Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 24


Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1584 Latin 3rd Add., 1584 Latin, 1584 German 3rd Add., 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish editions:

24.1. {1584L3Add/1584L{The isles of the AZORES

24.2. Some are of the opinion that these islands, situated in the Atlantic or Western ocean are named Ašores by the Spaniards after a kind of hawk which they call {not in 1588S, 1602G, 1602S& 1609/1612/1641S{Ašor, and in the plural}not in 1588S, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} Ašores. One writes, {not in 1584G3Add & 1602G{but incorrectly}not in 1584G3Add & 1602G}, that they are named after the French word Essorer which means to dry or wither. {1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{In Latin one may call them Accipitrarias or the isles of the hawks, and in Greek [in Greek lettering] Hierakoon {1606E only{nesoi}1606E only; 1592, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. Our Dutchmen call them [in Gothic script in some editions:] [De VlŠmsche eylanden] end of Gothic script], that is, the Flemish isles, because they are thought first to have been discovered by certain Flemish merchants from Brugge. At that time (they said) they could find nothing on them but trees (especially many cedars) and woods, and birds of various other kinds. And to this place they [then] sent inhabitants to take possession and till the land of the islands mentioned. Later, they surrendered to the Portuguese, under whose government they still remain.
24.3. {1595L but not in 1602G{Ludovicus Marmolius {not in 1602S{in folio 48}not in 1602S}{1606E has instead{38}1606E instead} reports that they were discovered around the year 1455}1595L but not in 1602G}. Undoubtedly the ancient writers did not know them. Yet, they might have named them, perhaps. For whether they specified them under the name Cassiterides I am not sure. The {1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Spanish}1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} fleets, loaded with Indian commodities usually, when returning, stop at these islands before proceeding to Lisbon {1608/1612I only{Sevilla}1608/1612I only} or Cadiz. It is a marvel to tell that only on these islands, the air and nature are such that when sailing from these parts of the world towards America, {not in 1606E{or the New World as they call it}not in 1606E} as soon as you are past these Azores islands, you are freed from gnats, fleas, lice and all other kinds of bothersome vermin {not in 1584G3Add, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{with small feet}not in 1584G3Add, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}, which die immediately beyond the Ašores, and come to nothing.
24.4. They are nine in number, and called {1584G3Add & 1602G only{in their native language}1584G3Add & 1602G only} {1606E instead{in Portuguese}1606E instead} by these common names: the isle of St. MichŠl [SÔo Miguel] , Teršera [Terceira], St. Georges isle [SÔo Jorge], Pico, Fayal [Faial], {not in 1606E{Graciosa}not in 1606E} Flores, Del Cuervo [Corvo] and the isle of St. Maria, all of which we will discuss separately.

24.5. TERCEIRA.
24.6. This isle is called Teršera [Terceira] because it is the third in order as you sail from Spain. {1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{And on the basis of this one, the common people call the whole [series] by the name of Teršera}1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. It abounds with corn and fruits, and is not destitute of wine. The inhabitants are greatly enriched by their madder, with which clothes are dyed red. In this isle grows plenty of this commodity, especially around the places called Los Altares and Falladores. Angra, the main city, is most strongly fortified with a promontory or bulwark called Brazil. This isle is also after the name of our blessed saviour Jesus called by the Spanish Isola d'el buen Iesu.

24.7. PICO.
24.8. This isle received its name from a mountain on it, rising steeply in the form of a rounded {1584G3Add & 1602G have instead{six-cornered}1584G3Add & 1602G instead} pyramid {1606E only{or sugar loaf}1606E}. Whatever has this natural shape is by the Portuguese called Pico. This hill is three miles high [in fact 2351 metres]. Within, it is hollow and full of dark caves, {not in 1606E{and continually emits flames like mount Ătna}not in 1606E} {1608/1612I only{of Mongibello}1608/1612I only}. And at the foot of the mountain {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Eastwards}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, there is a spring with sweet water which sometimes emits fiery streams and stones burning hot. And this happens with such great force and violence, that they are hurled in a current to steep and lower places, and even into the sea, where a multitude of these stones have formed a promontory or outlying land, usually called Mysterij. This is about 12 miles distant from the spring mentioned. At his moment, it stretches about a mile and a half into the sea, due to the continued increase of this heap of stones. Those who write that this island was so named after the bird called Picus Martius {1602G & 1606E only{or woodpecker}1602G & 1606E only}, have been much deceived.

24.9. FAYAL.
24.10. This isle is so named because of the beech tree. For the Portuguese call the beech Faya, {not in 1606E{and Fagutal}1606E} and a place planted with beeches Fayal. That there are still on this island certain families of Flemish descent who first inhabited it, namely such as are called [in Gothic script in some editions[Bruyn, Utrecht]end of Gothic script] &c. [is something] I have heard from a trustworthy Portuguese. {1601L, not in 1602G{Linschoten, also an eye witness, writes in his Journal, published in our language {1606E instead{Dutch}1606E instead}, that on this very isle there is a river called Ribera des Fiamengos, or the river of the Flemish. He says further that all the inhabitants of this island originally came from Flanders, and that they are still an asset to the Flemish nation}1601L, not in 1602G}.
24.11. Concerning the remainder, that is Flores, so called for its abundance of flowers, Del Cuervo for its crows, Grašiosa for its richness, and the isles of St. George, St. Maria and St. MichŠl named after those saints (for it is usual among the Spaniards to name places after the saints on whose day they find them), I have nothing to add, except that Thevet is mistaken in that he falsely attributes that mountain to St. MichŠls isle, which we have truly and fully described under Pico}1584L3Add/1584L, 1584G3Add, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L & 1602G end here}. {1601L{About these isles you may read a little in the History of Hieronymus Conestagio {1608/1612I only{of Genoa}1608/1612I only}, discussing the union of the kingdom of Portugal to the crown of Castilia, and also in the 97th Chapter of the {1606E only{East-Indian}1606E only} journal by Johannes Hugo van Linschoten}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Now follows the vernacular version of this text, translated from the 1585F3Add/1587 French, 1598F and 1598/1610/1613D editions:

24.12 {1585F3Add/1587F{The {1598/1610/1613D only Flemish}1598/1610/1613D only} isles of the AZORES

24.13. Some are of the opinion that these islands, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{situated in the Atlantic or Western ocean}not in 1598/1610/1613D} are named Ašores by the Spaniards after a kind of bird of prey which they call {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Ašor, and in the plural}not in 1598/1610/1613D} Ašores. One writes that they are named after the French word Essorer which means to dry or wither. Our Dutchmen call them de VlŠmsche eylanden, that is, the Flemish isles, because they are thought to have been discovered by certain Flemish merchants from Brugge. At that time (they said) they could find nothing on them but trees (especially many cedars) and woods, and birds of various kinds. And to this place they [then] sent inhabitants to take possession and till the land of the islands mentioned. Later, they surrendered to the Portuguese, under whose government they still remain.
24.14. Undoubtedly the ancient writers did not know them. Yet, they might have named them, perhaps. For whether they specified them under the name Cassiterides I am not sure. The fleets, loaded with Indian commodities usually, when returning, stop at these islands before proceeding to Lisbon or to the isles which are called Cadiz. I have heard something marvellous about this region, or its air or the nature of these isles. For sailing from these parts of the world towards America or the New World as they call it, as soon as you are past these Azores islands, you are freed from gnats, fleas, lice and all other kinds of bothersome vermin with small feet, which die immediately beyond the Ašores, and come to nothing.
24.15. They are nine in number, and called as follows. The isle of St. MichŠl, Teršera, St. Georges isle, Pico, Fayal, Graciosa, Las Flores, Cuervo and the isle of St. Maria, all of which we will discuss separately.

24.16. TERăERA.
24.17. This isle is called Teršera because it is the third in order as you sail from Spain. It abounds with corn and fruits, and is not destitute of wine. The inhabitants are greatly enriched by their madder which grows here in abundance, with which clothes are dyed red. In this isle it grows especially around the places called Los Altares and Falladores. Angra, the main city, is most strongly fortified with a rock, or bulwark called Brazil. This isle is also after the name of our blessed saviour Jesus called by the Spanish Isola d'el buen Iesu.

24.18. PICO.
24.19. This isle received its name from a mountain on it, rising up in the form of a rounded pyramid. Whatever has this natural shape is by the Portuguese called Pico. This hill is three miles high. Within, it is hollow and full of dark caves, and emits flames like mount Ătna. And at the foot of the mountain Eastwards, there is a spring with sweet water, which sometimes emits fiery streams and stones burning hot. And this happens with such great force and violence, that they are hurled in a bulky current to steep lower places, and even into the sea, where a multitude of these stones have formed a promontory or outlying land, usually called Mysterij. This is about 12 miles distant from the spring mentioned. At his moment, it stretches about a mile and a half into the sea, due to the continued increase of this heap of stones. Those who write that this island was so named after the bird called Picus [woodpecker], have been much deceived.

24.20. FAYAL.
24.21. This Isle is so named after a tree called the beech tree. For the Portuguese call the beech Faya, and a place planted with beeches Fayal. That there are still on this island certain families of the Flemish race which first inhabited it, namely such as are called Bruyn, Utrecht &c. is something I have heard from a trustworthy Portuguese.
24.22. Concerning the remaining islands, there are Flores, so called for its abundance of flowers, Cuervo after the Latin name Coruus which means crow, Grašiosa, pleasant, and the isles of St. George, St. Maria and St. MichŠl which were named after those saints (for it is usual among the Spaniards to name places after the saints on whose day they find them), I have nothing to add, except that Thevet is mistaken in that he falsely and carelessly attributes that mountain to St. MichŠls isle, which we have truly and fully described under Pico}1585F3Add/1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

Bibliographical sources


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