibus” as a source.

Cratetes, 4th century BC., from Thebe threw his riches into the sea in order not to let them corrupt him. He was commented on by Plutarchus.

Ort224.13.

Cratinus Comicus, 5th century BC., was a Greek painter who wrote “De Ulyssibus”, quoted by Athenæus (Ort224).

De Ulyssibus, quoted by Athenæus: Ort224.32.

Crato, Johannes, Breslau or Wroclaw 1519 – 1585, von Crafftheim, Silesia, royal physician, was a friend of Ortelius who served under three emperors, viz. father Ferdinand I, son Maximilian II and  nephew Rodolphus II. He wrote about Silesia (Ort102,103), probably not a formal publication, but a manuscript letter. Next to that he also wrote letters to Ortelius in 1570, 1575 (twice), 1578, 1579, 1583 (Hessels 30, 57, 58, 79, 90, 127) providing him among other things with place names in German and Czech occuring in Moravia. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Liber Amicorum” (ff. 8,11v.12, dated 1574,1583,1584).

Ort104.11, 104.60;

Letter on Silesia: Ort102.7, 102.18, 103.2, 103.13.

Cremer see Mercator.

Cremonensis, Gerardus, late 15th - early 16th century, from Cremona is mentioned in dedication form on a woodcut map included in a treatise on astronomy by Appianus which was published in Nürnberg in 1534.

Ort19.10d, 175.6.

Cresfeldtor Creffeld, Martinus Carolus, fl. mid-16th c., was born in Hassia and became a teacher in Deventer. He is reported to have made a map of the IJssel area, including Deventer around 1565. He and his IJssel map are first included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in the “Theatrum” of 1579, but Ortelius did not use this map.

Criginger see Crigingerius.

Crigingerius, also Criginger, Kriegner, Krüger, Ioannes, 1521 – 1571, from Bohemia studied in Wittemberg, Leipzig and Tübingen and became a teacher in Crimmitschau and Marienberg. He wrote tragedies, became a priest, and tried to establish links between theology and geography. He designed maps of Meissen & Thüringen, Prague, 1568, used by Ortelius (Ort93), and he also made a map of Bohemia (Prague, 1568) used by Ortelius (Ort101). He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, with his Misnia and Thuringia map.

Map of Bohemia published in Prague: Ort93.22, 101.6, 101.10, 101.23.

Crinitus, Petrus or Pietro Crinito, January 9, 1475 – July 5, 1507, was an Italian Florentine humanist scholar. He is best known for his “De honesta disciplina” of 1504. This has been taken to be a source for the work of Nostradamus. He is referred to as a source in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Crispinus, Lucius Quintius, second century BC., was a Roman praetor for Spain.

Ort193.53.

Cromer, Martin  or Cromerus, 1512 - 1589, was a Polish historian and theologian who became a leader of the Polish counter-reformation, and who was appointed bishop of Ermeland in 1579. He wrote two works about Poland: “Chronicon de origine et rebus gestis Polonorum”, Basel, 1555, Cologne, 1589 of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1578 (Ort88,101,152,153,154,155,156,157,158) and “Polonia sive de situ, populis moribus … Poloniæ”, Basel. Cromer is mentioned 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia (1578) and occurs 4 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned as a source 7 times.

Ort145.6, 154.4, 155.4;

Polish Matters and History: Ort154.4, 154.16, 155.16, 156.2, 156.9, 157.2, 157.9, 157.23, 158.19, 158.35, Bk.1: Ort101.6, 101.22, Bk.3: Ort88.12, Bk.12: Ort152.7, 153.7.

Cromerus see Cromer.

Cruquius or Crugius or Cruyck, Jacobus, Messines in Flanders 1520 - Brugge 1584, studied law and philology in Leuven and taught classical languages in Brugge. He published many classical manuscripts, notably by Horatius and was a friend of Ortelius. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas AVLON, BARIVM, ESSENI, EVONIMVS, FABRICIVS, FERENTA, FERENTINVM, FERONIA, LAVERNIVM and PETRINVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) as editor of Horatius. Cruquius also quotes from manuscripts, as in lemma BATINA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, Cruquius is mentioned 19 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought one of his Horatius publications from Plantin in 1574, and again in 1590. Cruquius contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f. 40, undated). 

Cruserius, Hermannus or Herman Croeser, mid 16th c., was born in Belgium and studied Greek, philosophy and medicine. He edited Plutarchus (1564) and wrote “Turcograecia” of which Ortelius bought a copy in 1584 from Plantin. Cruserius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned twice as a source.

Crusius, Martin, 16th c., was a German scholar of Tübingen who wrote “Elementorum Rhetorices”, Basel, 1574. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma TZVRVLVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ctesias, late 5th century BC., of Knidos, Greece, was the physician of king Artaxerxes II. He wrote “Indika” (Indica) and a Persian history called “Persika” (Persica) in which he criticises Herodotus, although his own credibility is not much higher. Ortelius refers to this work once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587). He is referred to as a source 5 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 20 times in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma ALPHION of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ctesias is quoted as a source via Antigonus.  Further, Ctesias is mentioned as a source in lemma SIDEN of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) via Plinius and in lemma SIGINNVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Stephanus Byzantinus. Ctesias “Indica” is mentioned as a source in lemma BALLADE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and his “Perigesaeos” in lemma COSYTE of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 29 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort217.5, 217.26.

Cuiacius or Cujacius, Jacobus or Jacques de Cujas, 1520 – 4 October 1590, was a French legal expert. He was prominent among the French legal humanists or “mos gallicus” school, which sought to abandon the work of the medieval commentators and concentrate on ascertaining the correct text and social context of the original works of Roman law. His emendations, of which a large number were published under the title of “Animadversiones et observations”, were not confined to lawbooks, but extended to many of the Latin and Greek classical authors. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas OPHENSIS, SVCCINIENSE and SYRIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Curchino, Antonio see Haitho.

Curæus or Curius, Joachim, 1532 – 1573, was a physicist of Glogau, who wrote a Silesian Chronicle “Gentis Silesiæ annales” (Ort102,103), Wirtenberg, 1571. He had access to unpublished work by Duglossus and reported on this work (Ort154,155). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Curaeus is censured as a heretic. Curæus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 7 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 9 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 10 times.

Ort93.11, 158.7;

Chronicle on Silesia :  102.19, 103.15;

Quoting Iohannes Duglossus: Ort154.17, 155.17.

Curio, Cælius Augustinus Secundus, 1538 – 1567, was an Italian who taught eloquence at Basel University. He published works by Bembo and Pierio Valerio and wrote a Saracen history: “Saracenicæ historiæ libri tres, ab eorum origine ad initium imperii Ottomanici” (Ort163,167,177)  Basel, 1567, 1568, Frankfurt, 1596. Also: “Wars on Malta” (Ort141) and “Descriptio Marrochensis Regni” [About the Kingdom of Morocco] (Ort176); this work is also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma SALA. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Curio is censured as a heretic. Curio is mentioned 39 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L),  in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578), and 13 times in its text. Curio is mentioned 15 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 16 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Saracen History: Ort163.8, 167.5, 177.13;

Wars on Malta: Ort141.12;

About the Kingdom of Marocco: Ort176.11.

Curius Joachim see Curæus.

Curopalates, Ioannes Scylitzes, fl. 11th c., was a Greek contemporary of Cedrenus. He wrote “Annales” covering history as far as 1081. He was edited and published by Baptist Gabius, as is clear from lemma THERMITZA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Curoplates’ “Officialibus Constantinopolitanis” is mentioned as a source in lemmas BRYSIS, CAVCACI, CHALCEDON, CYPRVS, DRAGOVINTIA, DRAMA, GALITZA, GERDICA, IVSTINIANA, LITBADA and ZECHIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) as edited by Codinus. Curopalates is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 10 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 230 times as a source. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Curopalates  altogether 287 times.

Curtius, Cornelis see Cort.

Curtius Rufus Quintus see Rufus Quintus Curtius

Cusanus or Cryffts, Nicolaus, 1410 – 1464, was a German-born universal scholar who drew a manuscript map of Central Europe around 1460, which was published in various forms in the late 15th century. He and his Germany map are mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards via Althamer, but Ortelius did not use his map.

Cuspinianus, or Cuspinian , Johannes or Hans Spiesshaymer , 1473 – 1529, was a professor, physician and historian in Vienna. He published and commented on the works by Dionysius Apher, and also on works by Florus. He wrote “Oratio Protreptica” (Ort150,153) and a “Description of Austria” (Ort116,150) published in 1553 and referred to as a soure in lemmas CLAVDIVIVM and SEMPRONIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). He was co-editor of the Hungary map by Lazarus Secretarius. He is quoted by Collimitus (Ort114). Ortelius included him in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards mentioning his Hungaria map, edited by Petrus Apianus and mentioned by Lazius in his Hungary map. Cuspinianus edited Ammianus Marcellinus, as stated in lemma HERMOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). In the lemmas DARDANIA and HÆMVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Cuspinianus is mentioned as a source. Altogether, he is mentioned 8 times in this “Thesaurus” (1587) and 16 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort105.7, 105.14, 106.7, 106.14, 112.9, 168.8, 169.8;

Oratio Protreptica: Ort150.13, 153.8.

History of Austria: Ort116.2, 150.13;

Quoted by Collimitius: Ort114.4;

Cyprianus, Thascius Cæcilius, church father and saint, 200 – 258, wrote numerous works which much later were published collectively as “Opera”, Stuttgart, 1486. He was converted to Christianity as an adult in 246 and became bishop of Carthago two years later. He survived the Decian persecutions of 250/251 by retreating from Carthago and ruling his flock by letter, but was beheaded in 258 during another round of persecutions of Christians for refusing to sacrifice to Roman gods. He occurs once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), Cyprianus’ work “Historia de revelatione capitis St. Ioannis” is mentioned 3 times; it is also mentioned as a source in lemmas ALNIENSIS, ENGERIACVM, MATHEVALLIS and VVLTONNA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). His “Letters”  and his dealings with the council of Carthago are mentioned frequently as sources. In lemma SALARIA of “Thesaurus” (1587), Ortelius refers to his “Passio” via Surius. In lemma SALARIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Cyprianus’ “Vita” was described by Pontius. According to Ortelius in lemma MAPALIA of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), he was buried in Mapalia. In lemma MARAZANA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is described as the author of “Conciliorum Opus”, see also there. He guided a council of Carthago, as reported in lemma SVFFETVLA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 62 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 58 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In the preface of “Deorum Dearum” Cyprianus is mentioned also as a source.

Ort209.3.

Cyriacus Appianus Anconitanus, 15th century, of Ancona, Italy travelled in Europe and parts of Africa and Asia and reported about his travels. He wrote “Epistolæ ad Ioannem Palæologum Byzantinum imperatorem et alios”, probably referred to by Ortelius as “Inscriptions” (Ort31). Cyriacus is mentioned as a source 4 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included as a source in Ortelius’ “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 3 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 4 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 5 times.

Inscriptions: Ort31.8, 31.9.

Cyriacus Spangeberg see Spangeberg, Cyriacus.

Cyrillus, 827 Thessalonica - 869 Rome, inventor of Cyrillic script, was a brother of saint Methodius. Born to the Greek nobility, his family was connected with the senate of Thessalonica, and his mother Maria may have been Slavonic. He studied at the university of Constantinople, and taught philosophy there. He was a deacon, priest and librarian at the church of Santa Sophia. As a monk, he assumed the name the name Cyril. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is once mentioned as a source.

Cytinus, Chius, 1324 – 1398, or Demetrios Kydones was a Greek humanist and theologian who wrote letters and reported about resistance against the Turks. He also translated theological writings. He is quoted by Apollonius (Ort191,192).

Quoted by Apollonius: Ort191.14, 192.77.

Dalechampius, see Dalèchamps.

Dalèchamps or Dalechampius, Jacques, 1513 – 1588, was a French author who published and commented on “Historia Naturalis” by Plinius Caius Secundus as “Notes sur l’histoire naturelle de Pline”. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1587. He also quotes Athenæus (Ort196), whose work he also edited, as appears from lemma THERADVM in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Dalechampius quotes Athenaeus in lemma CAVARÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Magnum Herbarium” is mentioned as a source in lemmas SEBVSIANI and VIDVGASSES of “Thesaurus” (1596) as “attributed to Dalechampius”. Dalechampius quotes from a manuscript in lemma TONDEROS of “Thesaurus” (1596). He is altogether mentioned as a source once in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 49 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort203.34, 214.5, 222.11;

Based on Athenæus: Ort196.28.

Dalechampus see Dalèchamps.

Damascensis see Damascenus.

Damascenus, Ioannes, Saint, 7th c., was the author of “De Fide Orthodoxa”. He is mentioned as a source in the lemmas AUXENTIVS and in lemma SILEI mentioning his “Vita Stephani Iunioris” as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), and in lemma ZICCHIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether he is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Damascenus, Mnaseas or Manasseas, first century BC, was a writer and historian of Damascus who wrote mythological tales. Later, he fled to Persia. He is quoted by Josephus (Ort183) and by Strabo (Ort232). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) but does not occur in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned once as a source.

Quoted by Iosephus: Ort183.4;

Quoted by Strabo: Ort232.25.

Damascenus, Nicolaus, Greek: Νικόλαος Δαμασκηνός, born about 64 BC., was a Greek historian and philosopher. His name is derived from that of his birthplace, Damascus. He was an intimate friend of Herodus the Great, whom he survived by a number of years. He was also the tutor of the children of Antony and Cleopatra, born around 40 BC., according to Sophronius. He went to Rome with Herodus Archelaus. His output was vast, but nearly all of it has been lost. His chief work was a universal history in 144 books. He also wrote an autobiography, a life of Augustus, a life of Herodus, some philosophical works, and some tragedies and comedies. Ortelius refers to him as a source via Josephus in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas ABRAHAMI and GORDIÆVS. Altogether he is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Damasus I, Saint, was pope from 366 to 384. He was born around 305 near the city of Idanha-a-Velha in Lusitania, in what is present-day Portugal.  His life coincided with the rise of Constantinus I and the reunion and redivision of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires as well as what is sometimes known as the Constantinian shift, associated with the widespread legitimization of Christianity and the later adoption of Christianity as the religion of the Roman state. Ortelius refers 5 times to his “Vita Silvestri papae” in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)), once to his “Julius” in “Thesaurus” (1587) and once to his “Pontiano Papa” in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He is altogether mentioned 9 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Damianus à Goes see Goes, Damian.

Damianus, Petrus or San Pierre Damiani or Pier di Damiano or Pietro Damiani , Ravenna, 1007 – Faenza, 1072, was an Italian theologian, bishop and cardinal. He wrote “Life of Saint Romualdus, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma CANDILIANVS.

Damman, Adrien, lord of Bijsterveld, born in Lemberg near Gent 1540 – died 1604 or later. He was a humanist professor who taught in Gent, Leiden and later eloquence and history in Edinburgh, Scotland, where he embraced Calvinism. He wrote Latin poetry, and contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 64v. 65, undated).

Danaeus or Daneau, Lambert, 1530 – 1595, was a French theologist who studied in Orleans and Paris. As a protestant, he fled to Geneva and studied there under Calvin. Later, he was a professor and protestant theologist in Belgium and the Netherlands. He wrote “Ethices Christianae”, Geneva, 1577, and “Opuscula omnis theological” , Geneva, 1583. Ortelius refers to his “Geographia Poetica”, Geneva, 1587, in lemma OLMIVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Danielis, Greek: Δανιηλίς, fl. 9th century AD., was a widowed Byzantine noblewoman from Patras. According to the written tradition, continuing in the tradition of Theophanes, she was an extremely wealthy landowner, owning a significant part of the Peloponnesos, as well as a flourishing carpet- and textile-industry. Ortelius refers to her once once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578, 1596) in the lemma EVLÆVS.

Danius, Eldadus see Eldadus.

Dante or Danti, Egnazio or Aligerius, Perugia 1536 – Alatri 1586, was an Italian astronomer, map maker, instrument maker and monk of Perugia. He made maps of Perugia, Rome, 1580, and Orvieto, Rome, 1583. He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1592 onwards, and is mentioned in the cartouche of the Perugia map (Ort136) as its maker. His Orvieto map was not used by Ortelius. He is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). He wrote Ortelius in 1580 (Hessels 100) describing his project “Galleria delle Carte Geographiche”, commissioned by pope Gregory XIII and written between 1577 and 1583.

Daretus see Phrygius.

Dathus, Augustinus, 1420 – 1478, was an author of Siena, Italy who among other works wrote “Libellus super Tullanis elegantiis”, St. Albans, 1479. Ortelius refers once to Dathus via Æneas Sylvius as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once to his “Interpretation of pope Pius II”, also in lemma CORSINIANVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). In Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned once as a source.

d’Austrice, George, fl. late 16th c., was a humanist in the service of the son of Albert of Austria in Spain. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1595 (Hessels 273).

David, 14th century, further unidentified, wrote a letter to Pope Clement VII (Ort175).

Letter to Pope Clement the Seventh: Ort175.10.

David Chytræus see Chytræus, David.

De Buisine, Philippe, fl. 16th c., was a Frenchman and theologist who wrote “Decretalium de baptismo” to which Ortelius refers once in the lemma ABLASENSIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) without mentioning its author.

De Çayas, Gabriel, fl. 2nd half 16th c., was the secretary of Philips II from 1563 onwards. He corresponded frequently with Plantin and wrote to Ortelius in 1574 to thank him for the coloured copy of the “Theatrum” (Hessels 52) which Ortelius sent to Philip II.

Decius, Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus, 190/200 – 251, was a Roman emperor from 249 to his death in 251.

Ort203.5

Decius, Justus Ludovicus, Wissembourg, 1485 – 1545, was the son of the mayor of Wissembourg, France. At the age of 15 he started to travel to Moravia, Tirol and Hungary, and became a banker and diplomat. He corresponded with Erasmus, acquired titles, wrote about the wedding of Sigismund I and Bona. Cracow 1518, and edited Michow’s “Chronica Polonorum”, Cracow, 1521. Ortelius refers to him as a source 6 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma VESERIS.

De Carondelet or Carondeletius, Jacobus III, ?-1606, was a Belgian member of the Burgundian family De Carondelet. His father was advisor to Charles V. He was a friend of Ortelius and the Antwerp bishop Torrentius, chancellor of Liège and wrote letters to Ortelius in 1594 and 1596 (Hessels 255,293). He is mentioned as a source in lemma VEROMANDVI of “Thesaurus” (1596).

De Coronado, Francisco Vazquez, 1510 - 1554, of Salamanca, Spain, was one of the first to explore the North American interior. After his death, a journal relating his 1540 expedition in Mexico was published.

Ort11.40.

“Decreta Distincta” or “Compilatio decretorum & canonum Sacrosancti oecumenici & generalis Tridentini Co[n]cilij : in sex libros iuxta materiarum affinitatem distincta” or “Decretalibus”, Venice, 1566, is a work originally written by Paulus Diaconus, but published and edited by Antonius Philoteus. Neither of these are mentioned in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), where reference to this work is made 14 times or in “Thesaurus” (1596) where it occurs 22 times. See also Paulus Diaconus.

De Dene, Eduard, 1505 – 1578, was a Flemish author who wrote “De warachtighe Fabulen der Dieren” published in Brugge, 1567, a mix of an emblem book and an account of Aesopus’ fables. It was illustrated by Marcus Gheraerts the Elder. Ortelius bought one copy of this book from Plantin in 1568 and 12 copies in 1569.

Dee, John, London 1527 – Mortlake 1608, was an English mathematician, astrologer, and magician who travelled all over Europe and who frequented the courts of Elizabeth and Rodolphus II. He had a rich library and edited 79 books on a variety of subjects. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1577 (Hessels 67). He is quoted once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He visited Ortelius around 1575 and inspected his library. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f.89, 1577).

“De expedita Hollandiae, Zelandiae et ditionis Ultrajectum” was an anonymous work published in Luxemburg in 1591. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in the same year.

De Gama, Vasco see Gama.

De Gomara, Francisco Lopez, 1510 - after 1557, entered the service of Hernando Cortes and joined him to Algeria. He obtained information from Cortes about his travels to America and recorded this in “Hispania Victrix”, Saragoza 1552. A French edition appeared in Paris in 1578.

Ort11.47.

De Grassis, Petrus, fl. end 16th c., was an Italian friend of Lheureux who wrote a letter from Rome to Ortelius in 1596 (Hessels 289). 

De Heere, Lucas, Gent 1534 - Paris 1584, was a Dutch painter, art historian, collector of objects of nature and a poet. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f. 29), Antwerp, July 6, 1580.

De la Planche, Adam, fl. late 16th century,of Paris corresponded with Ortelius in 1595 about  his gift to Ortelius, viz. the Isle de France map (Hessels nr. 279) and he contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 110 v).

De la Planche, Jacques, 16th century, was a humanist and librarian in Brugge. His poems in Latin and Greek were published by Goltzius. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”(f.41).

De Ligne, Karel, see Arenberg. 

De Limitibus see Liber de limitibus.

Del Campo see Ocampo.

Delft or Dilft, Eduard van der, late 16th century, “inside” burgomaster of Antwerp from 1589 to 1595 is one of the persons to whom Ortelius dedicated his map of Ancient France, (Ort196).

Delgadus, Iacobus or Iacobo Delgado (unidentified) is a Spanish author and saint who is mentioned as a source in lemma AD SORORES of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemmas BADIA and PLAGIARIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a letter written by Delgadus to Arias Montanus, who benevolently gave Ortelius access to a copy of this letter. In lemmas CETOBRICA, LACOBRIGA, LYCON and MANTVA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a manuscript or to a letter written to him by Delgadus. Altogether Delgadus is mentioned 14 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596)

Delphini, Ioannes, late 16th century, a cardinal from the bishopric of Vicenza, is mentioned in the cartouche of the Bologna map (Ort124) as the person to whom this map is dedicated.

Delrio, Martinus Antonius or Martin Antonio del Rio, 1551 – 1608, was born in Antwerp from Spanish parents. He wrote among other works “Disquisitorum Magicarum Libri Sex”, [Six books with magical investigations], Leuven, 1599. He was appointed Vice-Chancellor of Brabant. He went to Spain to join the Jesuits but returned to Belgium. He was a friend of Lipsius and is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source in lemma MARE RVBRVM and occurs as a source altogether 10 times. In lemmas COTTONA, MARA RVBRVM, POSIDONIVM, TRIPOLIS, where he quotes Isidorus, and twice in ZEDACES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Delrio is mentioned as a source. Altogether he is mentioned as a source 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In chapter GENII of “Deorum Dearum” (1573) he is also mentioned as a source.

De Maulde, François see Modius.

De Meetkercke, Adolph see Mekerchius.

De Meyere, Leon see Meyere, Leon de.

Demetrius see Van Meteren, Emanuel.

Demetrius of Phalerum or Phalereus, 350 BC to 283 BC, was the last among the Attic orators worthy of the name, after which this activity declined. His orations were characterised as being soft, graceful, and elegant, rather than sublime like those of Demosthenes. His numerous writings, the greater part of which he probably composed during his residence in Egypt, embraced a wide range of subjects, and the list of them given by Diogenes Laërtius shows that he was a man of the most extensive qualities. These works, which were partly historical, partly political, partly philosophical, and partly poetical, have all perished. The work “On Style” (Greek: περ ρμηνείας) which has come down under his name, is the work of a later writer, c. 2nd century AD. According to Strabo, Demetrius inspired the creation of the Mouseion, better known as the library of Alexandria, which was modeled after the arrangement of Aristotle's school. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) as a source via Strabo, and occurs twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 3 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 4 times, e.g. in lemmas DIOSPOLIS and PRONÆ.

Democritus, Greek: Δημόκριτος, "chosen of the people", ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC, was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera in the North of Greece. He was the most prolific, and ultimately the most influential, of the pre-Socratic philosophers; his atomic theory may be regarded as the culmination of early Greek thought. He is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Antiqua Regionum” (= “Synonymia”) (1570L) and once in lemma NEVRI of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Demontiosus, Ludovicus or Louis, 16th c., was a French author who wrote “Gallus Romae hospes”, published in 5 books by Osmarinus in Rome in 1585, dealing with old monuments. Ortelius possessed a copy (Hessels 310)

Demosthenes, c. 385 - 322 BC, was the greatest of the Athenian orators. Demosthenes was studied by Cicero, and Quintilianus exhorted students of rhetoric not only to study his speeches, but to commit them to memory. His works were printed in Venice, 1504, and in Greek with comments in Latin by Erasmus, Budé and others in 1532 in Basel. Demosthenes is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) his oration to “Haloneses” is mentioned 6 times; also 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596, e.g. in lemma LEVCE ACTE, further his “De Chersoneso” and  “Contra Aristocrates” mentioned 2 times in Thesaurus (1587), also once in lemma PHREATA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Further  his “Olynthiacis”, mentioned once in “Thesaurus” (1587), and twice in lemmas HERÆVM and METHONE of “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Corona”, mentioned  in lemma MYRTION of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)) and his “Epistula Philippi ad Atheniensis”, mentioned twice in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) . In “Thesaurus” (1596) “Adversus Aristocrates” is twice mentioned as a source. Altogether he is referred to 34 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemmas AEGILVS, ATHMONVM, CERIADEM and EVRIADEM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Demosthenes’ “Neæra” is mentioned as a source, and in lemmas ACHERDVSIVS and THEORISCVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Demosthenes’ “Ad Midiam” or “Ad Mediam” as a source. In lemma CEDENSEM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Demosthenes’ “Evergem” as a source, and in lemma CRIOA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Demosthenes’ “Ad Phænippum” is mentioned as a source. In lemmas HIPPOTHOITIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Demosthenes’ “adversus Bœothium” is mentioned as a source. In lemmas HYPÆTRENSIS and PITTHENSEM of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Ad Lacritum” is mentioned as a source. In lemma IVNONIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Olinthiaca” is mentioned as a source. Demosthenes’ “Adversus Policlem” is mentioned as a source in lemma LEVCONIENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma NEOTENSES of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Demosthenes’ “De falsa legatione” as a source, and in lemma OTRYNENSEM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Demosthenes’ “Ad Leocharem” as a source. In lemma PLOTHIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “Contra Eubulidem” and in lemma POTHMVS to his “In Philippus”. Altogether Demosthenes is mentioned 34 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 61 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Demosthenes is mentioned once as a source.

Ort226.7.

Deodatus or Dié, Didier, Dieudonné, Déodat, Adéodat of Nevers, France, died June 19, 679 AD, was a bishop of Nevers from 655 who was later sanctified. Ortelius refers to his anonymous “Vita” as a source in his “Theatrum” (1587,1596).

De Paepe, André see Papius.

De Poldo Albenas or Albenatus, Jean or Joannes Poldus, 1512 – 1563, from Nîmes, France, wrote about his native city in “Discours historial de l’antique et illustré cité de Nismes” [historical discourse of the antiquities of the illustrious city of Nîmes] (Ort48), Lyon 1560. Ortelius owned a copy of this work, which De Poldo signed. Ortelius bought three copies of this work from Plantin in 1574 and another copy in 1583. Poldo is mentioned 134 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 135 times in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), sometimes referring to his history of Nimes, in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and he occurs 60 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 60 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 63 times.

Ort49.3, 49.12, 49.13, 49.22, 196.15;

Book on Nimes: Ort48.4, 48.16.

De Reijcke, Iodocus (16th century) from Mechelen, Belgium, a Franciscan, went to a monastery in Quito, Peru, and provided Ortelius with letters describing Peru. He wrote “Letters to the Guardian of the Franciscans” and “Letters to the Flemish Friars” (Ort15).

Letters to the Guardian of the Franciscans & Letters to the Flemish Friars: Ort15.17-15.19.

De Ribadeneyra, Pedro, fl. late 16th c., was a Portuguese author who wrote “Vita Ignatij”, printed by David Sartorium in Ingolstad in 1584. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1590.

De Schrijver, Alexander or Grapheus or Scribonius, Antwerp 1519 – Antwerp 1585, son of Cornelius,  was a philologist, historian, poet, painter and musician and secretary of the city of Antwerp, where he was visited by Charles V and Dürer. He is by some considered as a heretic. He wrote “Origines Antverpiensis” which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1568. He also wrote “Spectaculorum in susceptione Philippi Hisp. Princ. Antverpiæ æditorum apparatus”, of which Ortelius sent a copy to Jacob Monau (Hessels 106). Grapheus  is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). He was a friend of Ortelius, wrote him 3 letters viz. in 1577, 1579 (twice) (Hessels 69, 80, 83) and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (1577/1578, ff. 90-92), noting that he received it as an unknown parcel (Hessels 69).

De Schrijver, Cornelius or Grapheus or Scribonius, Aalst 1482- Antwerpen 1558, father of Alexander, was a philologist, historian, poet, painter, musician, and secretary of the city of Antwerp. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f.35).

Desiderius, 8th c., was a Lombardian king who was murdered at the order of Charlemagne. Desiderius proclaimed an edict or decision, referred to by Ortelius as a source in lemmas ASSIVM, BVLSINVS, CORNIETVM, CORTNOSSA, FORANVM, GEMINIANVM, ORCHIANVM, OROPITVM, PHOCENSIS, RADACOPHANVM, SERGIANVM, TVSCANIENSIS, VICVS and VITERBVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

De Smet, Bonaventura see Vulcanius.

De Suys, Jacques see Suys.

Deutecum, van see Van Deutecum.

Deventer, Jacob see Van Deventer, Jacob van.

De Villers or Villerius, Dionysius, Doornik 1546 – Doornik 1620, was a French historian, and humanist, friend of Philip and Theodore Galle, Lipsius and Ortelius. He wrote letters to Ortelius in 1591 and 1592 (Hessels 202, 215). In lemma ONIENSIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), he is mentioned as a source and called “my friend” by Ortelius.

De Villiers, Pierre, Lille 1530 – Middelburg 1590, was a French Calvinist who became preacher in the court of William of Orange. After Jean Jaureguy’s attempt to murder William, de Villiers wrote “Discours sur la blessure” of which Ortelius bought three copies from Plantin in 1582.

De Vriendt, Maximilian, Zandenburg 1559 - Ghent 1614, studied in Leuven and Paris, and travelled to Italy. He replaced his father as secretary of the city of Ghent, and was banned during civil war. He published numerous poems in Latin and contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 39, 39 v°, undated).

De Vrise, Nicolaus, fl. late 16th c., of Middelburg in Zeeland studied law in Douai, Northern France. His Album Amicorum has been preserved. He was a friend of Johannes Lheureux, and Philip and Hieronymus van Winghe. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1594 (Hessels 257).

Dexippus Publius Herennius, Greek: Δέξιππος, ca. 210 – 273 AD, was a Greek historian, statesman and general, and an hereditary priest of the Eleusinian family in Athens. Photius mentions three historical works by Dexippus, of which considerable fragments remain: “The Events after Alexander”, apparently an epitome of a work by Arrianus. Dexippus also wrote “Scythica”, a history of the wars of Rome with the Goths in the 3rd century. and “Chronike Historia” in twelve books, probably covering a thousand years to the reign of the emperor Claudius Gothicus (270). In the lemma HISTRICA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)) and in lemma HERVLI of “Thesaurus” (1596), he is referred to as a source.

Diaconus Paulus see Paulus Diaconus.

Diaconus, Petrus or Peter the Deacon or Pierre le Diacre, 12th c., was an Italian who became the librarian of the abbey of Montecassino and continuator of the “Chronicon Monasterii Casinensis”. This chronicle was originally written by Leo of Ostia. According to Chalandon, Peter the Deacon is a poor historian and writer, much inferior to Leo. A descendant of the Counts of Tusculum, he entered the monastery of Monte Cassino in 1115. About 1127 he was forced to leave the abbey and retired to the neighbouring Atina, seemingly because he was an adherent of abbot Orderisius. In 1137 he was allowed to return to Monte Cassino. That same year he appeared before emperor Lothair II, then in Italy, on behalf of his monastery. At Monte Cassino Peter became librarian and keeper of the archives, of which he compiled a register. Besides continuing the chronicle of Monte Cassino by Leo Marsicanus (or Ostiensis) from 1075 to 1138, he wrote several historical works: "De viris illustribus Casinensibus" (mentioned as a source in lemma ARBACE and CORIOLLA of “Thesaurus” (1596) viz: "De ortu et obitu justorum Casinensium"; "De Locis sanctis"; Disciplina Casinensis"; and "Rhythmus de novissimis diebus". He is referred to as a source once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma TAVRICA.

Dicaearchus of Messana, Greek: Δικαίαρχος, also written Dicearchus, Dicearch, Diceärchus, or Diceärch,  c. 350 – c. 285 BC, was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author. He was Aristotle's student. Very little of his work has survived. He wrote on the history and geography of Greece, of which his most important work was his “Life of Greece”. He made important contributions to the field of cartography, where he was among the first to use geographical coordinates. He also wrote books on philosophy and politics. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas ANTHEDON and CHALCIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is altogether mentioned 17 times as a source.

Dichiocus, Louis or Aloysius. fl. 2nd half of 16th c., of Valence on the Po was an Italian humanist who contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 26 v., 6.12.1596).

Dictys Cretensis, 10th century BC, of Cnossos, Crete, was the mythical companion of Idomeneus during the Trojan war, and author of a diary of events. This manuscript in Phoenician script is supposed to have been found, protected by a leaden box, after an earthquake in Nero’s time. It was translated into Latin as “Historia Troiana” by Lucius Septimius in the fourth century AD. It was first printed in 1498. The siege of Troy was one of the greatest subjects for medieval story-tellers, who drew prophecies from and parallels between the history of the Troyan war and events of their own day. Dictys is quoted by Timæus. Ortelius refers four times to this author as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 19 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 20 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort224.3, 224.26;

Bk.6: Ort224.30.

Diego de Torres see Torres Diego de.

Diego Fernandez de Palencia see Fernandez Diego.

Diego Homem see Homem, Diego.

Diegus Godoyus see Godoyus Diegus.

Diegus Torresius, also Diegus de Turribus see Torres, Diego de.

Dieve see Divaeus.

“Digestæ Liber” see Giustiniano.

“Digests of Law” see Giustiniano.

“Dignitatum Libellulus” see “Notitia Dignitatum”

Dinarchus, 4th c. BC, was a Greek orator who wrote “Oratio contra Demosthenes”, published in 1566. It is mentioned as a source in lemma PHORMISIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Dinner, Conrad, 16th c., was a German author who wrote “Epitheta Deorum”, referred to 3 times by Ortelius as a source in his “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Diodorus Siculus, flourished about 60 - 30 BC, from Sicily wrote a popularising encyclopedic history “Biblioqhkh  in 40 books of which 15 have survived (Ort1,2,3,8), covering the earliest history of the East to Cæsar’s time. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in Latin and French in 1580. The French copy was printed in 1554 in Paris and Ortelius wrote his name in it, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster, (2006). Diodorus quotes the unidentified source Menno, who in turn is quoted as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma LEOPHORA. He is referred to by Ramusio as “Diodoro Siculo: Navigatione di Jambolo”. Sicilian histories by Diodorus Siculus were published by Vascosan, Paris 1554, and Estienne, Paris, 1559. Diodorus also wrote “On Pytheas” (Ort161). He is quoted by Plinius (Ort217) and quotes Hesiodus (Ort211). Diodorus was edited by Stephanus Byzantinus. Diodorus is also mentioned 4 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 98 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 472 times as a source. of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Diodorus’ “Fragment” as a source 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) e.g. in lemma ISIAS, where he is altogether mentioned as a source 586 times. In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Diodorus is mentioned 15 times as a source.

Diodorus is mentioned once on map sheet Ort191, once on Ort192, three times on map sheet Ort210, once on mapsheet Ort213, once on map sheet Ort217, once on Ort224; further in map texts:

Ort8.14, 16.26, 16.28, 16.32, 16.38, 16.41, 16.45, 16.52, 16.54, 22.3, 25.8, 141.2, 166.8, 174.18, 182.25, 182.28, 183.25, 189.7, 190.2, 190.4, 190.6, 190.12, 190.15, 190.18, 190.24, 190.26, 190.30, 190.35, 190.37, 190.41, 190.47, 190.50, 190.55, 190.65, 190.68, 191.9, 191.10, 192.4, 192.9, 192.11, 192.15, 192.21, 192.25, 192.31, 192.42, 192.47, 192.71, 192.72, 192.87, 193.16-19, 193.21, 193.24, 193.30, 193.50, 193.51, 193.54, 194.5, 194.6, 194.8, 194.16, 194.17, 194.29, 194.31, 196.12, 196.16, 196.40, 196.42, 196.46, 196.49, 196.63, 196.65-71, 196.75 196.76, 196.81, 196.82, 196.84-86, 196.88, 196.97, 196.108, 196.9, 196.113, 196.115, 196.116, 207.6, 207.9, 207.10, 208.7, 208.9, 208.11, 209.16, 211.4, 211.7-8, 216.14, 216.18, 216.21, 217.2, 217.6, 217.8, 218.3, 219.9, 219.11, 219.14, 219.16, 219.18, 220.2, 220.9, 221.13, 221.15, 221.17, 221.18, 221.21, 221.23, 221.32, 221.33, 221.41, 222.3, 222.8-10, 222.13, 222.14, 222.18, 222.20, 226.12, 226.31, 226.40, 226.54, 226.56, 226.61, 226.69, 226.75, 226.86, 226.92, 231.22,

On Library: Bk.1: Ort174.5a, 222.51, Bk.1-5: Ort1.16, 2.16, 3.16, Bks. 2 & 19: Ort182.28, 183.28, Bk.4: Ort226.10, Bk.5: Ort1.16, 34.9, 36.21, 141.6, 141.13, 196.15, 196.35, 197.16, 217.20, Bk.5: Ort198.16, Bk.16: Ort149.5, Bk.17: Ort221.30, 222.51, Bk.18: Ort7.7;

On Pytheas Bk.2: Ort161.11;

On the authority of Hesiodus: Ort211.3;

Quoted by Plinius: Ort217.18.

Diogenes Laërtius, c. 200 - 250 AD, was a biographer of Greek Philosophers. He wrote a “Φιλοσόφων βίων και δογμάτων συναγωγή”, [Philosophers lives and works] Ort186; also in lemma BORBORVS in “Thesaurus” (1596) and in “Deorum Dearum” (1573), referring to “Aristoteles’ testament”, the Latin translation being provided by Ambrosius Traversarius, which was first printed in Rome in 1472. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1584 and quotes from it, referring twice to the Plato section. This book also contains “Life of Pyrrhus Eliensis” (Ort203). In lemma MARONEA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Ortelius refers to his “Epistola ad huius cives” as a source. In lemma OETÆVS of his “Thesaurus” (1587), and in lemma CHEN in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to his “Myson” as a source. In lemmas AEPEIA and POMPEIO POLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Diogenes’ “Solon” as a source. In lemmas ALOPE and NESSVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Sua Vita” [autobiography] is mentioned as a source. In lemmas ACHARNA, ANACAEA, ANAPLYSTVS, of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas HYLÆ, OIETHENSIS and POECILE of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Zeno” is mentioned as a source. In lemmas ECHEDEMIA and HEPHÆSTIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and CEPHISIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) reference is made to Diogenes’ “Plato”. In lemma PIRÆEVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “Antisthene”. In lemma PITANE of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Archesilaus” is mentioned as a source. Diogenes quotes him again as Archelaus the chorographer (Ort222). Laërtius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 29 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 52 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort194.5, 194.14, 194.29, 224.39, 226.2;

Biography: Ort186.17;

Life of Pyrrhus Eliensis: Ort203.16;

Quoting Archelaus the chorographer: Ort222.2.

Diogenianus, flourished 2nd c. AD, was a Greek grammarian from Heraclea in Pontus. He was the author of an alphabetical lexicon, chiefly of poetical words, abridged from the great lexicon of Pamphilus of Alexandria (50 AD) and other similar works. It formed the basis of the lexicon, or rather glossary, of Hesychius of Alexandria, which is described in the preface as a new edition of the work of Diogenianus. Teher still exists a collection of proverbs under his name, probably an abridgment of the collection made by himself from his lexicon. Diogenianus was also the author of an Anthology of epigrams, of treatises on rivers, lakes, fountains and promontories; and of a list (with map) of all the towns in the world. Ortelius refers to this work (via Suidas) in his address to the reader which opens his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and refers to Diogenianus as a source in this “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) once in the lemma ALBACE.

Diognetus, first century AD or earlier, was a Roman surveyor and author who is quoted by Plinius (Ort222).

Quoted by Plinius: Ort222.2.

Dion, Cassius Nicæus, 160 - 229 AD, was a prominent Roman senator who wrote a “Rerum Romanorum”, a history of Rome” first printed in 1551, and about Roman defeats on the Isle of Candia, published in Venice, 1548. Dion is also mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and is referred to as a source 34 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 36 times, in “Thesaurus” (1596) 65 times and in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) 9 times.

Ort16.31, 189.26, 193.30, 212.14, 214.26;

Dion or Dio, Chrysostomos (Δίων Χρυσόστομος ), of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus,  ca. 40 – ca. 120 AD, was a Greek orator, writer, philosopher and historian of the Roman Empire. Eighty of his “Discourses” (or “Orations”) are extant, as well as a few letters and a funny mock essay “In Praise of Hair”, as well as a few other fragments. His surname Chrysostomos is Greek and literally means "golden-mouthed". He should not be confused with the 4th century bishop John Chrysostom of Constantinople. This Chrysostomus wrote “Oratio de Regno”, mentioned as a source in lemma SACCI of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Dion, Prusæus, first century AD, was a Roman orator who wrote “Orations” (Ort166, 216,222,224; also referred to as a source e.g.in lemma BATIEIEA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in ALETHIÆ, ATHENÆ, ATTICA, BRACHMANES, CEADA, CELÆNÆ, COELA EVBOEÆ, EVBOICVM and SYRTES of “Thesaurus” (1596)) and “Oration to Bundvica” (Ort16,190,192). The following works which Ortelius attributes to him, namely “Life of Nero” (Ort16,63,172,190,191,192), “History of Hadrianus” (Ort216), “Life of Emperor Traianus” and “Life of emperor Severus” in “Thesaurus” (1596) have in fact not been written by him. Dion Prusæus quotes Homerus (Ort212) and is quoted by Xiliphinus (Ort192), Theodosius (Ort199) and Causabonis (Ort212). In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), Ortelius refers twice to his “Oratio Borysthenica”, in “Thesaurus” (1587) once to his “Oratio de Celænis”, and once to his “Oratio Troiana”, also referred to 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma SCIRITIS, to his “De Avaritia” mentioned as a source in e.g. lemma SICILIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and to his “De servis fugitivis”, e.g. in lemma XANTHVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) as sources. He is mentioned as a source 133 times in “Thesaurus” (1587). In “Thesaurus” (1596) his 6th oration is mentioned once. In lemma LIGII of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Dion’s “Fragment” as a source and in lemma SCIRITIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) to his “Cyropædia”. Altogether Dion Prusæus is mentioned 160 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Dion is mentioned twice on map sheet Ort199, also twice on map sheet Ort200 and once on mapsheet Ort213; further in texts: 82.2, 83.2, 189.20, 189.26, 190.6, 190.19, 190.20, 190.33, 190.37, 190.60, 192.7, 192.11, 192.16, 192.33, 192.36, 192.64-66, 194.18, 196.16, 196.56, 199.4, 199.27, 199.44, 199.71, 199.74, 200.15, 200.56, 200.66, 203.2, 203.4, 203.5, 203.8, 204.7, 205.7, 207.8, 205.15, 212.2, 212.4, 212.12, 214.26, 214.27, 218.3, 218.19, 219.18, 220.3, 221.28, 221.36, 222.4;

Bk.37: 171.15, 172.7, Bk.39: Ort16.27, 190.3, 190.36, 192.10, 196.8, 197.18, 198.18, 208.15, Bk.40: 63.2, 63.8, Bk.49: Ort203.4, Bk.53: Ort199.6, 199.46, 200.17, Bk.54: Ort214.38,  Bk.55: Ort197.18, 198.18;

Life of Emperor Traianus: Ort212.7;

Life of Nero Ort16.42, 16.47, 190.16, 190.19, 190.52, 190.57, 191.7, 192.27, 192.33, 192.85, Bk.27: Ort172.7, Bk.40: Ort63.2;

14th Oration: Ort224.33; 16th Oration: Ort213.13;

31st Oration: Ort216.18, 222.30; 35th Oration 166.8;

Oration to Bundvica: Ort16.46, 190.18, 190.56, 192.32;

History of Hadrianus: Ort216.7;

Quoting Homerus: Ort212.13;

Quoted by Xiliphine: Ort192.14;

Quoted by Theodosius: Ort199.60, 200.60;

Quoted by Causabonus: Ort212.16.

Dionysius Alexandrinus see Alexandrinus, Dionysius.

Dionysius Byzantinus (∆ιονύσιος Βυζάντιος) was a Greek geographer, 2nd century BC. He is known for his “Ανάπλους Βοσπόρου” [Voyage through the Bosporus] or “De Bospori navigatione Anaplo”, which describes the coastline of the Bosporus and the city of Byzantium, later Constantinople, now Istanbul, described by C. Foss as "one of the most remarkable and detailed of ancient geographic texts". The work survives with a large lacuna, and is only known from a 16th -century Latin paraphrase by Peter Gyllius. This work is also referred to as “Periplus” or “Anaplus” in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), e.g. in lemmas DOTINA and GYNÆCON. Dionysius Byzantinus is quoted via Gyllius 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in his “Thesaurus” (1587). He is altogether mentioned 155 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma BVCINNA and DRESIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “Bassaricores”. Dionysius is often quoted by Eustathius. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Dionysius Byzantinus is altogether mention as a source 196 times.

Dionysius Halicarnasseus, last part first century BC, “a writer of good credit”, was a Greek who lived in Rome for most of his life. As a literary critic he wrote in Greek a number of treatises on subjects such as “Oratory”, and “On the arrangement of words”, dealing with word order and euphony, also containing Sappho’s “Ode to Aphrodite”. As a historian, he had a great interest in the history of Rome, expressed in his “Roman Antiquities”, which is a valuable supplement to Livius’ “Ab urbe condita”. This work is quoted by Eusthatius, as appears from Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). It contains the often repeated statement that “the style is the man”. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma NECOVIA, Halicarnasseus’ “Antiquitatum Romanarum Quae Supersunt” is mentioned as a source and in lemmas AECALVM, CALESIA, CARVENTVS and NECOVIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) and in chapters TERMINI and FIDEI of “Deorum Dearum” (1573), Ortelius refers to this work as “Antiquitates”. In lemma CHERRONESVS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Halicarnasseus’ “Antiochus Syracusanus” as a source. Dionysius was edited by Gelenius, as indicated in lemma TIBVR of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought an unspecified book of him from Plantin in 1583 and two more copies in 1590. Dionysius is mentioned 4 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 86 times in its text. Altogether, Dionysius is referred to as a source 143 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 210 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In “Deorum Dearum” (1573) he is mentioned 8 times as a source.

Dionysius Halicarnasseus is mentioned once on map sheet Ort187, Ort209 & Ort214. Further in texts Ort204.4, 205.4, 207.5, 207.9, 207.10, 208.5, 209.8, 209.14, 209.30, 209.43, 210.10, 210.12, 214.37, 218.6, 223.2-5, 223.7-10;

Bk.1: Ort204.7, 205.7, 208.6, 208.7, Bk.6: Ort207.3, Ort208.3.

Dionysius “Periegetes” Apher or Afer, second century AD, lived in Alexandria and wrote in hexameter verse about seas, coasts and islands of the world as then known. The first comments on this work are provided by Eustathius (from 1166 onwards archbishop of Thessaloniki, Greece). Further he was published and commented on by Cuspinianus, by Jo. Camers (Vienna, 1512) and by Robert Estienne (Paris, 1547). From Hessels (146) it appears that Andreas Schott edited a copy of the poem written by Dionysius Apher called “Der Perieget” (Ort199,200) translated by Rufus Festus Avienus and sent to Ortelius in 1582. This work was also commented on by Macer (Ort199,200; also mentioned various times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus”(1587,1596), e.g. in lemmas ORETÆ and CAMARITÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). Schottus also edited Eustathius (Ort192,221,222), and the “Itinerarium” by Claudius Rutilus Namiatus,  in the hope that Ortelius could convince Plantin to publish them. Afer is mentioned in cartouches (Ort187) and cited by Columella (Ort218). He is mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 11 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 54 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Andreas Papius edited Dionysius’ “Periegetis” which appeared at Plantin in 1575 and is referred to various times as a source in Ortelius “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin.

Mentioned in the cartouches of Ort187, on map sheet Ort197 twice, on map sheet 198 3 times; further in map texts:

Ort1.13, 2.13, 3.13, 31.2, 31.5, 189.6, 189.7, 190.28, 191.7, 191.15, 192.2, 192.17, 192.78, 192.85, 192.91, 193.9, 193.14, 199.3, 199.19, 199.38, 199.43, 199.62, 200.7, 200.8, 200.11, 200.13, 200.34, 200.36, 200.37, 203.37, 209.14-16, 211.2, 211.9, 217.17, 217.22, 219.2, 221.2, 222.10, 222.26, 223.14, 226.2, 226.4, 231.26, 232.21;

Commented on by Priscianus 199.17, 199.59;

Commented on by Macer: Ort200.11;

Commented on by Eustatius: Ort3.14, 190.65, 192.17, 192.42, 221.27, 222.30;

Quoted by Columella 218.7;

Dionysius Cassius Uticensis see Uticensis, Cassius Dionysius.

Dioscorides, Pedianus, second half of first century AD, wrote “De Materia Medica”, first published in 1499, about medicinal plants (Ort210). He was commented on by Matthiolus and Angerius Busbechius (Ort149). In  lemma TYRRHENIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) the chapter on “resin” is referred to as a source. In lemma AEGAE of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Dioscorides’ “Cesco” as a source. Ortelius bought an unspecified work by Dioscorides from Plantin, published in Lyon, in 1583. Dioscorides also edited Vergilius, as appears from lemma CARBONIA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Dioscorides is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and three times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 25 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 44 times.

Dioscorides is mentioned once on map sheet Ort210. Further in texts Ort16.43, 190.16, 190.52, 192.28, 193.21, 193.54, 196.19, 196.84, 203.30, 211.6; Bk.2 Ch.110: Ort193.18, Bk.6 Ch.14: Ort217.12;

De Medica Materia Bk.1, Ch.98: Ort210.14; Bk.2, Ch.110 193.18 

Commented on by Angerius Busbechius: Ort149.14;

Commented on by Matthiolus: 101.6.

Ditmarus or Thietmarus, Sigebert, 12th c., bishop of Merseburg, Germany, wrote a “Chronicon”. Ortelius refers to Ditmarus as a source once in lemma CARENTANI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Divæus or Dyvæus, Petrus, or Peter van Dieve, Leuven 1535 - Mechelen 1581,  was a historian of Brabant, Belgium. His main works are “De antiquitatibus Brabantiæ”, 1565, and “De antiquitatibus Galliæ Belgicæ, adde, qualis sub imperio Romano” (Ort44,45) Antwerp, Plantin, 1574. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1576 and again in 1579. Ortelius and his co-travellers visited him in Leuven in 1575 as one of the first stops in their “Itinerarium” (1584), as described on page 9. He also wrote comments on Procopius (Ort78; also in lemma ARBORICHAE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596)) and on Antoninus, to which Ortelius refers twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596). He reports about the life of emperor Henry IV, mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma VEGESATVM. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 94 v. 95., June 13, 1575). He is mentioned 52 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L) and 54 times in “Synonymia” (1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) 40 times, in “Thesaurus” (1587) 49 times and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 53 times.

Ort44.4, 45.4, 58.7, 59.7, 79.21;

Antiquities of Gallia Belgica: Ort44.7. 45.7;

Commenting on Procopius: Ort78.11.

Dociades, 1st century isa Roman writer quoted by Plinius (Ort217).

Quoted by Plinius: Ort217.7.

Dodonæus or Dodonnée or Dodoens, Rembert, Mechelen 1517 - Leiden 1585, was a physician and botanist who studied in Leuven and travelled to France, Italy and Germany. After having been in charge as a physician to the emperors Maximilian II and Rodolphus II he returned to the Low Countries where he became a professor in medicine in Leiden in 1583. He wrote a book on herbs and spices called “Frumentorum Historia” of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1566 and again in 1583, and which was translated into many languages, including Dutch where it was called “Cruydboeck”. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f.77 v. in 1574).

Does see Dousa

Dominicanus, 13th century, refers to a Dominican monk of Colmar, executed in 1265, who is supposed to have written “Colmariences Minores”, [Annals of the City of Colmar, Alsace, France] (Ort186).

Annals of the city of Colmar: Ort186.18.

Dominicus Niger, see Niger Dominicus.

Donellus, Hugo or Hugues Doneau, 1527 Chalon-sur-Saône – 1591 Altdorf near Nürnberg, was a French law professor and one of the leading representatives of French legal humanism. Rhedinger and Monau were his friends. He also taught in Leiden. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1581 (Hessels 111).

Ort126.11.

Dorléans, Ludovicus or Louis, 1542 – 1629, was a catholic lawyer from Paris. He wrote “Regem Francorum & Navarrorum Kudovicum XIII” published in 1622, and edited Tacitus’ “Annales”. He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1594, asking to see his library (Hessels 260).

Dorotheus, saint, Antiochia, ca. 255 – Odyssopolis, 362, was bishop van Tyrus. According to tradition, he is the author of the “Acts” of the seventy apostles. Dorotheus, a learned priest from Antiochia and teacher of the church historian Eusebius of Caesarea, was appointed ruler without denying his religious convictions (Eusebius,VII.32). He attended the Council of Nicea in 325, but was banished to Odyssopolis (Varna) on the Black Sea in Thrace. There he died at the age of 107. He is mentioned 25 times as a source by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Dousa or Douza, Janus or van der Does the elder, Noordwijk 1545 - Den Haag 1609, humanist and poet,  was the first curator of the University of Leiden. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma SACRVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). He wrote comments on Catullus (Ort222), a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1582, and “Odae Lugdunensis” (1575) of which Ortelius bought two copies from Plantin in 1580. Dousa’s “Nova Poemata” were sent to Ortelius by Vulcanius (Hessels 131). He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”,(ff. 83,84) describing how one can travel without fear with the help of Ortelius’ maps, and is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Commenting on Catullus: Ort222.33.

Dousa or Douza, Janus or van der Does the younger  (Leiden 1571 – 1596) son of Dousa the elder, was a humanist and poet who died at the age of 25. His portrait, engraved by Philip Galle, is included in Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 82 v., undated).

Drusius or van den Driesche, Johannes, Oudenaarde, 28 juni 1550 - Franeker, 12 februari 1616, was a Dutch protestant theologist.Van den Driesche or Drusius studied Greek and Latin in Ghent and later philosophy in Leuven. His father was a convinced protestant and had to flee to London. His mother was a catholic and did not want him to follow his father. Yet, in 1567 Drusius succeeded in following his father to England. There he studied Hebrew in Cambridge. At the age of 22 he became a professor in Eastern languages at Oxford. In 1576 he returned after the pacification of Ghent with his father to the Netherlands. He was appointed professor of Eastern languages in Leiden. In 1585 he moved to Friesland where he was appointed at the university of Franeker where he remained. He was an oriëntalist of Europese stature.He wrote comments on the New Testament  a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1584. He wrote “Observationum Sacrarum” [of sacred observations], published in Franeker in 1594. It is mentioned as a source in lemmas CARTHAGO, DIBON, GADARIS, ON and THARSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) where he is altogether mentioned 6 times as a source.

Dryander, Ioannes, 1500 – 1560, or Eichmann was a mathematician, physician, astronomer and professor in medecine at Marburg, Germany. He drew a map of Hessen which was used by Ortelius (Ort92a,95b). He was included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” with his Hessen map from 1573 onwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Hassiæ half sheet map as its maker, Ort92a, 95b

Duarte Barbosa see Barbosa, Duarte.

Duarte Lopez see Lopez Duarte.

Du Bellay, Martin, Sieur de Langey, fl. mid 16th c., was a French author who wrote “Épitome de l’antiquité des Gaules et de France”. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1580.

Dubravinius see Dubravius.

Dubravius, Johan, 1486 – 1553, from Pilsen, Bohemia, was a Czech poet who wrote “Theriobulia” (1520), epic poetry after Æsopic fables commonly called “beast epic”. He also wrote about fish ponds in “De piscinis”, 1547. Later he became bishop of Olmütz and wrote “Historiæ regni Boiemiæ de rebus memoria”, Prosznitz 1552, a history of Bohemia (Ort101,104). Dubravius is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and is mentioned as a source 4 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 5 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 4 times, e.g. in lemma MARCOMANNI.

History of Bohemia: Ort101.6, 101.13, 101.21, 104.2, 104.3, 104.9, 104.10, 104.52, 104.53, 104.58, 104.60.

Du Choul, Guillaume or Gulielmus Choulius, 1496 – 1560, was a French author who wrote “Discours des anciens Romains” published in Lyon, 1556, 1567. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1569. He refers to this work as a source in the preface of his “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Dudith, Andreas, Buda 1533 - Breslau 1589, was a Hungarian made bishop by Ferdinand II. He conducted diplomacy in central Europe. He was excommunicated from the catholic church and embraced Calvinism. He was a friend of Ortelius and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (f. 50 v. October 29, 1584). He wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1582 (Hessels 114).

Duetecum van, see Van Deutecum.

Duffleus see Kiel, Corneille

Duglossus or Dlugosz, Johan, 1415 – 1480, wrote a history of Poland (Ort104) which was only published incompletely in 1615. His works are known earlier through Joachim Curæus (Ort154,155). Ortelius bought a copy of this version from Plantin in 1572 and again in 1582.

Ort156.5, 156.6, 156.7, 157.5, 157.6, 157.7;

Polish history: Ort104.10, 104.60;

Quoted by Ioachimus Curæus: Ort154.17, 155.17.

Duglosz see Duglossus.

Dupinet, Antonius or Pinetus, 1510 – 1584, was a Frenchman who published and commented on Plinius Caius Secundus’ “Historia Naturalis” in French in Lyon, France 1542. Ortelius possessed this work and gives 9 references to it in his “Synonymia” (1578), 13 in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 14 in “Thesaurus” (1596). Dupinet also wrote “Plants, pourtraits et descriptions de plusieurs villes et forteresses, tant de l’Europe, Asie et Afrique que des Indes et terres neuves”. There are references to this work as “Urbium Corographia” or “Description of cities” (Ort1,2,38,115; mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), twice in“Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas HÆMVS and MOLYBODES. He is mentioned 8 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L), 140 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs 184 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 180 times as a source and in  “Thesaurus” (1596) 173 times.

Ort115.12, 215.8, 221.4;

Cities Ort1.51, 2.51, 3.56, 38.8, 38.16.

Durantius, Jacobus, also called Casellius, fl. late 16th c., was a scholar who wrote “Variae Lectionis ..” which was published in 1582. This work is mentioned as a source in lemma CHATHALIENSIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1582.

Dürer, Albrecht, Nürnberg 21 May 1471 – Nürnberg 6 April 1528, was a famous artist who also wrote books on mathematics. Dürer succeeded in producing two books during his lifetime. "The Four Books on Measurement" were published at Nuremberg in 1525 and was the first book for adults on mathematics in German, as well as being cited later by Galileo and Kepler. Ortelius bought a copy of what he calls “Geometria” from Plantin in 1579 and a copy he calls “Symmetria” in 1580.

Dycchius, Andreas (late 16th century) of Roermond was a humanist who travelled to Italy. He was a friend of Lipsius and Ortelius. He wrote Ortelius a letter in 1596 (Hessels 296) and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (f.43,March  21, 1596) without having been invited to do so.

Eber, Paul or Paulus Eberus (fl. 16th c.) was a German author who wrote “Calendarium Historicum”, a description in Greek and Latin of important events from 1500 onwards. It was published by Crato, Basel 1551, also in Wittenburg 1573. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1581.

Ecluse, Charles de l’ see Clusius.

Edeling see Edling.

Edling or Edeling, Joachim, 16th c., was a brother of Petrus, see below. He wrote an “Itinerarium” which his brother sent to Ortelius in 1581 (Hessels 107).

Edling or Edeling, Petrus von, Pasewalk 1522 – Colberg 1602, from Pommern was a professor in music and grammar in Greifswald, Germany, and later chancellor in Colberg. He worked in the field of historiography but his writings were not published during his lifetime. He corresponded with Ortelius in 1580, 1581 (Hessels letters 97 & 107)  and sent Ortelius a manuscript map of Rügen, Usedom and Wollin which  he used (Ort87,89).

Ort87.17, 89.15, 158.15.

Educense concilium (probably an incorrect form for Eduense = Autun) was held in the year 1094 under Gregorius VII, referred to as a source in lemma EDVCENSE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Egarense concilium, held in 614 in Spain, is mentioned as a source in lemma EGARENSE of “Thesaurus” (1596), as reported by Antoninus.

Egeinhardus, who died in 840, wrote among other works a biography on Charles the Great called “Vita Caroli Magni imperatoris”, considered a masterpiece of medieval biography. Ortelius refers to it twice in his “Synonymia” (1578), 3 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma SCLAVI. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs seven times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) Egeinhardus’ translations of the martyred saints Marcellinus and Petrus are mentioned 9 times as sources, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 8 times. Altogether, he is mentioned 28 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 31 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort192.44.

Egesippus see Hegesippus.

Eginhard see Egeinhardus.

Egnatius see Egnazio.

Egnazio, Giovanni Battista, 1473 - 1553, of Italy wrote a history of emperors. Egnatio is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned once as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 3 times, e.g. in lemmas LADII and TIMAVVS, where his “epistola ad Matthæum Advicar.” is mentioned as a source.

Ort168.8, 169.8.

Egranus see Bruschius.

Eldadus see Danius.

Eliberitatum Concilium is an unidentified religious council or synod referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) twice, e.g. in lemma BASSITANI.

Elysius, Joannes Calandius, 16th century,  from Italy wrote “Balnea Ænariarum”, Venice, 1553, and “De balneis Puteolanis” (Ort142; also mentioned once as a source in lemma FALERNVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Elysius is altogether mentioned as a source 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort142.11, 142.13, 142.15;

Baths of Puteoli: Ort142.21.

Elizabeth I, 7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his sisters out of the succession. His will was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. She wrote, or was responsible for the writing of “Edictum Elisbethae reginae Angliae promulgat Londini 29 November 1591”, a hostile document towards Jesuits and seminary priests, of which Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1593.

Eldadus Danius or Eldad ben Mahli, fl. 9th c., was the supposed author of a Jewish travel narrative which enjoyed great authority in the middle ages, especially concerning the question of the lost ten tribes. Many editions followed under the title “De Iudæis clausis eorumque in Aethiopia imperio”. Eldad is quoted as an authority on linguistic problems by the leading Jewish grammarians and lexicographers.His Hebrew work is divided into six chapters and was first printed in Mantua, 1480, then in Constantinople, 1516, and Venice, 1544. Ortelius refers to Eldad’s work as “De Historia de Judæis clausis” in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) e.g. in the lemmas AGHEAMIA and SABBATICVS and in “Thesaurus” (1596) e.g. lemma ASIN. Altogether, he is mentioned 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Eleusius, bishop of Cyzicus, 2nd half of the 4th cent., was intimately connected with Basil of Ancyra, Eustathius of Sebaste, Sophronius of Pompeiopolis, and other leaders of the Macedonian early Christians. He is uniformly described as of high personal character, holy in life, rigid in self-discipline, untiring in his exertions for what he deemed truth, and, according to St. Hilary, more nearly orthodox than most of his associates. He is mentioned once as a source describing the life of Saint Theodorus of Archimandrita in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma ADIGERMARVM.

“Eliberitanum Concilium” or Council or Synod of Elvira, abt. 306 AD, was an ecclesiastical synod held in Elvira in what was then the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, which ranks among the more important provincial synods, for the breadth of its canons. It was one of three councils, together with the Synod of Arles and the Synod of Ancyra, that first approached the character of general councils and prepared the way for the first oecumenical council. It was attended by nineteen bishops, and twenty-six presbyters, mostly from Hispania Baetica. Deacons and laymen were also present. Ortelius refers to it once as a source in the lemma CONTRALEVCENSIS of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). In “Thesaurus” (1596) it is mentioned twice as a source.

Elisius Calentius Ioannes or Elisio Calenzio, 1450 – 1503, was an Italian humanist and poet. His “Opera” were published in Rome in 1503, including “Odes”, referred to as a source in lemma INTERAMNIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Altogether he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas FALERNVS and INTERAMNIA, where a 16-line Sapphic ode by Elisius is quoted. His “Distichon” is quoted by Ortelius in lemma PRÆTVTIANA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Elphegus saint, fl. 11th c., was archbishop of Canterbury. Ortelius refers once to his “Vita martyris” as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BATHONIA.

Emanuel Enricus Lusitanus (16th c.) is an unidentified Portuguese author, highly praised by Ortelius once in the lemma DASCVTA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas CONIMBRICA, IVLIVM PRÆSIDIVM, LAMECA, LAVARE, LVSITANVM, SEGOBRIGA and TAGVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) where Ortelius calls him “my friend” and “worthy of my faith”.

Emmius Ubbo, 1547 – 1626, from Greith, East Frisia, wrote a “Historica Frisica” or Frisian history (Ort80,83) which was published in Franeker, Friesland, the Netherlands in 1596. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1598.

Ort80.22, 83.14.

Empyrus see Empiricus.

Empiricus Sextus or Sextos Empeirikos, second century AD, was a Greek philosopher and follower of Pyrrhon from Elis. He wrote about sceptical philosophy. He was commented on by Hernetus (Ort199,200). He is also mentioned once as a source in lemma BRILESSVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort200.44, 214.16;

Commented on by Hernetus: Ort199.44, 200.44.

Encheleas was not an author but a tribe, 5th c. BC. They were living in what now can be called southern Albania or northern Epirus. The first known king of the Encheleas was Bardulis (Bardhyli), who fought the Macedonian king Philip. Ortelius refers to them once as a source via Stephanus Byzantinus in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma HARPYA and altogether twice in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Enenckel, Georgius Acacius (1573 - 1620) was an Austrian nobleman and lawyer who published a map of ancient Greece (Tübingen, 1596). This map and Enenckel are mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in the “Theatrum” of 1601, but not used.

Engelhart, Daniel, also called Angelocrator (Corbach 1549 - Cöthen 1625) from Breslau was a protestant clergyman in Stade, Marburg and Cöthen-Anhalt who participated in the synod of Dordrecht (1618). He was a friend of Rhedinger, Monau, Wacker and Duditius. He wrote letters to Ortelius in 1580, 1596 and  1598 (Hessels 93,297,317). He also wrote a psalm and eulogy in Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f.7v, September 12, 1577, f. 53, December 10, 1584).

Ennius, Quintus “the Poet”, 239 - 169 BC, introduced the Greek hexameter into Roman poetry, and used it in his tragedies. He wrote a history of Rome in his “Annales”, written in an archaic style. Only fragments of his work survive. He was commented on by Hieronymus Columna (Ort209). He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma RVDIÆ,  5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma PANTVM of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to Ennius’ “Sublacensis”. He is quoted by Gellius in lemma PRÆPETEM of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort209.15, 209.16;

Written about by Hieronymus Columna: Ort209.6.

Ennodius, see Enodius.

Enodius, Magnus Felix, 5th c. AD, was an Ostrogothic poet who wrote a Panegyric, which is referred to twice as a source in lemmas SOGIVNTII and VLCA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and also in lemma AQVILO of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Enricus of Auxerre see Hericus.

Eobanus, see Hessus, Helius.

Epaphroditus, 1st c. AD, is a saint of the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, first bishop of Philippi, and of Andriacia in Asia Minor, and first bishop of Terracina, Italy. There is little evidence that these were all the same person. He was a fellow Christian missionary of St. Paul’s. The name corresponds to the Latin Venustus [ handsome], and was very common in the Roman period. The name occurs very frequently in inscriptions both Greek and Latin, whether at full length Epaphroditus, or in its contracted form as Epaphras. His name was a pagan one, meaning loved by Aphrodite. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs twice in its text. His “Life” is mentioned once in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Epaunensis concilium, 5th c., was a council in Spain, mentioned twice as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ephese concilium , council of, was first convened in 431 AD for the purpose of taking authoritative action concerning the doctrine of the person of Christ. The councils of Nicaea and Constantinople had asserted the full divinity and real humanity of Christ, without, however, defining the manner of their union. In “Thesaurus” (1596) this first council is mentioned as a source 49 times. Ortelius refers to the third councilof Ephese which was held in 475 in Thesaurus” (1596) 36 times as a source, e.g.in lemma ACHAEORVM of his “Thesaurus” (1596).

Epiphanius, ca. 310 – 403, was bishop of Salami and metropolitan of Cyprus at the end of the 4th century. He is considered a church father. He gained the reputation of a strong defender of orthodoxy. He is best known for composing a very large compendium of the heresies up to his own time, full of quotations that are often the only surviving fragments of suppressed texts. His best-known book is the “Panarion” [medicine-chest], also known as “Adversus Haereses”, [Against heresies], presented as a book of antidotes for those bitten by the serpent of heresy. Written between 374 and 377, it forms a handbook for dealing with the arguments of heretics. Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) refer twice to Epiphanius’ “De 12 gemmis Aaronis”. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’  “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs 4 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 38 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 45 times.

Ephorus, 405 - 330 BC, from Cyme, Asia minor, a pupil of Isocrates, wrote a general history of Greece in 30 volumes, beginning with the return of the Heraclides, (1069 BC) and ending in 340 BC. He is quoted by Strabo (Ort189). Ephorus is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), as quoted by Plinius, and occurs 5 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 6 times, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 14 times.

Quoted by Strabo: Ort189.29.

Epimenides, 6th century BC, of Gnossos was a Greek philosopher who wrote poetry of which only fragments have survived. He is quoted by St. Paul (Ort217).

Ort226.2;

Quoted by St. Paul: Ort217.6.

Epictetus (Greek: πίκτητος) 55 – 135 AD was a Greek sage and Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey), and lived in Rome until banishment when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece where he lived the rest of his life. His teachings were noted down and published by his pupil Arrianus in his “Discourses”. Philosophy, he taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control, but we can accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. His “Enchyridion” is mentioned and recommended by Ortelius in a letter to Jacob Cools as teaching the immortality of the soul (Hessels 192).

Episcopus, Jacobus Philippus or Bisschop, fl. second half 16th c., was a Latin poet of Ghent who wrote Ortelius an undated letter (Hessels 376).

Episcopus Upsaliensis see Magnus, Ioannes.

Erasistratus (Greek: ρασίστρατος), 304 BC - 250 BC,  was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus, he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart, and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. He was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries. He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. Only fragments of his writings survive. His name is mentioned once as a source by Ortelius in lemma MYCALE of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) as quoted by Suidas.

Erasmus, Desiderius, 1467 – 1536, of Rotterdam translated the complete works of Aristoteles into Latin and published them in 1531. His work “Adagiorum chiliades” (Ort79,147,211), also referred to in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) was published by Aldus Manutius in Venice in 1506 is also well known and its aphorisms and scholarship were eagerly incorporated in Ortelius’ “Theatrum”. He also wrote “Laus Stultitiæ” and “Epistles” (Ort75,76,77) of which Ortelius bought 6 copies from Plantin in 1560. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Erasmus is censured as a heretic. The fact that Ortelius’ correspondence contains very few letters (Hessels 1,3) of Erasmus next to 3 other letters not written by or to him, except from Erasmus to Morillonus (secretary to Charles V) dating from as early as 1524 and 1534, meant that Ortelius was simply proud to have these letters and to preserve them out of respect for Erasmus. This respect is also shown in the text of the Hollandia map, where he quotes Erasmus in a spirit of full approval. Erasmus is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius may also have been aware that it was Erasmus who stimulated Thomas More to write his Utopia, which ultimately led to Ortelius’ Utopia map.

Adagiorum Chiliades: Ort79.2-8, 79.29, [Book 4, Ch. 35], 147.10, 211.15;

Epistles: Ort75.4, 76.4, 77.4.

Erasmus, Michaelis Læti, 1526 – 1582, was a poet who wrote “De re Nautica” [about naval matters] (Ort161), Basel, 1573. This work is also referred to as a source in lemmas GLESSARIA and RHA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

De re Nautica Bk.3: 161.31, 161.93.

Erasmus Stella see Stella Erasmus.

Eratosthenes, 275 - 195 BC, of Cyrene was a universal scientist. His main work is “Geographia” in 3 books, describing the history of geography and containing an extremely accurate calculation of the circumference of the earth. He is quoted by Varro (Ort189) and by Strabo (Ort224). Eratosthenes is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) via Strabo and is mentioned 7 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 11 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 14 times.

Ort186.8, 194.31, 199.8, 199.47, 200.20, 213.6, 214.3;

Quoted by Varro: Ort189.3;

Quoted by Strabo: Ort224.29.

Eresius, Theophrastes see Theophrastes Eresius.

Ermolao Barbaro or Hermolaus, 1454 - 1495, a diplomat from Venice, Italy published and commented on Mela’s “De Situ Orbis”. Also “Castigationes Plinianis” [corrections on Plinius] by Plinius Caius Secundum, referred to nine times by Ortelius in his “Synonymia” (1578), 60 times, sometimes with the attribute “doctissimus”, in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 19 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also edited Ioannes Leo, Thucydides, quotes Cyrillus, Rhianus and Stephanus, and published “Annotationes”, as appears from Ortelius’ Synonymia (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in lemma TAZATAM. In lemma PHAROS of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ermolao’s “Illyricus Sermo” is mentioned as a source. Ermolao is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 110 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 107 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 162 times.

Ort142.2, 231.24.

Erpoldus Lindenbruch, 16th c., was a biographer of Charlemagne who wrote in German a “Chronicon” published in Hamburg in 1593, containing etymologies, referred to by Ortelius as a source in lemmas GAMBRIVII and TREVA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Erythræus, Janus Nicius, first century AD, wrote “Eudemia”, a satirical work placing Romans of Tiberius’ time on an island in the Atlantic.

Ort217.24;

Erythraeus, Nicolaus (16th c.) of Venice published his edited Vergilius as “Scholia et Indicem in Virgilium”, in the form of a dictionary or index. Erythræus is mentioned 9 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L) and 21 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius “Synonymia” (1578) in which he quotes 8 times from Vergilius’ “Index” and is mentioned as a source in that work altogether 45 times. The same “Index” is mentioned 11 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) where he is quoted as a source 43 times, and this “Index” is mentioned 13 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma ZACYNTHVS where Erythræus is altogether mentioned 46 times.

Quoting Bk.9 of Virgil’s Æneis: Ort142.7, 142.8.

Eschius or Nicolaus van Esch, 1507 – 1578, was a Dutch Roman Catholic theologian and mystical writer who wrote “Joannis Thauleri De vita et passione Salvatoris nostril Jesi Christi… ,Cologne 1548. He is referred to as a source in a letter from Ortelius to Jacob Cools in 1592 (Hessels 212).

Escalante, Bernardino flourished second half of the 16th century and wrote a booklet about China called “Discorso de la Navigation” or “Historia de China”, published in Sevilla in 1577 which came into the possession of Ortelius (Ort164). Ortelius bought another copy from Plantin in 1587. Ortelius mentions him as a source twice, e.g. in lemmas GIR and SINÆ of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Ortelius used the Chinese characters given in his “Discorso” booklet as various woodcuts for his text on the China map (Ort164).

Ort164.2, 164.19.

Estienne, Robert see Stephanus, Robert.

Estrella, see see Stella Calvetus.

Etropius or Etrobius, Johannes, fl. early 16th c., wrote a book called “Diarius expeditionis Tunetanæ” which appeared in 1535. Ortelius refers to this work once in his “Synonymia” (1578), once in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma CARTENNÆ.

“Etymologicon” or “Etymologicum Graecum”, mid 9th c., is the conventional modern title given to a lexical encyclopedia compiled in Constantinople. The anonymous compiler drew on the works of numerous earlier lexicographers and scholiasts, both ancient and recent, including Herodianus, Choeroboscus, Methodius, Orosius and Theognostus. The “Etymologicum” was possibly a product of the intellectual circle around Photius. It was an important source for the subsequent Byzantine lexicographical tradition. It first appeared in print in 1549. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1584. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) he refers to this “Etymologicum” 50 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus”(1596) 65 times.

Eucherius, saint, fl. 5th c., of France described the fate of Saint Mauritius, a martyr for Christianity, in his “Passio Martyrum Acaunensum” a copy of which, printed in Venice, was bought by Orteliusfrom Plantin in 1591.

Eudoxus of Cnidus, 410 or 408 BC – 355 or 347 BC, was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato. Since all his own works are lost, our knowledge of him is obtained from secondary sources, such as Aratus' poem on astronomy. Theodosius of Bithynia's “Sphaerics” may be based on a work of Eudoxus. He is quoted by Suidas, as appears from Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma ARABISSENSIS and also by Stephanus Byzantinus in “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is altogether mentioned 3 times.

Eugippius or Eugippus, 5th c., was a disciple and the biographer of Saint Severinus of Noricum. After the latter's death in 492, he took the remains to Naples and founded a monastery on the site of a 1st century Roman villa, the Castellum Lucullanum (later Castel dell'Ovo).While at Naples, Eugippius compiled a 1000-page anthology of the works of St. Augustinus and produced other scholarly works of high quality. Eugippius’ “Vita Severini Norici apostoli” is mentioned as a source in lemma QVINTANÆ of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas CASTVRIS HERVLI and TIBVRNIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma OVILABIS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Eugippus’ “Herulorum Historia” as a source. Eugippius is altogether mentioned 5 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Euhemerus (Εήμερος, meaning happy or prosperous), fl. late 4th c. BC, was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. His birthplace is disputed, with Messina in Sicily as the most probable location. He is quoted as a source by Ortelius in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma AVLATIA.

Eulogius, Saint of Córdoba (Spanish: San Eulogio de Córdoba, died March 11, 859, was one of the martyrs of Córdoba. He flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman II and Muhammad I (822 - 886). He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs twice in its text. His “Epistola ad Wiliensindam” is mentioned twice as a source, e.g. in lemma NARBONENSIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), simply his “Epistolae” in lemma HVRDASPALENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). His “Memoriali Sanctorum” is mentioned as a source in lemma SERASIENSE of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned as a source 4 in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Eumanius or Eumenius, 4th century AD, was a teacher in rhetoric active in Gaul who wrote a “Panegyric” (Ort53,54), referred to 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Eumanius is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text, further altogether 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus”.(1596).

Ort196.49, 209.14;

Panegyric: Ort53.16, 54.5.

Eumenius see Eumanius.

Eumenus see Eumanius.

Eunapius, Sardianus, 375 – 420, wrote a history of philosophy of which only fragments survive, and biographies in “De vitis philosophorum et Sophistarum”, printed by Plantin in 1568, including “Vita Iamblichi”, mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and also in lemmas CHALCIS and GADARA of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1573. Altogether he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 11 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma THESSALIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Chrysanthius” is mentioned as a source.

Ort209.14, 209.18, 219.18, 221.28.

Euodius or Evodius of  Antiochia, who died in 69 AD, is a saint of the Christian church and one if the first identifiable Christian saints. Not much is known about his life. Peter converted him to Christianity and Antiochia was a Christian centre at that time. Peter became the first bishop of Antiochia and when he travelled to Rome, Euodius became his successor. Euodius is mentioned twice as a source, e.g. in lemma PINETVM of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), once in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas EMBLONITVRNA and PINETVM. His “Panegyricus” is mentioned as a source in lemma NATISO of “Thesaurus” (1596). Euodius’ “De miraculis protomartyris Divi Stephani” is mentioned as a source in lemma PISITANA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Euoptius, abt. 400 AD, from Greece received letters from his brother Synesius (Ort222).

Written to by Synesius: Ort222.21.

Euphorion, born at Chalcis in Euboea about 275 BC, was a Greek poet and grammarian. Euphorion, after studying philosophy with Lakydes and Prytanis, became the student of the poet Archeboulos. He spent much of his life in Athens. About 221 BC he was invited by Antiochus the Great to the court of Syria. He assisted in the formation of the royal library at Antiochia, of which he held the post of librarian till his death. He wrote mythological epics (the “epyllion Thrax”), amatory elegies, epigrams and a satirical poem “Arae”, [curses] after the manner of the “Ibis” of Callimachus. Prose works on antiquities and history are also attributed to him. Like Lycophron, he was fond of using archaic and obsolete expressions, and the erudite character of his allusions rendered his language very obscure. His elegies were highly esteemed by the Romans — they were imitated and translated by Cornelius Gallus and also by emperor Tiberius. Ortelius refers to him once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma MARIANDYNI, as reported by Athenæus. In “Thesaurus (1587,1596) he is mentioned once in lemma DIRPHOSSVM and in “Thesaurus” (1596) Eurphorion is altogether mentioned 4 times as a source.

Euphrada, Themistius, 4th century BC, “the Orator” was a Greek known for his oratory talents. These were first published in Venice, 1534. His “Oratio 2” is mentioned as a source in lemma ANYTI , his “Oratio 1” in lemma BRYPONTIDÆ, his “Oratio 4” in lemma GALATIA and his “Oratio 7” in lemma PONTVS EVXINVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort196.21, 213.20, 214.26, 221.26;

Bk.6: 214.27;

Oration 6: 214.31.

Eupolemus (Greek: Eυπόλεμoς),  4th century BC, was one of the generals of Cassander; he was sent by him in 314 BC to invade Caria, but was surprised and taken prisoner by Ptolemaeus, a general who commanded that province for Antigonus. He must have been liberated again directly, as the next year, 313 BC, we find him commanding the forces left by Cassander in Greece, when he moved northward against Antigonus. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), via Eusebius, and is referred to three times as a source in this “Synonymia”. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned 4 times as a source, e.g. in lemmas HEZIONGABER and HIEROSOLYMA via Eusebius.

Eupolides or Eupolis, 4th c. BC, was a Greek comedy writer and contemporary of Aristophanes. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma ATRACES of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Ermolao.

Euripides, 480 - 406 BC, was a Greek tragedy writer who among many other tragedies wrote “Iphigeneia Taurica” or “Aulida”(Ort213,217; also referred to 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas ACHILLEA, ALAS, CENTAVROPOLIS, ECHINADES and THRONIVM; also  “Heracles Furiens”,  referred to once as a source once in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Also “Andromache”, referred to as a source in lemma THETIDIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemmas MOLOSSI and THESSALIA of “Thesaurus” (1596). “Hippolytus”is referred to one as a source in lemma PALLADIS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596); “Troades” (Ort231); “Phœnißis”, is referred to as a source in lemmas IVNONIS ARA, SCISTA, SICILIA and THACI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemma DODONA of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Oreste”is  referred to as a source in lemmas ORESTEVM and PARRHASIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas DANAIDAE, GERÆSTVS of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Helena” is referred to as a source in lemma PERSEI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemma NAVPLIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Supplicibus” is refereed to in lemma CALLICHORVS of “Thesaurus” (1596);
“Hecuba”, mentioned as a source in lemmas APPIDANVS and PHTHIA of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Medea” is mentioned as a source in lemma CYANEÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596);
“Cyclops” is mentioned in Ort224 and in  lemma LAVRIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Bacchis” is mentioned in lemmas CITHÆRON, ERYTHRÆ, HYSIÆ and TMOLVS of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Alcestis” is mentioned as a source in lemma OTHRYS of “Thesaurus” (1596); “Electra” is mentioned as a source in lemma TANVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether he is mentioned 15 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), 47 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Euripides is mentioned once on map sheet Ort224; further in texts Iphigeneia: Ort213.19, 217.31;

Troades: Ort231.23;

Cyclops: Ort224.4.

Eusebius, Pamphilius Cæsariensis, 263 - 339 AD, of Caesarea is often called the father of church history. He was born in Palestine and had Pamphilus as his teacher. His works are of a theological and apologetic nature. He wrote a Chronicle “Historia Ecclesiastica” also called “Chronicon” or “Chronicorum” which provide the reigns in years of kings from archfather Abraham onwards (Ort124,189,190,192,200216,222,232; also 48 times referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 53 times in “Thesaurus” (1596)), published in Strasbourg, 1475, Lyon, 1533, Basel, 1554. It is of particular importance for the sources mentioned in it. In lemma NINIVE of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius also refers to his manuscript version of the “Chronicon”, which he judges to be superior to the printed version. Eusebius quotes in it the anonymous “Responses patriarcharum Orientalium”, as appears from lemmas FLAMIAS, GENABVS, MELESOBE and SOTEROPOLIS in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) often without mentioning the author.
 Further “De Præparatio Evangelica”, Venice, 1470, Cologne, 1473, (Ort16, 190, 192,194,196,200,203,208,220,221,222), also referred to 6 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), 42 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). In lemma MARCELLAM of “Thesaurus” (1587) Eusebius’ Tomus Episcoporum” is mentioned as a source, whereas in the same lemma in “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Historia Miscella” is mentioned. In lemma PORPHYRITE in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma AEPY of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Thebaidos” is mentioned as a source. Eusebius’ “Demonstratia Evangelica” is mentioned as a source in lemma EROGE and MAMBRE of “Thesaurus” (1596). Eusebius wrote the Greek work “De locis Hebraicis”, translated into Latin by Saint Hieronymus. Again, the author is often not mentioned. It is referred to as a soure in lemma HAIALON of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius bought his “Opera”, printed in Paris, from Plantin in 1582. Eusebius is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs 14 times in its text. That Ortelius possessed a manuscript of Eusebius also appears in lemma TIRIANVS in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), which is mentioned as a source 3 times. Ortelius does not refer to Eusebius’ biography of Constantine the Great. Altogether, Eusebius is mentioned 92 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 141 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort178.7, 179.7, 182.2, 182.8, 183.2, 183.8, 186.15, 196.14, 199.11, 199.52, 200.24, 200.55, 214.14, 216.17, 216.26, 219.14, 220.2, 220.5, 221.18, 221.32, 221.33, 221.37;

Histor. Eccles. Bk.9: Ort199.74, 200.66;

Magio : Ort216.17;

De Præparatio Evangelica: Ort220.9, 222.18,

Bk.1: 221.34, Bk.2: Ort208.8, 221.22, 221.42, Bk.4: Ort194.23, 196.115, Bk.6: 16.43, 190.16, 190.53, 199.25, 199.69, 200.13, 200.52, Bk.7: Ort192.29, Bk.10: Ort203.10, Bk.16 Ort190.16;

Chronikon: Ort124.31, 189.22, 189.24, 190.70, 192.49, 216.33, 222.33, 232.23.

Eustachius of Knobelsdorf see Knobelsdorf, Eustachius.

Eustathius, abt. 1115 – 1197, “who lends his ears to fables” became archbishop of Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1166. He wrote comments on Dionysius Apher (Ort192; also referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas FOCIS and PRVSA of “Thesaurus” (1596)), on Homerus (Ortelius refers to Eustathius’ Greek “Ilias” 26 times and to his “Odyssee” 13 times in “Thesaurus” (1587), 37 times to “Ilias” and 23 times to “Odyssee” in “Thesaurus” (1596) and 8 times to his Ilias b in “Thesaurus” (1596) 9 times, to Ilias G once, to Ilias e once, to Ilias f once, to Ilias q and Odysseus G  once), and on Xenophon, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1582, dealing with history, geography, language and mythology of Homeric epics, and also “Lycophron” (Ort189) to which Ortelius refers twice in his “Synonymia” (1578). Also: “Reports from Ælius Pollux” (Ort147). Eustathius quotes Athenæus (Ort214), Homerus (Ort147; also in lemmas ASIVS, SARDIS and TAMASSVS of “Thesaurus” (1596)), Afer (Ort16,221,222), Archilochus in lemma SAI of “Thesaurus” (1596) and Dionysius Alexandrinus (Ort190; also in lemma MACEDONIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and edited Dionysius, as stated in lemma PRVSA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and in lemmas CRATHIS, DATVS, PYRÆTHI and TAVRVS of “Thesaurus” (1596)). Ortelius refers in the lemmas ARTICOME, AVLICOME, DAPHNE, EVRICOME and NIOBES of his “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas ARTICOME, AVLICOME, DAPHNI POLIM and EVRIADEM of “Thesaurus” (1596) to Eustathius’ “Historia Ismeni fabula amatoria” which he calls “fabulosus”. Ortelius bought Eustathius’ Greek “Epitome”, published in Basel from Plantin in 1582. Eustathius is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 99 times in its text. He is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Address to the reader” in his “Thesaurus” (1587). In this “Thesaurus” (1587), Eustathius’ “Catalogus Navium” (from the second book of Homerus’ “Ilias”) is mentioned 18 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587), and 10 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), often without mentioning the editor’s name. Eustathius “Vita” is also mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius’ refers to “Authenticis” which was written by Eustathius 17 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 35 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) without mentioning Eustathius’ name. Eustathius’ “Indica” is mentioned as a source in lemma SABÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, Eustathius is mentioned 335 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 413 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Eustathius is mentioned once on map sheet Ort193. Further in map texts: Ort1.14, 2.14, 3.14, 189.23, 192.68, 204.2, 205.2, 207.10, 208.8, 209.14-16, 210.9, 211.3, 213.5, 214.25, 214.26, 214.29, 216.2, 216.17, 217.8, 217.10, 217.15, 217.17, 217.19, 217.22, 217.23, 219.2, 219.9, 221.2, 221.13;

Quoted by Dionysius 190.24;

Lycophron: Ort189.23, 190.24;

Reports from Ælius Pollux: Ort147.22;

Quoting Athenæus: Ort214.4;

Commentaries on Dionysius Afer: Ort3.13, 16.52, 190.65, 192.17, 192.42, 221.27, 222.30; Commentaries on Homer: Ort147.21.

Eutropius, who died c. 378 AD, wrote “Breviarum historiæ Romanæ”, a history of Rome, beginning with Romulus and extending to his own time, 3rd quarter of the 4th century. It neatly met a demand among Roman citizens for a summary history of the empire, and it enjoyed an immediate and lasting success. His work was edited by Vinetus. Ortelius owned this work, printed in Basel,1561, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Ortelius refers to this work once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas NERONIANÆ THERMÆ and TANNETA. Eutropius is supposed to have been a pupil of the holy Augustinus. Eutropius is mentioned once in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia”(1578), and occurs 12 times in its text. In his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Eutropius’ “De Traiano Imp.” as a source in the lemma BOLCORVM and to his “Lucullus” in the lemma BVCIAM,. Altogether, Eutropius is mentioned 51 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 78 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Eutropius was edited by Claudianus, as appears from lemmas DINDYMA and THYNI in “Thesaurus” (1596). From lemma LIGANA and TANNETA of “Thesaurus” (1596) it is clear that Ortelius possessed a manuscript of Eutropius.

Ort33.51, 115.7, 124.11, 130.3, 191.3, 192.54, 192.71, 192.82, 196.3, 199.5, 199.45, 200.16, 209.3, 212.6, 212.7, 212.15, 232.9;

Panegyricus to Emperor Maximilianus 191.9.

Evagrius Ponticus Scholasticus (abt. 345 - 393 AD) was a Greek who lived in Antiochia wrote about Christian spirituality and asceticism in his “Historia Ecclesiastica”, mentioned as a source in lemma PAPIRA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). He is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 3 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Evagrius is mentioned 18 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 42 times.

Ort182.8, 183.8.

Exuperatius, Julius, who died in 302, was one of the saints of the city of Zürich. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma AVXIMA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Faber, Franciscus, 1497 – 1565, from Breslau/Wroclaw wrote “Sabothus sive Silesia” (Ort103), a description of the Zobten mountain there, and also a work of praise on Silesia in the style of Virgilius' praise of Italy in verse.

Silesia in verse : Ort103.15.

Faber, Nicolaus, Paris 1544 – 1612, was a French humanist who edited Seneca and published his edition in 1587. He wrote a poem for Ortelius and sent it to him in 1582 (Hessels 118).

Faber, Petrus, 1506 – 1546, was a French Jesuit who wrote “Agnosticon”, Lyon, 1592, referred to as a source in lemma GRÆCIA of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Fabius Pictor see Pictor, Fabius.

Fabius Rusticus see Rusticus Fabius.

Fabius, Scipio, fl. late 16th c., was geographer and professor in medicine in Bologna who later moved to Rome. Ortelius visited him on one of his earliest travels to Italy. He wrote two letters to Ortelius in 1561 and 1565 (Hessels 11,15). Scipio Fabius is the dedicatee of Ortelius’ two sheet map of Egypt of 1565, as gratefully acknowledged by Scipio (Hessels 15).

Fabri, Nicolaus or Nicolas Faber, fl. late 16th c., of Vilvoorde belonged to the “Compagnie de Jésus” in 1574. He wrote a letter with 46 lines in Latin and two lines in Greek to Ortelius in 1582 (Hessels 118).

Fabricius, David, 1564 – 1617, was a protestant priest and astronomer in Friesland who published a map of East Friesland, Emden, 1589. He is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1595 onwards.

Fabricius, Franciscus, 1510 – 1552, from Roermond was a physician who wrote about the healing waters of Aachen. He also edited Gregorius Nazianzenus and published this work in 1550. Ortelius refers to this work once as a source in the lemma EDVRES of his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Fabritius or Fabricius, Georg, 1516 – 1571, of Chemnitz was dean of a grammar school in Meissen. After having travelled extensively he wrote “Itineraria Romanum, Neapolitanum et Patavinum, Chemnicense, Argentoratense, hexametrico carmine scripta” 1550, to which Ortelius refers four times as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), 7 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Origines Saxonicæ”, and “Res Germaniæ magnæ et Saxoniæ universæ memorabiles”. Further “Annales urbis Misenæ”, also called “Rerum Misnicarum” to which Ortelius refers twice as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma SORABOS, and “Saxonia illustrata”. In lemma ARVNCA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Fabritius’ “Aeneid” is mentioned as a source. In lemmas DVPLAVLIS, HÆSTÆ, TIGVRINVS and XEROLYBIA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Fabritius’ “Poetarum Christianorum” is mentioned as a source. In lemma PHÆDÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596), his “Decretus Romanus antiquus” is mentioned as a source. In lemma SARNVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Fabritius is mentioned as quoting from the Aciatus library. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Fabricius is censured as a heretic. Fabricius is mentioned 85 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 88 times in  “Synonymia” (1571L), 89 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), sometimes referring to his “Itinerary”. Further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in the text itself, where he occurs 35 times. In “Thesaurus” (1587) Fabritius is mentioned 46 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 42 times.

Ort96.11, 104.10, 104.60, 129.17.

Fabritius or Fabricius, Paulus,1519 – 1588, was an astronomer, physician, cartographer and professor of mathematics in Vienna. He published a map of Moravia in Vienna, 1569, which was used by Ortelius for his Moravia map (Ort104); Fabritius and his Moravia map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1571 onwards.

Fabritius is mentioned in the cartouche of Ortelius’ Moravia map, Ort104 as its maker.

Facellus see Fazellus.

Facius, or Fazio, or Facio, Bartolomeo, abt. 1400 – 1457, of Genoa wrote “De viris illustribus” mentioned twice as a source in lemmas GAVRVS, QVIRITIVM, VIÆ and VOLSINIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) without mentioning the author’s name, and “De humanae vitae Felicitate Liber”,  printed in Hanovia, 1611. He edited Arrianus in Latin, which is mentioned once in lemma TAVRVNVM in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and again in lemma TAVRVNVM of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). Altogether he is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort126.11.

Facius, Hubertus, 15th c., was a Flemish painter and author who wrote “Descriptio Italiæ”, mentioned as a source in lemma VERESIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Facundus of Hermiane, 6th century, was a Christian author, and bishop of Hermiane in Africa. About his career little is known. His place in history is due entirely to the opposition which he offered to the condemnation (by the edict of Justinianus in 543 or 544) of the "Three Chapters". At the instance of Theodorus Ascidas, and with the ostensible purpose of reuniting to the church the Acephali, a sect of Monophysites, Justinianus was induced to censure the "Three Chapters". Facundus was in Constantinople when this censure was pronounced, and shortly after its publication he and several other western bishops refused to subscribe to the decree, alleging that it was an attack on the Council of Chalcedon. Facundus also drew up a memorial in protest, but was prevented from presenting it by the arrival of Pope Vigilius. The conduct of the pontiff and his acquiescence in the condemnation of the "Three Chapters" spurred Facundus to complete this work, which he entitled “Pro Defensione Trium Capitulorum”. He is mentioned twice as a source in lemma ERMIANENSIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Fadrique Furio y Ceriol see Caeriolanus.

Faernus, Gabriel, fl. late 16th c., was an Italian embematist who wrote “Fabulae Centum” in 1564. Ortelius bought a copy of it from Plantin in 1566. Ortelius refers to this work in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Fagotius, Theobald, fl. late 16th c., of Bourges, France wrote about this city. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he also occurs once in the text as a source.

Ort39.2.

Falconius, Benedictus, 16th c.? is an Italian author who wrote “Napoli”, as indicated in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemmas ACHERVSIA, and PAVSILYPVM. Altogether he is mentioned 6 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times in Thesaurus (1596).

Falkenburgius, Gerardus or Gerard Falkenberg from Nijmegen, 1538 - 1578) was a lawyer and philologist who travelled through Italy, England and the Low Countries. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 61vo, September 14, 1575), and published a  laudatory poem in Greek in the Theatrum editions 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1584L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L beginning “Eipe ti ..” and ending “… kaleoi kai neokosmogonon”.

Farnesius, Henricus or Henri Du Four, late 16th c., was a Belgian author from Liège who wrote “De simulacro reipubica”, published in 1593. Ortelius refers to this work once in lemma TICINVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) as a source.

Faroldus, Julius, 8th c.? was an Italian author who wrote in the Longobardian language. His only work known is “Annales Veneti”. Ortelius refers to him as a source in the lemma EQVILIVM of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma METHAMAVCVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Altogether, he is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Faunus, Lucius, 16th century, from Italy wrote “Della antichità della Città di Roma” published in Rome in 1540.

Ort129.17.

Favolius or Favoli or Favolia, Joannes Baptista, fl. late 16th c., lived in Middelburg, Zeeland and wrote two letters to Ortelius in 1592 and 1593 (Hessels 224,232). His name was used for one of the cities on the Utopia map as “Favolia” after his own insistence.

Favolius, Hugo, brother of Joannes, Middelburg 1523 – Antwerp 1585, was a physician and Latin poet, doctor and traveller. He studied in Padua, Italy and returned to Antwerp as a doctor. He made a Latin translation of the Ortelius-Galle Epitome in 1585. He also wrote “Hodœporicum Byzantium” (Ort146, 149,168,169) to which Ortelius refers 4 times as a source once in his “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius quotes him in the cartouche of the early and late map Belgii Veteris (Ort197,198). Favolius is mentioned 59 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and 16 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned as a source 16 times and in Thesaurus” (1596) 15 times. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff. 105 v, 106, April 22, 1574).

Quoted by Ortelius in the cartouche of Belgii Veteris, (Ort197,198); further in map text: Ort224.46;

Hodœporicum Byzantium: Ort146.14, 149.15, 149.24, 168.8, 169.16.

Favorinus of Arelata, ca. 80 – 160 AD, was a Hellenistic sophist and philosopher who flourished during the reign of Hadrianus. He was of Gaulish ancestry, born in Arelate (Arles). He is described as a hermaphrodite (ανδροθηλυς) by birth. He received an exquisite education, first in Gallia Narbonensis and then in Rome, and at an early age began his lifelong travels through Greece, Italy and the East. His extensive knowledge, combined with great oratorical powers, raised him to eminence both in Athens and in Rome. With Plutarchus, with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and with Hadrianus himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna. Of the very numerous works of Favorinus we possess only a few fragments, preserved by Aulus Gellius, Diogenes Laërtius, Philostratus, and in the “Suda Laropia” [miscellaneous history] and his memoirs. As a philosopher, he belonged to the sceptical school; his most important work in this connection appears to have been the “Pyrrhonean Tropes” in ten books, in which he endeavours to show that the methods of Pyrrho were useful to those who intended to practise in the law courts. Ortelius refers to Favorinus as a source twice in his “Synonymia” (1578), twice in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and once in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Fayanus, Ioannes or Jean Fayen, 1530 - 1616, a physician, published a map of Limousin in the Théatre François of Bouguereau in 1594, which was used by Ortelius (Meurer p. 143). He and his Limousin map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1601 onwards.

Fayanus, Ioannes is mentioned in the cartouche of the Lemovicum map as its maker, Ort43b

Fayen see Fayanus.

Fazellus or Facellus, Thomas, 1498 – 1570, of Sicily, Italy, wrote a history of Sicily “De rebus Siculis decades II” (Ort176; also referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), in lemmas ALPHEIVS and GIGANTES and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573), Palermo 1558, Frankfurt 1579, after the example of Blondus. Ortelius refers to this work, and also to his “Decadis” as sources in his “Synonymia” (1578). Fazellus is mentioned 143 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 179 times in “Synonymia” (1571L), 186 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 130 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 153 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) .

Ort141.5, 141.10, 141.20, 141.25;

History of Sicily Bk.6 Ch.1: Ort176.10.

Fentius, Tobias (unidentified) is an author who wrote epitaphs in a book called “De monumentorum” which is quoted in 5 lines in lemma SABARIA of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Ferdinand Alarcon see Alarcon Ferdinand.

Ferdinand Lopez de Castanheda see Lopez de Castanheda.

Ferdinandus Alarchonius, see Alarchonius, Fernandus.

Fernandes see Fernandez Diego.

Fernandez, Iacobus Diego, 16th century, was a Portuguese pilot and cartographer in service of the English, born on the Açores, who made a manuscript map of the Americas in 1580.

Ort15.6, 15.32.

Ferrara, Council or Synod, first held in Basel then Ferrara after its transfer to Ferrara was decreed by Pope Eugene IV, to convene in 1438. The council was again transferred to Florence in 1439 because of the danger of plague at Ferrara, and because the city of Florence had agreed, against future payment, to finance the Council. Ortelius refers to this synod as a source in lemma XANTHOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ferraris, Antonio de, 1444 - 1517, was a physician of Southern Italy who is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1595 onwards as the maker of various manuscript maps which have not survived.

Ferrerius, 16th century, from Piemont, Italy expanded the Scottish history written by Boëthius and published it in Paris, 1574. See further under Boëthius.

Ferron, Arnoul, 1515 – 1563, was a member of Parliament in Bordaux, France, who continued the work begun by Æmilius called “De rebus gestis Gallorum libri IX” (Ort44,45), Paris 1550. Earlier, he wrote “In consuetudines Burdigalensium commentariorum libri II” Lyon 1540, probably unknown to Ortelius.

The French History of Paulus Æmilius: Ort44.4, 45.4.

Ferronius see Ferron.

Festus, Rufus Avienus, see Rufus Festus Avienus.

Fiacrus, Saint, 3rd c.?, was a monk whose “Life” was described by Sulpicius Severus. This “Life” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BRODOLIVM.

Fidlerus, Felix who died in 1553 was a German poet known for his “Eclogue”, perhaps also called “Carmen eliagicus fluminorum Germanorum”, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in lemma CHRONVS in his “Synonymia” (1578). He is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In lemma CHRONVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Fidlerus and his “Carmen” is again mentioned as a source. He also wrote “De Eclipsi Lvnae, Qvae Conspecta Est Anno M.D.LI. Die vigesima Februarij” (1551).

Finæus see Fineus.

Finé see Fineus.

Fineus, Orontius, 1494 – 1555, from Briançon, France (Ort181) studied mathematics and philosophy and became a teacher at the Collège de France in Paris. He published “Tractatus de sphæræ” Paris, 1516, Protomathis” Paris, 1532, “De cosmographia sive mundi sphæra Libri V” Paris, 1532 and “Le sphère du monde” Paris, 1551. He also designed a world map Paris, 1530, which was used by Mercator, a map of France, Paris, 1538, to which Ortelius refers six times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), 5 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas BIBRACTE, CARNVTES, GARITES, TARBELLA and VELLAVNII, and a map of Brittannia, referred to as a source in lemma RHEDONES of “Thesaurus” (1596) and finally a Holy Land map (1534) of which no copy has survived. He also wrote “De Horlogijs” a copy of which was bought by Ortelius from Plantin in 1578. He and his maps of France, the World in the form of a heart, is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1570 onwards. Fineus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L),  19 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 16 times in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 16 times as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) again 16 times.

Ort181.2.

Fioravanti, Christoforo, 15th century, was an Italian traveller who wrote a text about a shipwreck.

Ort12.24, 12.48, 160.17.

Firmicus, Maternus Julius, 4th century AD, was a Roman Christian author who wrote “De errore profanum religionum”. He also wrote “De nativitatibus”, also known as “Mathesis”, which presents popular Roman traditions and sets out a practical astrological method, citing Hermes, Orpheus, Abraham and Æsculapius as sources. This work is once referred to as a source in lemma SERVILIVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In lemma CAMPANIA FELIX of “Thesaurus” (1596), Firmicus’ “”Astronomicorum” is mentioned as a source. Firmicus’ work ranks as the most comprehensive textbook of astronomy/astrology in ancient times. He also wrote a “Tractate” (Ort19). He occurs once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 8 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemmas OCEANVS ATLANTICVS and PALICI.

Ort19.10b, 193.13, 196.47, 204.6, 205.6, 211.11, 218.8, 218.27, 222.40;

Tractate: Ort19.17.

Flaccus, Calpurnius, also Calpurnius Flaccus, first century AD, was a Roman writer who may have been in the circle of Plinius the Younger. He wrote declamations and is quoted once as a source in lemma LYRCIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 15 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma ROMANI.

Ort193.13, 200.36.

Flaccus, Quintus Fulvius, 237 - 173 BC, was a Roman statesman, military leader and consul. He is twice mentioned as a source in lemmas MANLIANVM and MOESIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), altogether 6 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort193.53.

Flaccus, Siculus, 1st century AD, was a Roman who wrote a guide for land surveyors. He is mentioned 3 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g in lemma ISAVRVS.

Mentioned once on the mapsheet Ort192;

Ort229.3.

Flaccus, Valerius see Valerius Flaccus.

Flacius Illyricus, Matthias in Latin; in Croatian: Matija Vlačić Ilirik, in German: Matthias Flach), 3 March 1520 – 11 March 1575, was a Lutheran reformer from Istria, present day Croatia. Ortelius was proud to possess a rare book edited by Flacius, as appears from letters Ortelius wrote to Vulcanus (Cod Vulc 105 III, dated 22.8.1597)

Flavius Arrianus, see Arrianus Flavius.

Flavius Campanus see Campanus, Flavius.

Flavius Charisius Sosipater see Sosipater.

Flavius Josephus see Josephus Flavius.

Flavius Vopiscus see Vopiscus, Flavius.

Fleckius, Georgius or Georg Fleck, fl. late 16th c., taught theology in Tübingen and later became ecclesiastical inspector in Urach for Frederick, duke of Würtemberg, Germany. He wrote Ortelius in 1594 (Hessels 252), and ordered a coloured copy of the Theatrum in 1595 (Hessels 276).

Flemingus, Arnoldus or Arnold Fleming, Antwerp 1573 - Antwerp 1640, son of Jan Fleming, abandoned his position as councillor of the king and joined the brotherhood of Jesus in Madrid. Plantin dedicated “Vertumnus” (1580), a work by Becanus, to him. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f.119 v., April 30, 1595).

Floardus of Froardus or Frodoardus of Reims, 894 in Épernay - 966 Reims,  was a West-Franconian chronologer. He wrote “Historia Remensis ecclesiae”, printed in Reims in 1581, is mentioned twice as a source, e.g. in lemma NIVOMAGVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and 2 times as Froardus in lemmas DVODECIACVM and MONASTERIOLVM, once as Floardus in lemmas MORITANIA and VIDVLA, and once as Frodoardus in lemma MOSOMVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius owned a copy of this book as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). In lemma RIBVARIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Vita Remigij” and his “Chronicon” are mentioned as sources. Altogether, he is mentioned 8 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Floriacensis, Hugo or Hugh of Fleury or Hugo a Santa Maria who died not before 1118 was a French Benedictine monk and ecclesiastical writer. He is known only by his works. In 1109 he compiled an ecclesiastical history in four volumes, up to the death of Charles the Great, 814. He also wrote a chronicle of the kings of France (“Historia regum francorum monasterii Sancti Dionysii”) from Pharamond, the legendary first king, to the death of Philip I of France in 1108. Ortelius refers to him 7 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587), e.g. in the lemma CAPRARIA and CASSINOGILVM. In lemmas CANTILLENSIS, DASTAGERED, LECENNA and TANNETA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Ortelius refers to his manuscript by Floriacensis. Altogether, Floriacus is mentioned 18 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Florian d’Ocampo see Ocampo Florian d’.

Florianus, Johannes or Jan Bloemmaerts, 1522 - 1585, not to be confused with Florianus Ocampo, was a teacher from Antwerp, living in Friesland. He drew a manuscript map of East-Friesland which was the source of Ortelius map of East Frisia (Ort82,83). He translated the description of Africa written by Leo Africanus “Ioannis Leonis Africani De totius Africæ Descriptione Lib. IX” and published it in Antwerp, 1556. Florianus and his East Frisia map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1579 onwards. He mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Mentioned in the cartouche of the East Friesland map as its maker, Ort82;

Mentioned in the cartouche of the first East Frisia map as its maker, Ort83.

Florus Lucius Iulius Ænnæus, 2nd century, wrote a history of Rome “Lucii Ænnæi Flori: Rerum Romanorum ex tota Historia Titi Livii Epitome” which was first published by Gaguin at the Sorbonne, Paris in 1471. Ortelius refers to it as once a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), in his “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemma LIMÆA of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma MOSVLA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Florus’ “De bello Gallico” as a source. Other publishers and annotators of Florus’ works were Beroaldus, Sabellicus, Cuspinianus, Camers (“Annotationum in Lucium Florum Libellus”), Vienna, 1511, Vinetus, Plantin, Antwerp, 1567 (of which Ortelius bought a copy in 1579) and Janus Gruterus, Heidelberg, 1597. From lemma VINDIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) it is clear that Ortelius had various copies of Florus. Florus is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and further in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578). He occurs in its text 21 times. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 69 times as a source, in “Thesaurus” (1596) 92 times and in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) twice.

Florus is mentioned once on map sheet Ort209. Further in texts Ort48.13, 48.21, 49.7, 49.17, 49.29, 63.2, 186.23, 193.2, 193.14, 193.18, 193.27, 193.54, 196.48, 196.49, 196.51, 196.53, 196.107, 200.22, 203.4, 203.22, 203.30, 207.10, 208.8, 212.9, 212.22, 216.5, 217.11;

Bk.3: Ort197.18, 198.18, 200.73.

Florus, Paulus Lyrus lived in Roman times and is one of the sources used by Orosius.

Ort214.10, 214.32.

Foglietta Uberto or Oberto or Hubertus Iustinianus,1518 - 1581, was a lawyer and historiographer from Genoa, Italy who wrote a history of Genoa called “Historiæ Genuensium libri XII” published by his brother in Genoa in 1585. He also wrote “Brumanum” (Ort139) which discusses the city and surroundings of Naples. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas LIGVRIA, MARTIS and VTICAof “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort125.10, 126.11;

Brumanum : Ort139.6.

Folietta see Foglietta.

Fontana, Bartholomæo Bertoldi, 15th c., was an Italian author who wrote an “Itinerario” in Italian, referred to once as a source in lemma FORVM ALIENI of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Fontanus, Jacobus, early 16th c., was a Belgian author who published “De bello Rhodio libri tres Clementi VII”. Ortelius owned this book, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster, (2006).

Fonteius, Baptist, fl. late 16th c., was an Austrian scholar who wrote “Commentaries” which were in turn commented on by Julius Jacobonius (Ort196). He is mentioned 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in the lemma AMITERNVM referring to his “Caesia Familia”, and in the lemma CÆSIVS, referring to his “De Cæsia Gente”, of which a copy has survived with Ortelius’ name in it, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006).

Commentaries, commented on by Iulius Iacobonius: Ort196.117.

Forcatulus, Stephanus or Forcadel, Etienne, 1514 – 1573, was a French lawyer who wrote “Polonia felix Henrico Franco Valesio regnante” and “Necyomantia Iurisperti”, Lyon, 1544. Forculatus is mentioned as a source in lemmas DRYNÆMETVM, FLVENTIA and TROCMI of “Thesaurus” (1596), in the second lemma referring to his “De Gallorum Imperio” and his “Philosophia”.

Fornerius, Guilelmus Parisius, fl. late 16th c., was a Frenchman who edited Cassiodorus in “Magni Aurelii Cassiodori Variarum Libri XII” which was published in Paris in 1579 and again in 1583. Ortelius refers to Fornerius twice as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587), e.g. in the lemma BORMIÆ and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), e.g. in lemma VNARNORVM.

Fortunatianus, Chirius, 4th c., was a Roman author who wrote “Ars Rhetorica”. In Hessels (145) Camden asks Ortelius if Fortunatianus has anything on Britain.

Fortunatus, Pomponius Laetus see Pomponius Laetus.

Fortunatus, Venantius, 535 - about 610, was a late Roman Christian poet who studied in Ravenna and settled in Poitiers. He was ordained as a priest and became the head of a nunnery, and later bishop of Poitiers. He wrote poetry and hymns, and described the Life of St. Martinus, referred to as a source in lemma ANDETHANNALIS, CENEDA and VINDO of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius refers to his work “Ad Gogonem” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma SALA,. Fortunatus is also mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). He occurs 4 times in its text, including a lemma where his “Poemata de Navigio” is mentioned as a source. In his “Thesaurus” (1587) where he is altogether mentioned 17 times, Ortelius refers to his “Vita St. Germani”(also mentioned as a source in lemma ALISIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596)). “Ad Placidium” “De partis Virginis”, “De æternæ vitæ gaudiis” “Poemata de Navigio” (also mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596) “Vita Hilarij” (twice in “Thesaurus” (1587), also in lemmas SOLENCENSIVM, TEGIACVM and TONACIACVM of “Thesaurus” (1596)) and “Vita Medardi” (also in “Thesaurus” (1596)) as sources. Altogether, Fortunatus is mentioned 23 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort209.14.

Fracastorius, Hieronymus or Girolamo Fracastorio, 1483 – 1533, from Verona was a physician, poet, and friend of Ramusio. In his letters to Ramusio he writes about the nature of the Nile floods. These letters were familiar to Ortelius (Ort8).

Letters: Ort8.15.

Fracastorio see Fracastorius.

Franck, Sebastian, mid 16th c., was a writer regarded as heretical by all denominations in the Low Countries. His “Paradoxes” are referred to as a source by Ortelius in his letters of 1592 (Hessels 212,214) to Jacob Cools.

Franciscus Ullaus or Ulloa see Ulloa Franciscus.

Franciscus Paciecus see Pacheco, Frans.

Franciscus Raphelengius see Raphelengius Franciscus.

Franciscus Taraffa see Taraffa Franciscus.

Franciscus Vasquez see Vasquez, Franciscus.

Franciscus Xerez see Xerez Franciscus.

François, Isaac or Ysaacus Francus,1566 - 1649, an architect and road inspector of Tours contributed a map of Touraine to Bouguereau's Théatre François in 1594 which was used by Ortelius (Ort42). He and his map of Tours are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of 1601.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Touraine map as its maker Ort42.

“Francorum Annales” of 749 is an anonymous manuscript. The Royal Frankish Annals, formerly known as “Annales Laurissenses maiores” are annals covering the history of early Carolingian monarchs from 741 to 829. Their composition seems to have soon been taken up at court, providing them with markedly official character. They are mentioned twice as a source in lemmas SALETIO and SORABOS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 7 times, e.g. in lemmas ABOTRITI, ARMORICÆ, CRVCINIACVM and GVDVSCANI of “Thesaurus” (1596) as “Libellulum Francorum veteris historiae”, written by monks of the Benedictine order.

Freculphus or Freculphius, also known as Lexoviensis or of Lisieux who died in 854 was a Frankish bishop of Lisieux, between 825 and 851, now known for his “Chronicorum” or “Chronicle”, which is a source of information about the conversion of Gaul and Frankish history. “Chronicorum was first published in Cologne in 1539. Freculphus is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 3 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 4 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 15 times.

Frederick the second, 1534 - 1588, King of the Danes, Norwegians and Goths is the person to whom the Iceland map has been dedicated (Ort161).

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Iceland map as its dedicatee, Ort161.

Fredericus Furius Seriolanus see Furius Fredericus Seriolanus.

Fredoardus or Frodoardus, 894 – 966, of Reims, France, was an author who wrote “Annales” and a history of the church of Reims. He is mentioned as a source in lemmas CVRIOSOLITÆ and TABERNÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Fregoso, Federigo, 1480 – 1541, of Genoa was a humanist cardinal who wrote edifying works and whose letters are in the collections of Bembo and Baldassare Castiglione.

Ort124.11

Freherus, Marquardus Friedrich, Augsburg 1565 – Heidelberg 1614, professor of law in Heidelberg, friend of Velser, Gruterus and Leunclavius, met Colius when he was travelling to Italy. Freher was very interested in old coins and wrote a book about money, “De Re Monetaria” which was published in 1605. He wrote Ortelius a letter about coins in 1597 (Hessels 313). 

Frethag or Freitag, Arnold, Emmerich 1560 – 1614, was a German physician and professor of Helmstedt who wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1580, (Hessels 98) with the story of the Pied Piper of Hameln, Germany, described on the map text of Braunschweig (Ort99a). He wrote more letters in 1581 & 1583 (Hessels 109, 128). He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (ff.79v-80, January 13, 1577).

Letter to Ortelius: Ort99.8, 99.11.

Frethagius see Frethag.

Friccius, Clemens, Magdeburg ca. 1530 – Danzig 1589, Polish priest, poet and professor in Dantzig, wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1580 (Hessels 94) ordering a Theatrum copy.

Friedlieb see Irenicus.

Fries, Laurent or Frisius, c. 1490 - c. 1531, was a physician in Alsace who made a chart of the world, Strasbourg, 1525. He and his chart of the world are first mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” of 1570. Ortelius did not use it.

Frischlinus or Frischlin, Philippus Nicodemus, 22 September 1547 – 29 November 1590, was a German philologist, poet, playwright, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Erzingen, today part of Balingen in Württemberg. He wrote “”De Astronomica”, Frankfurt, 1586, “Julius Revivius”, Speyer, 1585, and “Nomenclator trilinguis, graeco, Latino, germanicus”, Frankfurt, 1594. His “Ad quitum hymnum Callimachi” is mentioned as a source in lemma PINDVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Frisingensis or Frising, Otto, who died in 1158,was bishop of Freising, Germany, and wrote a work called “De Gestis Frederici I”, to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in lemma APENNINVS. Altogether he is 10 times mentioned in “Synonymia” (1578). In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 11 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 19 times.

Frisius, Johannes Jacob, 1547 – 1611, was a Swiss philosopher who wrote “Bibliotheca philosophorum classicorum auctorum chronologica”, a history of philosophers from the creation of the world to 1540, presented chronologically with a bio- and bibliographical index, the first work of this kind, published in Zürich in 1592. Ortelius bought a copy of this work in the same year from Plantin.

Frisius, Regnier Gemma see Gemma Frisius.

Frisius, Rodolphus or Roelof Huysman, 1444 – 1485, from Baflo near Groningen spent most of his life in Italy. He wrote “De inventione dialectica libri tres”,Cologne, 1515, “Obediences to the Pope”, 1484, “Life of Petrarca” and an academic oration “De Philosophiae Laudibus” 1476.

Ort81.5, 191.3, 191.7.

Frobenius or Froben, Hieronymus, 1501 – 1563, was a famous pioneering printer in Basel and the eldest son of Johann Froben. He was educated at the University of Basel and travelled widely in Europe. He, his father and his brother-in-law Nicolaus Episcopius were noted for their working friendship with Erasmus and for making Basel an important center of Renaissance printing. Their editions include the first Latin edition of Georgius Agricola's “De Re Metallica” in 1556, and some of them incorporate artwork by Hans Holbein the Younger. Frobenius edited Ammianus Marcellinus, as indicated in lemma SEBVSIANI of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Ortelius refers twice to his “Codices” and once to his “Codex Marcellini” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) in the lemma SCALDIS, and 4 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), e.g. in in lemmas PSEVDOPOLIS, SCALDIS and SEBVSIANI.

Frobisher, Martin, 1535 – 1594, was an explorer who reported his discoveries in the Far East. Ortelius bought a book by Frobisher called “Enarratio” from Plantin in 1580.

Frodoardus see Fredoardus.

Frontinus, Sextus Iulius, 35 – 103, of Sicily was a consul who wrote “Strategemata”, printed in Rome, 1487 (Ort200; also mentioned 14 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 17 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) as edited by Nansius in manuscript). In lemma ATHENÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) Frontinus is mentioned as a the author of “Liber Coloniarum”, which was sent by Schottus to Ortelius in 1585 (Hessels 147). In lemmas AVGVSTINI and MVTELA Frontinus is mentioned as the author of “Liber De Limitibus Agrorum” and again in lemma INTERAMNIA and LEMONIVS , where it is indicated that this was consulted as a manuscript by Nansius. In lemmas LVCVLLANVM, OCTAVIANVS, PALLANTIS, PVBLICII, PVPVLA and TREBA of “Thesaurus” (1596) and also in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) Frontinus’ “Aquaeductes” is mentioned as a source. Frontinus’ “De Coloniis” was commented on by Celsius Cittadinus. Lheureux sent a copy of these comments to Ortelius in 1597 (Hessels 310). Frontinus is mentioned 4 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 97 times in his “Thesaurus” (1587) of which 4 refer to his “”De limitibus/mensuris agrorum”, and 128 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). See also Liber de Limitibus and Liber Coloniarum.

Ort200.18

Fruterus, Lucas, Brugge 1541 – Paris 1566, was a Flemish classical scholar who wrote “Librorum qui recuperari potuerunt reliqua”, published by Janus Dousa, Leiden, 1583. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantijn in the same year.

Fulgentius of Ruspe, Saint, Thelepte, 462 or 467 - 1 January 527 or 533, was bishop of the city of Ruspe, North Africa, in the 5th and 6th century, canonized as a Christian saint. He was born into a noble family of Carthago, which had been cut off from the Roman Empire some thirty years earlier by the Vandals. His anonymous “Vita” is referred to 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Fulvius, Andrea,c. 1470 – 1527, who also called himself Antiquarius Sabinus wrote a history of Rome, initially in he form of a poem, which he submitted to Pope Leo in 1513. The Pope recommended to Fulvius to rewrite it in prose, which he did. The work was published in 1527. He also published a book on coins, not mentioned by Ortelius. He is quoted by Smetius (Ort206).

Ort129.17;

Quoted by Smetius: Ort206.20.

Fulvius Ursinus, 1529 – 1600, was an Italian humanist and protégé of Cardinal Granvelle. With the latter Plantin maintained close relations. Gambara, ca. 1496 - 1586, another Italian humanist and protégé of cardinal Alexander Farnese, was introduced to Plantin by Fulvius Ursinus with the support of Granvelle. Plantin published a number of works by both authors. Fulvius published on Roman coins, particularly consular ones in “Familiae Romanae quae reperiuntur in antiquis numismatibus ab urbe condita ad tempora divi Augusti”, Rome, 1556,1577, mentioned in Hessels (149) and referred to as a source in lemmas LOLLIANI, TVSCVLVM and VISENTVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) and also in “Deorum Dearum” (1573). Ortelius’ copy of this book, autographed, is now in the Plantin-Moretus museum, as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Ortelius refers to this work as a source in the preface of “Deorum Dearum” (1573), twice in its text and also in a letter (Hessels 149) to his nephew Jacon Cools. Fulvius commented on Sallustius’, also mentioned as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and on Suetonius’ “Vespasianus”, as indicated in lemma FERENTVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Further “Bellum Iugurthinum”, Antwerp, Belgium, 1595. Ortelius bought a copy of his “Notæ ad Ciceronem” from Plantin in 1581, referred to as a source in lemma FVRINÆ of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), also just as “Notas”, mentioned in lemma SABINI of “Thesaurus” (1596). Fulvius also published “Carmina novem illustrium feminarum”, Plantin, 1568. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1593. Fulvius also wrote “Emendationes”, mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma VATVCA. Fulvius also wrote “Fragmenta Appiani” as mentioned in lemma ABRVS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Fulvius also wrote “Imagines virorum illustrium”, referred to as a source in  lemma HISTONIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Fulvius quotes Caesar’s “De bello Gallico” in lemmas ARTOMICI, RHVTANI, and VOLCEIVM, and Cæsar’s “Comments” in manuscript in lemma ICCIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596). In lemma IANVVIVM of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ursinus’ “De Familiis” is mentioned twice as a source. Fulvius is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 14 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 25 times as a source, in “Thesaurus” (1596) 58 times and in “Deorum Dearum” (1573) 3 times. Sweertius in his “Lacrymae” calls Fulvius Ursinus “a close Italian friend of Ortelius”.

Ort129.17, 196.117.

Furius Fredericus Cæriolanus or Fadrique Furio y Ceriol, Valencia 1532 - Valladolid 1592, of Spain was a humanist and advisor of Philip II who studied in Paris and who spent some time in Leuven, Belgium, and possibly also in Antwerp. He wrote “Rhetorica”, Louvain, 1544, and “Del Consejo y Consejero”, Antwerp, 1559, and possibly provided Ortelius with information about Valencia. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” , (f. 66 v. 1575).

Ort10.27, 11.30, 29.8, 30.10.

Fusch, Remacle, 16th century,  of Limburg wrote a treatise on the Spanish sickness, published in 1541.

Ort67.4, 67.5.

Gabius, Baptista Ioannes,16th c., was an Italian author who wrote “In Ezechielem Prophetam Commentarius”, published in Rome by Manutius, 1563. He also edited and published Curopalates, Venice, 1570; he is mentioned as a source e.g. in lemmas THERMITZA and ZETVNIM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1598) and in lemmas LIMNITÆ, LOBITZVM, PLATIA, SCELOS, STVMPIVM, SYLÆVS, TMORVS and TOPLITZVM of “Thesaurus” (1596). Gabius is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) 17 times. Ortelius refers to Gabius’ Curopalates 10 times as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and Gabius is altogether mentioned 21 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 34 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Gabriel Barrius Franciscanus see Barrio, Gabriel.

Gadner, Georg, 1522 – 1605, was a lawyer at the court of Würtemberg who made a manuscript map of Würtemberg, 1572,used by Ortelius (Ort113). He and his Würtemberg map are mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1575 onwards.

Gaguin, Robert, 1433 – 1501, of Paris commented on works by Cæsar in French, published in Paris in 1539, and also on the work of Florus called “Lucii Ænnæi Flori: De tota Historia Titi Livii Epitome” published in 1471 at the Sorbonne, Paris. His best known work is a French history to which Ortelius probably refers (Ort37), called “Compendium de origine et gestis Francorum”, first published in 1495, and regularly revised until the end of his life. By the end of the 16th century it had run through 20 editions, and by 1514 seven translations had been published. Ortelius also refers to his book “Sarmatica” (Ort158). Gaguin is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and twice in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Gaguin is mentioned as a source 5 times.

Normandy Bk.7: Ort37.3, 37.5;

Sarmatica Ort158.7.

Gaguinus see Gaguin.

Gaius Julius Solinus see Solinus Gaius Julius.

Galatæus Antonius,1444 – 1517, was a physician who wrote about geography, e.g. “De situ Iapygiæ” (Ort121,140; also referred to one as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), twice in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), published in Basel 1558. Further “Descriptio urbis Gallipolis”, “De situ elementorum, de situ terrarum, de mari et aquis et fluviorum origine”, Basel 1558. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In  “Thesaurus” (1587) he is 4 times mentioned as a source. In lemma TARAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius calls him “mihi fide dignus” [worthy of my faith]. He is mentioned 14 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort139.10, 210.16, 210.17;

Treatise on Iapygia: Ort121.10, 121.16, 140.2, 140.8.

Galatinus, Petrus, 16th c., was the author of “De Arcanis Catholicae Veritas”, published in Basel in 1561. He is mentioned once as a source in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Galenus, abt. 129-199 AD, the “Prince of Physicians” was a prominent physician whose ideas were regarded as infallible until the publication of Vesalius’ “De corporis humani fabrica, 1534. Galenus wrote “De Medicam Simplic.” (Ort149,193,216; also referred to twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 4 times in “Thesaurus” (1596), further “De medicinis expertis” (Ort229; also mentioned as a source in lemma TABIÆ and TERESTIS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596)) and “De Valetudine”, a copy of which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1586. He occurs 3 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma AEGISOLIÆ Ortelius refers to his work “De attenuante victus ratione”. In “Thesaurus”(1587, 1596) Ortelius also refers to his “De sanitate tuenda” [keeping in good health] in the lemma AVLON, ALLIANAE, LYCETIS and MYSIA and of Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Further in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) to “Hippocrates’ De Morbis vulgaribus” in the lemma BOOTÆ, to his “De alimentorum facultatibus” in lemma CRASSOPOLIM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), to his “Liber Secretorum” in the lemma MANCHARA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) and to his “Antidotus” in lemmas BRITTVM and TRIPHOLINVS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), to his “De bonitate aquae in lemmas BRITTVM, NIGRAM and STYX in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). In lemma TIBII of “Thesaurus” (1587) and in lemmas TABIÆ and TIBII of “Thesaurus” (1596) Galenus’ “Methodi medendi” is mentioned as a source. In lemma PERAMVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) his “Medicorum Principes” is mentioned as a source. In lemma SANDALARIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) Ortelius refers to Galenus’ “De libris propijs” as a source. In lemma THRIASIVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “De Curandis animor. morbis” as a source. In lemma THYMÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596) Galenus quotes Hippocrates. In lemma TRAIANA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to his “Therapeutica” as a source. Altogether, Galenus is mentioned 31 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), 49 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Ort183.34, 196.18, 199.22, 199.65, 200.40, 203.30, 219.10, 221.15;

De Medicam Simplic.: Ort216.30, Bk.6 Ch.4: Ort193.7, Bk.9 Ch.2: Ort149.15;

Methods, Bk.9, Ch.8: Ort229.13.

Galitiæ or Galacia Concilium (undated) is a religious council in Galicia, Spain held by Leo Augustus, referred to as a source in lemma MNIZVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) and in lemma PONÆ of “Thesaurus” (1596), where this council is altogether mentioned 3 times as a source.

Galle, Cornelius (Antwerp 1576 – Antwerp 1650) was a draughtsman, engraver, publisher and son of Philip. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (1596). Later, this contribution was removed.

Galle, Ioannes, (1600-1676), was the son of Theodorus Galle, also engraver and publisher in Antwerp. He re-engraved the plates of Hungary (Ort150) in 1664, adding his name twice in two new cartouches, and he also in or after 1641 filled in his own name as engraver on the Boazio Ireland map (Ort23) and on the Lorraine map (Ort50). 

Galle, Philip (Haarlem 1537 - Antwerp 1612) was an engraver, editor, publisher, historiographer and close friend of Ortelius. He went to France, including a visit to the elevated stone in Poitiers in the company of Ortelius, Hogenberg, Sadeleer and Mercator in 1560. In 1579, he engraved Ortelius’ portrait for inclusion in the Theatrum. Together with Heyns, Galle published the first pocket atlas “Spiegel der Wereld” also called “Epitome”, a miniature “Theatrum”, in 1577. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum”, (f. 14, undated). He wrote “Virorum Doctorum de Disciplinis bene Merentium Effigies XLIII, Antwerp, 1572, containing coins. He engraved the coins in Ortelius’ “Deorum dearumque” (1573, 1582 and later). He is mentioned by Sweertius in his “Lacrymae” as a close friend of Ortelius.

Galle, Theodorus (Antwerp 1571 – Antwerp 1633) was an engraver, publisher and son of Philip. He contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (1596). Later, this contribution was removed. Some of Ortelius’ “Theatrum” maps, notably those occurring in a new state in the 1641 Spanish edition  bear Theodorus’ name.

Gallus, Ælius, late in first century BC, was praefect of Egypt from 26 - 24 BC. By order of emperor August he undertook an expedition to Arabia Felix with disastrous results. After six months Gallus was obliged to return to Alexandria, having lost the greater part of his force. He was a friend of the geographer Strabo who gives an account of Gallus’ expedition. (Ort222).

Ort222.29, 232.12.

Gallus, Vincentius see Vincentius of Beauvais.

Galvanus, Antonius,1507 – 1557, was a Portuguese captain and geographer, and later governor of the Moluccas in the East Indies. He wrote “Tratato que compós o nobre e notauel capitao Antonio Galvano”, Lisbon, 1563. Ortelius only knows Galvanus through Maffeius who may have published manuscripts by Galvanus. Galvanus is mentioned as the author of “On the New World” (Ort165).

On the new world: Ort165.24.

Gama, Vasco da,1469 – 1524, was a Portuguese explorer who first sailed around Africa and landed in Calicut. He died in Cochin, India.

Ort8.4, 8.15.

Gambara, Laurentius or Lorenzo,flourished late 16th c., was an Italian author who wrote “Brixiani Rerum sacrarum liber”, a collection of religious poetry, published by Plantin in 1577. Ortelius bought a copy from Plantin in 1577 and donated a copy to Dean Goodman via Camden (Hessels 72.5).

Garbitius, Mathias Illyricus, 1511 – 1559, from Würtemberg became professor of Greek philology in Tübingen, Germany. He edited Hesiodus and Greek tragedies, e.g. those of Aeschylus. He is mentioned once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma CISTHINE and in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemma HYBRISTES.

Garcias ab Horto, 16th century, was a Portuguese writer and physician to the viceroy of India who wrote about the diamonds of India and about spices. He published a book about spices in Portuguese in 1557 which was translated into Latin by Clusius (1563). Ortelius bought a copy of this “Aromatum Historia” from Plantin in 1574, to which he refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in lemma SARMATIA. Garcias is mentioned in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 7 times in its text. Altogether, he is mentioned 8 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Mentioned on map sheet Ort 175 as the author of “History of Spices”. Further in map text Ort175.4.

Gardnerus, Georgius or Georg Gadner, middle 16th century, was appointed councellor for duke Christoph in Stuttgart (1555), travelled extensively in Germany and is mentioned in the cartouche on the second, full page map of Wirtemberg as its maker, Ort113.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Wirtemberg map as its maker, Ort113.

Garibayus Stephanus de Mondragone, 16th century, of Spain published a chronicle of Spain “Los quatrente libros del Compendio historial de las cronicas y universal historia de todos los Reinos de Espanna” (Ort25,31), Antwerp 1571, also mentioned as a source in lemma ANAS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Garibayus is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) 9 times, e.g. in the lemma ARACILLVM. His “Epitomes descriptionis Hispaniae” are mentioned as sources in lemma VARIA of “Thesaurus” (1596), where he is mentioned as a source 12 times.

Chronicle of Spain : Bk.15, Ch.9-15 Ort31.12, Bk.20, Ort25.8

Garth, Richard, fl. late 16th century, lived in London and was diplomat, botanist and friend of Daniel Rogers. He bought a copy of Ortelius’ Theatrum in 1579 and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (f.15 v., May 1, 1578).

Garzo, Giovanni (1419 - 1493) of Bologna, humanist and teacher, also of Stella Erasmus, is claimed to be the author of “De rebus Saxoniæ, Thuringiæ, Libanothiæ, Misniæ et Lusatiæ” but this work was actually written by Stella Erasmus.

Ort96.7, 96.8.

Garzoni see Garzo.

Gasparus Varrenus see Barreiros, Caspar.

Gastaldi, Iacobo or Giacomo Castaldi,1505 – 1566, from Villafranca, Piemont, Italy, worked in Venice. He designed more than 100 maps and worked with the Venetian publisher Ramusio. Ortelius used three of his world maps made inVenice, 1546 and later for his own world maps. Gastaldi’s 3 maps together covering Asia, Venice, 1559 - 1561; also referred to as sources in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and “Thesaurus” (1596)), were used by Ortelius for his own maps of Asia (Ort6,7; see also lemma BABYLON in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) where Ortelius acknowledges that Gastaldi’s Asia was the exemple for his own Asia map). Further: Tartaria (Ort163), Indiæ (Ort166), Persici (Ort167), Turcici (Ort168,169), and Anatolia (Ort174). Further, Gastaldi’s Africa map, Venice, 1564, was used by Ortelius for his Africa (Ort8), Presbiterii (Ort175), Marocchi (Ort177) and Africa Propriæ Tabulæ (Ort218). Gastaldi’s Greece map was used for Ortelius’ Græciæ Ort146; also referred to as a source in “Synonymia” (1578), in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma PEPYLYCHNVS and in “Thesaurus” (1596) in lemmas CASTORIA, ENDERVM and PRILLAPVM. Further  Romaniæ (Ort159) and the Parergon maps Ort203, 214 and 212. Gastaldi’s Italy map, Venice, 1561, was used by Ortelius for his Italiæ (Ort117,118), Gastaldi’s Piemont, Venice, 1555, for Pedemontanæ (Ort128), Gastaldi’s Padua map,Venice, 1555, for Patavini (Ort121,122), his Apulia for Apuliæ (Ort121,140) and Gastaldi’s Sicilia,Venice, 1545, for (Ort141,211), and once in lemma PITANVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards Ortelius refers to his Corsica map once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of “Theatrum also to his Hungary map, next to the maps just mentioned.Gastaldi used maps made by Abylfeda, as appears from the lemma MOTENE in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Gastaldi is mentioned 307 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1570L), 317 times in “Synonymia” (1571L) and 413 times in “Synonymia”(1573L, 1574L, 1575L), mostly referring to his maps of Africa and Asia. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 242 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned 246 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 253 times. After Mercator, Gastaldi is the source most frequently used by Ortelius in making his “Theatrum” maps.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the first and second Italy map as its maker, Ort117,118, also mentioned as the maker of the half sheet maps of Patavini (first and second, Ort121a and 122a) and Apuliæ, (first and second, Ort121b and Ort140a); also as the maker of the Pedemontanæ map Ort128, of the Romaniæ map Ort159, and the Greece map Ort146; further in map text:

Ort215.8.

Gaudentius Merula see Merula Gaudentius.

Gaulfridius see Galfridus Monomuthensis.

Gaza, Theodorus or Theodore Gazis, c. 1400 – 1475, was a Greek humanist and translator of Aristoteles, one of the Greek scholars who were the leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century Renaissance. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and occurs twice in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned twice as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) once, in lemma TVRCÆ.

Gazaeus, Æneas or of Gaza, late 5th c., was a Neo-Platonic philosopher, converted to Christianity. In a dialogue entitled “Theophrastus” he alludes to Hierocles of Alexandria as his teacher. His testimony is often quoted in favour of the miraculous gift of speech conferred on the Christian martyrs whose tongues had been cut out. Like all the Christian Neo-Platonists, Æneas held Plato in higher esteem than Aristoteles, although his acquaintance with Plato's doctrine was acquired through traditional teaching and the study of apocryphal Platonic writings, and not  through the study of the genuine “Dialogues”. He is mentioned by Ortelius as a source in a letter written to Jacob Cools discussing the Immortality of the soul (Hessels 192).

Geeraerts or Gheeraerts or Gerards, Marcus,Brugge 1516 - London 1604, was a architect, painter and engraver. In England he made paintings of queen Elizabeth and nobility. He contributed 2 pages to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f. 66, 1577) of which one was later removed.

Geldenhauer, Gerhard or Gerardus Noviomagus, 16th century, was a Dutch writer of Nijmegen who wrote “Historica Batavica” (Ort79,230). After meeting Luther, he became a protestant. In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Geldenhauer is censured as a heretic. Geldenhauer is also mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) but does not occur in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) he is mentioned twice as a source, and in “Thesaurus” (1596) twice, in lemmas HERCVLIS and NOVIOMAGVM.

Ort56.7, 57.8, 230.3;

History of Holland: Ort79.21, 230.11-12.

Gelenius or Gilenius, Sigismund, early 16th century, of Basel, Switzerland, published and commented on Marcellinus Ammianus, (1533), on Josephus (Ort183; also reported as a source in Ortelius’ Synonymia” (1578) via Gelenius), and on Appianus Alexandrinus, as reported in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) under the lemma EPIDAMNVM and on Livius under the lemma FIDENÆ. Gelenius edited Dionysius Halicarnasseus as appears from lemma CORCVTVLANI, CORNI, and PICENTIA in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and in REGILLÆ and TIBVR in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius also mentions his “Valesia” as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma VIBERI. He is also altogether mentioned 8 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), 23 times in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 35 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Ort182.23;

Comments on Iosephus: Ort183.23.

Gellianus, fl. 1st c. AD, was a Roman author who is mentioned once by Ortelius as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) via Plinius.

Gellius Aulus, abt. 125 - after 180, wrote “Noctes Atticæ, lucidiores redditae” first published in Venice, 1472 and many times reprinted. He quotes Varro’s Oration (Ort193; also in lemma PYRENÆVS of “Thesaurus” (1596)) and Plinius (Ort196; also in lemma SCIOPODÆ in “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Gellius quotes from Quintus Ennius in lemma PRÆPETEM of “Thesaurus” (1596).Ortelius refers to his “De Hispanis Alpinis” in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). Gellius is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and occurs 10 times in its text. Altogether, he is mentioned as a source 18 times in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587), 37 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) and once in “Deorum Dearum” (1573).

Gellius is mentioned once on map sheet Ort209. Further in text Ort219.18, 221.24;

Bk.2 Ch.22: Ort196.12, Bk.7 Ch.3: Ort216.18, Bk.14 Ch.6: Ort224.13;

Quoting Varro's Oration: Ort193.55, 193.64;

Quoting Plinius: Ort196.91.

Gemblacensis Sigebertus see Sigebertus Gemblacensis.

Gemblacus manuscriptus is an unidentified manuscript, possibly of Sigebertus Gemblacensis, mentioned as a source in lemma EVOSIVM of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Geminus, Thomas, c. 1500 – 1562, was a Flemish engraver who moved to London and who made a map of Spain (London, 1555). He and his Spain map are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, but not used.

Gemistus see Plethon.

Gemma, Cornelius or Cornelio, Leuven 1535 – Leuven 1578, was a physician, astronomer and astrologer and the oldest son of cartographer and instrument-maker Gemma Frisius. He was a professor of medicine at Leuven and shared in his father's efforts to restore ancient Ptolemaic practice to astrology/astronomy, drawing on the “Tetrabiblos”. Ortelius bought an unspecified publication written by him from Plantin in 1572 and a work called “Characterismus” in 1574. Gemma wrote a letter to Ortelius in 1575 (Hessels 56).

Gemma Frisius, 1508 - 1555, born in Dokkum, was appointed professor of mathematics in Louvain. He made a world map (Louvain, 1540) of which no copy has survived, and wrote “De astrolabo catholico libellus”. He co-operated with Apianus, Mercator and Jacob van Deventer and laid the foundations of triangulation, described in his “Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione” of 1533. He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of the “Theatrum” from 1570 onwards, where his world map is mentioned. Ortelius owned his work “De Principis Astronomiae et Cosmographiae, deque Usu Globi … Eiusdem de Annuli Astronomici usu” but did not refer to it in his map texts. A copy containing Ortelius’ signature is now in the Ghent University Library as reported by Op de Beeck and De Coster (2006). Frisius is also mentioned three times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L) and is included on the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). He is twice referred to in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned twice as a source in lemmas ISTHAEVONES and PHARODENI.

Ort81.5;

World map: Ort9.68, 10.59, 11.73.

Geni, Nicolao, see Zeno.

Gennadius (Greek: Γεννάδιος), fl. 578 – 600, was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the first exarch of Africa. He was appointed as master of the soldiers in Africa in ca. 578, and quickly defeated the Roman-Moorish kingdom of Garmul in Mauretania. He held this post until named exarch by emperor Mauritius (reigned 582–602) sometime between 585 and 591. Already a “patricius” by 582, he was awarded the title of honorary consul sometime before 585. As exarch, he had an extensive correspondence with pope Gregorius the Great on issues of the African church, and especially the suppression of the Donatists. Gennadius suppressed a series of Moorish revolts in ca. 585 and ca. 596, and retired from his post sometime between September/October 598 and July 600. In lemma RHEGIVM IVLIVM of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), and in lemma CYRVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Gennadius’ De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis” is mentioned as a source. Further, Ortelius refers to him as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemmas CASTELLANI and CYRVS. Altogether he is mentioned 4 times as a source in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 5 times in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Geoffrey of Monmouth  or Galfridus Monomethensis, abt. 1100 – 1154, was a Welsh bishop who wrote “Britannicæ historiæ Libri VI” printed in London in 1585. Ortelius bought a copy of this work from Plantin in 1597.

Ort16.15, 16.24, 16.58, 16.70, 19.12, 19.21, 21.19, 21.32.

Geographus Ravennas, 7th c., from Ravenna wrote “Cosmographia et Guidonis Geographia”. He is mentioned as a source in lemma APYRI of “Thesaurus” (1596) via Eustathius.

George Lilye see Lilye, George.

George or Georgius ab Austria who died in 1616 in Brussels, served at the court of archduke Albert, cardinal and governor of Harlebeck. In 1598 he became chancellor of the university of Leuven, and the person to whom Ortelius dedicated his two-sheet map of Ancient Britain (Ort190,191) and his later single sheet map of Ancient Britain (Ort192), as mentioned in their cartouches. He wrote Ortelius a letter in 1595, thanking him for the last Theatrum Additamentum which he had just received (Hessels 273). In the text of the Spain map (Ort25) Ortelius calls his “an eye witness (of Spain) most worthy to be believed, a man familiar with all kinds of histories and a wonderful researcher and admirer of nature”. In lemmas ASTVRICA AVGVSTA and PYRENÆVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to him as an “observator diligentissimus”.

Mentioned in the cartouche of Ort190 as the person to whom this map has been dedicated.

Ort25.10.

Georgieuiz, Bartholomew, also: Bartholomaeus, early 16th century, from Hungary was held captive by the Turks, and once released and returned, published some specimens of Turkish in his “De Turcarum ritu et ceremoniis” (1544).

Ort169.9.

Georgievitz see Georgieuiz.

Georgius Alexandrinus, archbishop of Alexandia, flourished 620 – 630, wrote “S. Ioannis Chrysostomi, Constantinopolitani Qvondam Archiepiscopi Vita”, printed in Paris in 1557. This work is referred to as a source in lemma VALENTINIAPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596). Nowadays, Chrysostomus’ life is attributed to Theodorus Trimithuntinus who flourished around the year 680.

Georgius, Ludovicus see Barbuda, Luis de.

Georgius of Austria see George ab Austria

Georgius of Chemnitz,1494 – 1555, was a scholar with very broad interests . His work “De natura fossilium” is considered the first manual on mineralogy, but he also wrote on politics and history.

Ort96.11.

Georg Merula see Merula Georg.

Gerardus, saint or Gerard of Lunel, ca. 1275 — 1298, also known as Roger of Lunel and as Saint Géri (Gerius), was a French saint. Born to the French nobility, he became a Franciscan tertiary at the age of five and later abbot. His “Life” is referred to once as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BRONIVM.

Geraldinus or Giraldinus, Alexander, 1454 – 1524, was a bishop, scholar and friend of Columbus who wrote a work in 1524 on the discovery of the Western Indies called “Itinerarium ad Regiones sub Aequinoctalis plaga constitutas” which was only published in 1631. Ortelius quotes Baccius as the source of his information on Geraldinus. He is mentioned 3 times in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L), and once in his “Synonymia” (1578).

Geraldus see Giraldus Cambrensis.

Gerard, John,1545 – 1612, was an English botanist who wrote “Herball or general history of plants” which was plagiarised from Rembert Dodoens. Gerard was in contact with Charles de l’Écluse. Ortelius calls him my good friend (Ort66) and announces a publication by him on Brabant..

Ort66.14.

Gerardo, Paolo or Paulus Gerardius, fl. late 16th c., was an Italian cartographer who contributed to Ortelius’ “Album Amicorum” (f.15, 1578).

Gerardus Cremonensis see Cremonensis Gerardus.

Gerardus Noviomagus see Geldenhauer Gerhard.

Gerava see Girava.

Gerbelius, Nicolas, born in 1485, died 1560 in Strasbourg, was a student of Erasmus and wrote two geographical works, “Nicolas Gerbelius in descriptionem Græciæ Sophiani præfatio” Basel, 1545, to which Ortelius refers once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), and once in lemma ESTIOTIS of “Thesaurus” (1587,1596). He also wrote “Phoecensis pro declaratione picturæ sive descriptionis Græciæ Sophiani libri VII”, a book with maps of ancient Greece, to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in PYTHO in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) where he is called “doctissimus” [very learned] by Ortelius. He also published a description of Greece written by Michael Sophianus in Basel. He quotes Pausanias, as Ortelius reports repeatedly in his “Synonymia” (1578) and in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596). In a 1579 Latin copy of the Theatrum in the Vatican Library, Gerbelius is censured as a heretic. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) via Festus, and occurs 30 times in the text. In “Thesaurus” (1587) he is altogether mentioned 27 times as a source and in “Thesaurus” (1596) 28 times.

Ort146.14, 231.7.

Gergythius (4th c. AD) is a Roman author quoted by Festus. This is quoted in turn by Ortelius in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of his “Synonymia” (1578) and mentioned once in this work and also once in “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) in the lemma ROMÆ.

Geringus, Philippus (unidentified), Trudonensis (of St. Truien, Belgium) was a Flemish physician, mentioned twice as a source in lemma TVNGRORVM FONS in “Thesaurus” (1596).

Gerlachius or Gerlach van Houthem, abt. 1120 – 1165, is the best known of the Dutch sanctified hermits. He lived at Houthem, near Valkenburg in the Limburg,  part of the Low Countries. He is mentioned as a source in lemma CYZICVS of “Thesaurus” (1596).

Germanicus Iulius Cæsar, 15 BC -19 AD, was the adopted son of Tiberius. Next to his military victories in Germany, he was also a successful poet. He also had knowledge of astronomy. Ovidius dedicated his “De Fastis” to Germanicus. He is mentioned 5 times as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596), e.g. in the lemmas CHELIPPVS, CRINISSAM, HYSTOAS and MIHDIMON, and 9 times in “Thesaurus” (1596) e.g. in lemmas ADITOS, AMMONIACAM, CELSIONIVS, and TRAPEZA where his “Arati Phaenomena” are mentioned as a source.

Ort222.13, 222.34.

Germanicus, saint, 2nd c AD, was a youth who was arrested and martyred for his faith in Smyrna during the reign of the Roman emperor Antoninus. As Germanicus stood in the arena, facing a wild beast, the Roman proconsul pleaded with him that in view of his youth he should deny his faith to obtain a pardon. But the young man refused to apostatize, and willingly embraced martyrdom. Ortelius refers to the “Vita Sancti Germani” as a source in his “Thesaurus” (1587,1596).

Germanus, saint, fl. late 6th c., was a bishop in Paris who specialised in church litanies. His “Vita” is referred to as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma BIBERIS.

Gersonus, Ioannes, late 15th c., is a French author who wrote “De vita animæ spirituali” , Paris, 1500. He is referred to as a source in the lemma EVDOSVS of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Gerundensis, Ioannes Episcopus (fl. 6th c.) was the founder of the bishopric of Gerona (Spain). He is mentioned 20 times in “Synonymia” (1573, 1574, 1575), as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and 20 times in its text. In Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is mentioned 20 times as a source.

Gerundinus, Alexander (medieval) was archbishop of Gerona, Spain. He is mentioned once as a source in lemma NIVARIA of Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) via Andrea Baccius.

Gervasius saint, also saint Gervase and Gervasis and in French Gervais,2nd c., was a Christian martyr. He is the patron saint of Milan and of haymakers and is invoked for the discovery of thieves. His feast day in the Roman Catholic Church is on June 19, the day marking the translation of his relics. In the Eastern Orthodox church his feast takes place on October 14, the traditional day of his death. In Christian iconography his emblems are the scourge, the club and the sword. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), via Gaguinus, and once in its text. In lemma ARELAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) he is again quoted via Gaguinus.

Gesnerus, Conradus or Konrad Gesner, 1516 – 1566, was a Swiss humanist physician who was very specific in his writings about his sources. He wrote “Bibliotheca Universalis” and “Commentaries” (Ort224). He is also mentioned in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578), and in his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) where his “Codex Græcus” is once mentioned as a source. His “Codex Graecus” is mentioned again as a source in lemma RHIZOPHAGI of “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius also used his “Historiae Animalium” which was published in Zürich in 1551. This is probably the same work as “De Quadripedibus” which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1581 and/or “De Animalibus et Piscibus” which Ortelius bought from Plantin in 1582. Ortelius refers to his “Aquatilium de serpente” in lemma MYCLEA of his “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), probably part of one of the books just mentioned. Ortelius bought his “De Avibus” in 1583 from Plantin. These are the first Renaissance books quoting numerous classical sources. Gesner is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and three times in its text. He is also mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ address to the reader of his “Thesaurus” (1587), and in the lemma CARMINNA “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596), Ortelius refers to his “de ove”, part of Gesner’s “De Avibus”. Ortelius refers to his library in the “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) as if he has consulted it in the lemma ANEA. Altogether, Gesnerus in mentioned as a source 15 times in “Thesaurus” (1587). In lemma AEGIRA of “Thesaurus” (1596), Gesner’s “Taurus” is mentioned as a source, and in lemma ACHAIA reference is made to Gesner’s “De Cervo” [about a deer], and in lemma BVCEPHALAS and HERÆVM to Gesner’s “De Bove et Vacca” [about cows]. In lemma GIMAS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Gesner’s “De Capra” [about goats]. In this lemma Ortelius refers to Gyllius’ edition of Gesner. In lemma PENTINVS of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to Gesner’s “De Tetrace aue”. In “Thesaurus” (1596) Gesnerus is altogether mentioned 21 times as a source.

Commentaries: Ort224.57, 224.58.

Gesualdo, Filippo who died in 1619 was an Italian Franciscan frier who wrote a book about memory functions and improvement of them called “Plutosophia, nella quale si spiega l’arte della memoria”, published in Padua in 1592. Ortelius bought a copy of this book from Plantin in 1593.

Getulius, saint who died 120 AD is venerated as a Christian martyr and saint. He is considered to have died at Gabii in North Africa. According to tradition, he was the husband of saint Symphorosa. Getulius is a name meaning “of the Gaetuli,” which was a tribe of North Africa. His “Life” is mentioned as a source in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) in the lemma CAPROLEVM.

Geufræus, Antonius, early 16th century, was a Swiss humanist who wrote “Aulæ Turcicæ”, Basel, 1543. He is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and once in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596) he is also mentioned once as a source in lemma THESSALIA.

Geumus, Iacobus is an unidentified author whose work is referred to Ortelius’ Perugia map (Ort136).

Bk.1 Ch.20: Ort136.9.

Gevaerts or Gevarts, Jan, Turnhout 1550 - Antwerp 1623, was a humanist and lawyer who worked as a diplomat for the archdukes Albert and Isabella and who was instrumental in achieving a 12-year truce in the war with the Spanish. He was a friend of Ortelius, wrote a letter to him (Hessels 86), gave him fossils and contributed to his “Album Amicorum” (ff. 107 v – 108, November 30, 1582). He also wrote a laudatory “Carmen” of 14 lines in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Ghebellinus, Stephanus or Stephano Ghebellino, fl. 1571 – 1574, was a publisher in Northern Italy who made a map of Venaissin, Brescia, 1574, used by Ortelius (Ort49c). He and his map of Venaissin are included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” from 1579 onwards.

Mentioned in the cartouche of the Venuxini maps as its maker, Ort49c

Ghistele see Ghistelius.

Ghistelius or Gistelanus, Jodocus Justus, late 15th century, was mayor of Ghent, Belgium. In 1485 he travelled to Palestina and published a description about this journey in his “Itinerarium,” (Ort147,148) or “Peregrinatio”, mentioned twice as a source in “Synonymia” (1578) and once in lemma HELIOPOLIS of “Thesaurus” (1596), referring to his “Itinerarium”.

Ort170.8, 171.8, 172.27;

Journey to Jerusalem: Ort147.11, 147.29, 148.14.

Ghyselinck, Victor, see Giselinus.

Giambattista della Porta, 1535? - 4 February 1615, also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, and John Baptist Porta was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples. Giambattista della Porta spent the majority of his life on scientific endeavors. His most famous work, first published in 1558, was entitled “Magiae Naturalis”. In this book he covered a variety of the subjects he had investigated, including the study of: occult philosophy, astrology, alchemy, mathematics, meteorology, and natural philosophy. Ortelius bough a copy of this book from Plantin in 1567.

Gifanius, Hubertus or Hubert or Robert van Giffen, 1534 – 1605, was born in the Netherlands, studied in Leuven and Paris and taught law in Germany and France. He was also artist and engraver whose name appears together with the name of Ortelius on the elevated stone of Poitiers, shown in Braun and Hogenberg’s “Civitates”.He edited Aristoteles, Homerus and Lucretius. Ortelius refers to him as a twice as a source, e.g. in lemma HYPOTHEBAS of “Thesaurus” (1587, 1596).

Gilbert Cousin see Cognatus.

Gildas, Britannus or Britannicus, 493 – 580, surnamed the Wise, was the first Christian history writer of the English nation, who amongst other works wrote the treatise “De Excidio Britanniae”. Gildas is mentioned as a source in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578) and twice in its text. In “Thesaurus” (1587,1596) he is also mentioned twice as a source.

Gildas Sapiens, saint, abt. 516 – 573, was a British monk who wrote “De excidio et conquestu Britanniæ”, printed in Antwerp around 1525 and in London in 1568.

Ort19.19, 192.62.

Gilenius, Johannes, fl. early 16th c., was a German author who wrote “Der Gilgengart”, Augsburg, 1520. Ortelius refers to him once as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578) and once in “Thesaurus” (1587) in the lemma PICENTIA.

Gilg see Tschudi, Ægidius.

Gilles, Petrus or Pierre, also Gillius or Gyllius, Albi 1490 - Rome 1555, was a French natural scientist who travelled in the Mediterranian and Orient area and who was a registrar of Antwerp. He wrote “De Topographia Constantinopoleos et de illius antiquitatibus libri IV” (Ort 159) to which Ortelius refers as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578), in his “Thesaurus” (1587), and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Further: “De Bosphoro Thracio libri III” (Ort146,174) which was printed by Cardinal Armaniac in Lyon in 1561 and is referred to frequently in “Thesaurus” (1587) and 22 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). He also wrote letters, 4 times referred to as sources in Ortelius’ “Thesaurus” (1587) and 3 times in “Thesaurus” (1596). Ortelius refers to these letters altogether 15 times as a source in his “Synonymia” (1578). His work “Cosmæ Indopleutes” is mentioned in (Ort166). In Ortelius’ correspondence a letter from Gillius to Amiottus (?) has been preserved (Hessels 5) and in lemmas HALVS and ZEVGMA of “Thesaurus” (1596) Ortelius refers to a letter of Gilles which he owns as a source. Gillius is mentioned twice as a source in Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1571L)  and 4 times in “Synonymia” (1573L, 1574L, 1575L). He is included in the “Catalogus Auctorum” of Ortelius’ “Synonymia” (1578). In the lemma PANIVM of that work and also in “Thesaurus” (1587) in lemma PANIVM and SEMYSTRA, and in lemma CHIMARVS and SEMYSTRA of “Thesaurus” (1596) reference is made to Gyllius’ quoting Dionysius Byzantinus. The same reference can be found in Or