Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 32

Text, two versions, translated from the 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish, the 1609/1612 Latin and an intermediate Spanish edition; the 1606 English text, which differs from those of the other editions, is presented first:

32.1. {1606E{GALIZIA,

32.2. The kingdom of GALIZIA has as its border in the West and North the ocean sea, in the East the Asturias and the kingdom of Leon, [and] in the South the river Miņo and the kingdom of Portugal. It was once, as Ferdinand Oiea, the author of this map writes, much larger than it is now at this day, and it was considered to be one of the largest kingdoms of all Spain, for it extends Eastwards as far as the mountains of Biscaya and the mouth of the large river Duero [Durio] (Durius is what Plinius calls it), and from there it ran along the bank of this river to where it empties into the main sea, as our author just mentioned shows on the basis of the testimony of Marius Aretius in his description of Spain, [as also based] on Annius Viterbius and Floriano de Campo in the 40th chapter of his fourth book, and also on the third chapter of his fourth book.
32.3. It is very uneven and mountainous, or everywhere full of dry, barren hills and valleys, and therefore a large part of it, because of lack of water, is waste and uninhabited. Their villages and towns, (especially the larger and better ones) are situated at the sea [shore], or at [the bank of] a river not far from it, except [for] Santiago, Lugo, Mondonedo, and one or two more. Yet, strange enough, such wonderful multitudes of horses are bred here that the fable that in this area of Spain mares conceive foals by virtue of the wind may seem to be something [that is] probable.
32.4. Yes, and this author of ours Fernandez Oiea says that it has great quantities of cattle and all kinds of deer too for the necessary provision and maintenance of households, as well as for hunting and sports for the nobility and gentry of this land. And of fish caught here, not only in the sea but also in the fresh [water of] rivers, there is such a variety and great quantity that it is from here exported to most places throughout all [of] Spain.
32.5. It has many hot baths, and other springs and waters of rare and excellent virtue. It yields plenty of wine, and of such a good quality, especially the sort which is produced at Orense and Rivadavia, that it is exported from there far and near to the all Christian countries. It yields many good fruits of all sorts, but especially lemons and oranges. Silk and flax are very important and profitable commodities for the inhabitants. Here were once, as Plinius testifies, very rich gold mines. And Niger writes that among the Artabri (who live not far from Cape Finisterre) the rivers and brooks brought down, after heavy rainfall, earth mingled with silver, tin and gold ore. Yes, and [he tells] that the soil here was so full of gold, copper and lead that often the farmers with their ploughs turned up big chunks of good gold. Yet we know now, says Maginus, that the mines of this country nowadays are of no great importance. It also has some quarries of fine marble.
32.6. Pedro de Medina lists up to sixty cities and towns of importance in Galizia, of which the following are the most famous and renowned [ones], and therefore more notable to speak about here. COMPOSTELLA, an excellent city situated between the two rivers Sar and Sarela, is now commonly called by the name of SANTIAGO, [or] Saint Iameses after the body of that glorious apostle Saint Iames, the elder brother of John the Evangelist who first preached the gospel here, and established Christianity among the Spaniards, that lies buried here. And in honour of this blessed apostle, by the general consent of everyone, princes, nobles and prelates, [this town] has long since been adorned with the title and dignity of a metropole. This saying is common among the Spaniards, that there are three apostolical churches in the world, famous and renowned [above all, namely] Saint Peters in Rome, Saint Jameses in Spain and Saint Johns in Ephesis.
32.7. They commonly believe that the first church ever to be built in Spain was that of our Lady in Saragossa, [and] the second was this [church] of Saint James. Here is also a good university and school of good learning, where all the liberal sciences are studied and taught, and many students are raised and educated until they reach the age and ability for public service, either in church or in society. GROINE [La Coruņa] is a very excellent town, situated at an isthmus or peninsula, between two bays or creeks of the sea, of which one is considered to be one of the best harbours in the world. And therefore [it is] here where most of the kings ships in time of peace lie at anchor.
32.8. LUGO, one of the main cities of all of Galizia, lies on [the river] Miņo, not far from Castro de Rey, where this river originates. It is very ancient, and undoubtedly known to the Romans when they ruled in these parts, yet there are some who think that it has been built by the Vandals, long after the fall of that state [the Roman Empire]. MONDONNEDO is a fair city located at a small river towards the Northern sea coast, not far from Rivadeo. In ancient times it was called Glandomiro.
32.9. ORENSE, situated on the river Miņo, is a very great and large city. The wines that are produced here are considered to be the best, and equal to those of Rivadavia. Some think that in old times it was called Aquas Calidas after the hot baths which are found here, now called Burgas by the Spanish. TUY, or, as some write it, Tuyd, also built on the river Miņo, not far from the main sea, was first founded, as the fable has it, by certain Greeks who came here from Troy with Diomedes. Lucius Marineus Siculus claims BURGOS to be a city in Galizia. His words are these:
32.10. Burgos, he says, is a very famous and old city of Galizia in Spain. It was once, as some authors report, called Masburgi, Liconitiurgis, Bravum and Auca or, as Plinius spells it, Ceuca. It is a very rich and populous city, much resorted to by gentlemen and merchants, by the first for pleasure, by the second for profit. And therefore it is all the time being greatly enlarged with excellent and sumptuous new buildings. If you want to know more about this city, I wish to refer you to George Braun's Theatre of the chief cities of the world. If [you want to know] more about this kingdom, read Peter de Medinas Las Grandezas y cosas notabiles de Espaņa, [that is] about the strange and memorable things of Spain. And I do not doubt that, if not with truths and good historical discourse, you shall with tedious tales and fables have your belly full}1606E}.

Now follows the text version translated from the texts of the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish, the 1609/1612 Latin editions:

32.11. {1608/1612I{GALLICIA{1609/1612/1641S has instead{GALIZIA}1609/1612/1641S instead}{1609/1612L has instead{GALLAECIA}1609/1612L instead}.

32.12. What is now called Gallicia {1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L{and commonly Galizia}1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L} was by the ancients called Gallæcia or Callæcia, hence its people are Callæci, Callaici and Gallaici & Gallæci, and it is adjacent to Gallia, as Strabo thinks. Its bounds and borders were larger in ancient times, towards Portugal then extending to the river Durius, now Duero, which is now considered as part of Portugal. The region was fairly well known, both by the Romans and in more ancient times, since it had a considerable number of famous tribes, among whom Nerii, Amphilochi, Cæpori, Arotrebae, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Artabri}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Tamarici, Iadoni, Callaici, Celtici and quite a few others.
32.13. It also had many beautiful regions {1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612Linstead{places}1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L instead}, among which Noela, Burum, Libunca, Turuptiana, Ianasum, and more, (which still exist today, as indicated below). Its main rivers are the Nauia, adjacent to Asturia, the Nauilubio, the Netho, the Tamar after which the people there are called Tamarici, the Minio and Florio. This part of Spain also yields a lot of gold, which is confirmed by the fact that the Portuguese, (says Plinius) together with Gallæcia & Asturia, delivered 20,000 pounds of gold {not in 1609/1612/1641S{to the pope in Rome in one year}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, (which now amounts to two million golden ducats). Hence it is clear that in Roman times Spain was rich in gold and silver and that the Romans from them obtained as much of these metals as in our times the Spaniards obtain from Peru and the West Indies, and carry to their own provinces.
32.14. This is clearly confirmed in the seventh chapter, first book of the Maccabees, for speaking about courage, wars and power of the Romans, we find among other things: talking of courageous deeds, (of the Romans) in the region of Spain, to check their power, the silver and gold which is there &c. This convinces me to estimate that also today, in Spain, there are still so many veins of gold and silver, that even if it is more difficult than it used to be to find it, either because it is deeper in the earth, or if closer to the surface, because of changes brough about by man, in the course of time the soil has hardened and has been made more like stone.
32.15. Nowadays Galizia is smaller than it used to be, because in the East it is bordered by the principality of Asturia and the kingdom of Leon, and in the South by the kingdom of Portugal, from which it is partly separated by the river Minio which is also called Bænis, Minyus, Minys, Aeminius, and Bennis, or nowadays Miņo. In the North and West it is bounded by the ocean, where it has a famous cape called cape Artabrum, and hence its people are called Artabri, [but Artabrum was also called] Nerium, Celticum, and Olissiponense, but now it has the name of Cabo de Finisterre in the neighbourhood of which used to be the Cassiterides islands, which are no longer there, and further Galizia has no islands, except for the Isles of Bayonne, anciently called the isles of the Gods, and the isles of Cica, and in the vicinity Coruņa, also Zizarga which the ancients seem to have called the Aunios and Corticata.
32.16. Nowadays Galizia is a kingdom, which, like many others, is comprised under the kingdom of Castilia. Its length and width, where it is largest, is no more than 34 miles. The region is very stony and mountainous in many places and has much cattle, large and small, and venison and there is such an amount of fish, both in the sea and in the rivers, that a good part of Spain can be supplied with it. It has such a temperate climate that it is the part of Spain with the largest produce of fruits, but mostly lemons, which are considered to be the best of all of Spain.
32.17. Noble vines grow here, of all of Europe the best, especially near Orense and Ribadavia, from where it is exported to many parts of Spain. Nor does it lack hot springs, very beneficial for those with ailments. It has quite a few harbours, among which Brigantinus is the one best known, nowadays called Coruņa, spacious as it is to receive a great number of ships. Here the rivers Eume, Brauio, Mandeu and Mero empty themselves into the sea. Not far from there is the harbour of Ferol, anciently called Pharos, where the river Iuvia reaches the sea.
32.18. Then there is the river Vivero which comes to the sea at Lambron. At Rivadeo there is the river Eu, or Miranda, maybe anciently called Navia, which reaches the sea there. Here is also the region Santa Maria finisterre, so called after the city of that name, once called Iris Flavia, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{(hence they call the bishop Irienses)}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and with a different name also called Lambris. Then Novium, now called Noia, and also Ria de muros, after a small city not far from there, {1609/1612/1641S only{because the land there is called Muros}1609/1612/1641S only}, through which the river Tambre flows, anciently called Tamar. The next region is Ria de Padron, so called after the city of Padron, the ancients seem to have called it Iris Flavia.
32.19. It is famous because it harbours the corpse of St. Jacobus [or James, brother of John], the apostle, which was brought here by ship from Judea, on the 25th of July by Calocerus, Basilius, Pius, Crisogonus, Theodorus, Athanasius and Maximus, all disciples of the Holy Apostle. Here the river Vllo discharges itself into the sea, augmented by many small rivers, after first having passed three small islands, namely Arocca, Grave and Salicora. The next region is Ria de Pontevedra, so called after the city of Pontevedra, and here the river Leris reaches the sea.
32.20. Then Ria de Vigo where the river Caldelas reaches the sea, and then cape Puerto de Bayona, called after the city of Bayona, which is Bayone of Galizia, to distinguish it from the city with the same name in France, in Gascogne. Bayonne in Galizia has a harbour where you find many English ships who stop here to sell their textiles. Galizia has four bishoprics, namely Tuy, Orense, Lugo and Glandimyrense {1609/1612/1641S instead{Mondoņedo}1609/1612/1641S instead}. Tuy was anciently called Tude, or Tyde, or Tye and Castellum Graviorum, but now it is commonly called Tuy. The river Minius flows through it, and grows mightily as it is joined by many other rivers.
32.21. Orense, once Auria is also called Auringis, and for that reason the bishopric is called Auresino, Aurigino or Auriense. Now it is called Orense and the river Mino passes through it. Lugo was anciently called Lucus Augustus, also Oluca, and also Augusta Turris or Aræ Sestianæ. It was once one of the monasteries of Spain under the name Monastery of Lucensis, and its people are called Lucenses. It is at the mouth of the river Miņo. Glandomyrum is now called Mondoņedo. Here was once bishop Antonius de Gueuara, a preacher, counsellor and historian for emperor Charles the Fifth, who was also the translator of a famous chronicle on rulers {not in 1609/1612L{by Marcus Aurelius}not in 1609/1612L}, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{for the first time published in Spanish}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
32.22. Galizia has one archbishopric, namely Compostella, commonly called Santiago or Santiago de Compostella or of Galizia. It was in the past a very small city, but after the city had obtained the corpse of St. Jacobus, which was a marvel, it began to acquire fame and growth. But when the Christians began to be prosecuted in horrible ways by heathen emperors, the most pious believers among them, to prevent that the most holy relics came into impure hands, and would mock them, hid the relics, and not unwisely carried them off, so that they were not adored for about five hundred years and fell into oblivion.
32.23. This was 150 years after the destruction of Spain until the time of King Alfonsus el Casto, when this precious treasure, not without spectacular miracles, was detected and found back by bishop Theodomirus. Hence the pious king, in honour and adoration for the ancient relics, built a temple on the place where they were found, in honour of St. Jacobus, which by privilege of the king to this church, happened in the year 835, no less than 121 years after the conquest of Spain, since this destruction began in the year 714 under the reign of King Rodrigo.
32.24. After this temple had been built, various miracles began to occur in the name of St. Jacobus, particularly in the battles between the Spaniards and the Moors, mostly under king Ramiro, so that the Spaniards increasingly used to invoke him in battle under the name Santiago and thus he became the patron of all of Spain, and therefore the Spanish have excellent soldiers with the name of {1609/1612L{St. Jacobus who are commonly called}1609/1612L} Santiago, which was only allowed to those who came from descended from nobility.
32.25. After this Alfonsus the Third, also called the Great, the temple {not in 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L{that had fallen into disuse and which looked like a ruin}not in 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L}, was restored and expanded and and became more and more magnificent, and all the kings that followed further continued to beautify and expand it. Yes, the popes of the Roman Church honoured it with various privileges and donations on account of its ever increasing miracles. Thus Joannes the 8th in a papal edict declared it to be holy. Pope Urbanus the second transferred the episcopal see from Iris Flavia to this place, taking it away from the city of Braga. Pope Paschalis the second in the year 1102 confirmed its independence and moreover added twelve cardinals to it, which it has until today.
32.26. He also saw to it, that the altar which has been built over the Holy Apostle, may be used for the Holy Mass. These cardinals elect from other people of this church the canons, so that the major mass as they call it, can be celebrated in greater solemnity, on the altar of the apostle. And this is allowed only here, so that no other bishopric has the splendor of this one. In all other matters, the canons are the same as elsewhere. The same pope, in 1104, donated a pall to the bishop of Compostella which normally is only reserved for an archbishopric.
32.27. Pope Calisto the second erected a church in behalf of the archbishopric of Compostella in the city of Merida. From that time onwards, pilgrims began to come from the entire Christian world to visit this church of Saint Jacobus, and what is more, the popes began to invoke in their absolutions the vows of Santiago, like they do in the vows of Jerusalem. Until the time of Alfonsus the 6th, who recaptured Toledo from the Moors, the corpse of the Holy Apostle remained in the marble coffin where he had been found, under the altar, so that it could always be shown to kings and other dignitaries. But the first archbishop of the city, lord Diego Gelmires, having beautified and enlarged the church to the magnificence which it still has today, transferred the corpse to a temple of larger size, the corpse which had always been in its marble coffin in a structure below the altar in such a way that no one could see the it, and from that time onwards, undoubtedly a good idea, it was of course not allowed to anyone see it at leasure, so that no one would spoil the honour and reverence for these holy relics}1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612lL end here}.

Bibliographical sources

For questions/comments concerning this page, please e-mail