Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 44


Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L and 1595L editions)

44.1. {1580/1589G only{The land of}1580/1589G only}{1570L(AB){CALAIS and BOULOGNE.

44.2. Concerning the area of Boulogne this is what Robert Cúnalis says in the second book and third chapter of his De re Gallica: About Gessoriacum, a port of the Morini, I may well say with Meierus that it is now truly called Boulogne on the sea shore, from where it is a very short trip to Dover, a harbour of England. But the dock or place for building ships (called Navale Gessoriacum, which Bilibaldus falsely claims to be Gent) I rather think to be Castellum, now named Cassel. Some call it by a different name [viz.] Petressa and Scalas, commonly Scales.
44.3. Moreover, by the location of Boulogne one may easily find out whether it was once Portus Iccius or not. That no doubt may remain, let us learn what follows from Strabo [viz.] that the sea between Portus Iccius and England was just 320 stadia or furlongs to the other side, which makes it in all 40 {1580/1589G only{Italian}1580/1589G only} miles. But more recent maps show between Boulogne and Dover [only] 16 English [miles], which are longer than Italian miles, and from Calais 18. From this it becomes clear that from Boulogne to England is only a very short crossing. For this reason Portus Gessoriacus the port and Navale Gessoriacum the dock are not one and the same. Who thinks that this dock seems to have stood where Calais now stands will not be contradicted by me. So far for this author {1580/1589G only{Strabo}1580/1589G only}.
44.4. This very place of Boulogne is described by Arnoldus Ferronius (who extends the French history of Paulus ∆milius up until his own time) in the following manner. There is (he says) Low Boulogne and High Boulogne. The lower town was unwalled before the arrival of the English. There stands the church of St. Nicholas and a cloister of the Franciscans. The English sea beats upon [the coast of] this town. Near this friary, which is not far from the sea, there is a very commodious place to pass to England. It is distant from the higher Boulogne about 100 strides or somewhat more. But Boulogne the higher is surrounded by very strong walls, with deep moats around the walls. All this region is full of the kind of sand which those that dwell on the coast call hot sand. For this reason they think that the name of Boulogne was derived from the French word that refers to this kind of sand, in spite of the fact that we know it from Ammianus Marcellinus to be an ancient name. So much from Ferronius. {1573L(AB){Concerning these matters [also] read Divśus}1573L(AB)}.

44.5. VERMANDOIS.

44.6. [in 1579L, 1584L, 1592L & 1595L in smaller font than the text above.]This region which was of old inhabited by the Veromandui [while] still retaining its old name, is now called Vermandois. From here spring the two rivers Somme and Schelde. In former times (as Robert Cúnalis reports) here stood the city called Augusta Veromanduorum, now razed [to the ground] except for a monastery which [still] remains. This city was once the see of a bishop, {1573L(AB){but under its bishop Medardus it was moved from there to Noyon, as Carolus Bouillus reports. In spite of this the place has retained its ancient name, and is called Vermand-abbey.
44.7. Therefore those seem to be in error who think the temple of St. Quintin as they now call it to have been Augusta Veromanduorum}1573L(AB)}. Concerning the people of this region, read Peter Divśus' book of the antiquities of Gallia Belgica}1570L(ABC), 1571L & 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L end here; 1579L(AB), 1584L, 1592L & 1595L in smaller font end here}.

Now the vernacular text version, derived from the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F editions will be presented:

44.8. {1571/1573D{ The land of Calais and Boulogne.
44.9. This map presents a description of the land of France on this side of the sea which the English have always retained on the continent until the year 1557 when the duke of Guise has taken it away from them forcibly in the name of the king of France. This concerned Calais, Guines and Ardres, where the English always had a garrison.
44.10. In Calais they had their staple of wool, which since then has been transferred to Brugge (where it still is). Here were always ferries to England, which is nowhere nearer the continent than here, so that the sea between Calais and the nearest harbour in England, called Dover, is no more than thirty English miles {1581F & 1587F only{or seven of our French miles}1581F & 1587F only}. Calais used to be called Iccius portus, as most people think, for some have the opinion that it was Boulogne, because it is equally far from Dover as Calais, but they probably refer to Gessoriacus Portus, as proved by Rhenanus on the basis of an old manuscript map.
44.11. You have high Boulogne and low Boulogne there (as you can see [on the map]). High Boulogne is a very strong city surrounded by high walls and deep moats. Low Boulogne is one Italian mile distant from there, down towards the water. This was only a village before the English came here in 1544. It has a church of St. Nicolas, and a Franciscan monastery {1572/1573G instead, not in 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F{for monks with bare feet}1572/1573G instead, not in 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F}. Here at the seashore you also find a high stone tower from antiquity built by Cśsar according to the inhabitants. The French call it le Tour d'Ordre, the English the Old Man.

44.12. Vermandois.
44.13. The inhabitants of this country used to be called Veromandui. Its main city is St. Quentin on the river Somme. In the year 1557 it was forcibly taken by king Philippus who defeated the French fully, but it was returned to them in the peace afterwards, together with Han and Ch‚telet, which had also been taken at that time. This St. Quentin used to be called Augusta Veromanduorum, as Jacobus Marchantius says. But Robertus Cúnalis claims that Augusta has fully perished, and that now at this place you only find a monastery. Here you can see the sources of two famous rivers, the Somme and the Schelde which originate not far from each other}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F end here}.

Bibliographical sources


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