Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 33

Text, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition (note that topographical names have been presented as occurring in the Spanish editions, with Latin/Italian variants between square brackets:

33.1. {1608/1612I{CATALOGNA{1609/1612L instead{CATALONIA}1609/1612L instead}{1609/1612/1641S instead{CATALUĐA}1609/1612/1641S}.

33.2. The region of Catalonia, partly consisting of Hispania Citerior [further Spain], the jurisdiction of Tarracona, and partly of the border of Aquitania and the two Spanish provinces, or the border area called the Spanish March, [or] the duchy of Baršelona used to be called the March of both Spanish provinces mentioned. While the dukes of Baršelona had snatched this area a long time ago from the Saracens who once occupied this Baršelona county, they claimed to have conquered these two Spanish provinces for their own benefit. After this, it began to be called Catalonia in the time of the sons of the Arragon kings, so that it would be distinguished by its proper name from the other kingdoms of the crown of Arragon.
33.3. Its name, I think, reflects that of its forefathers and earlier occupants, who were the Goths & the Alani, or Otgeri Catalone, sent by Carolus Martellus to conquer Spain, or both. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{The region enjoys the name of a principality. And it is the first principality that the feet of those who enter Spain must touch}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. In the West it is bordered by the peoples called Valentini and Arragonenses. Catalonia is separated from the first by the river Alcarane, also called Cenia, and from the latter in some places by the river Arnes and in other places by stretches of the rivers Iberus {not in 1609/1612L{or Ebro}not in 1609/1612L}, Segre and Noguera Ribergercano.
33.4. In the South, towards the Mediterranean sea, it extends itself {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{in circular edges}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. In the East, it is strongly fortified by lake Salsas, which has a castle built by Charles the Fifth opposite the impugnable stronghold of Leucata, which forms its outer edge or the entrance to France, bordering Aquitania. In the North, it is inaccessible due to the Pyrenee mountains, although attempts have been made in the past to find greater accessibility there. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{For it comprised various parts located towards France, among which we find the duchy of Puxa}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Its circumference is more than 800 Italian miles.
33.5 Its length from lake Salsas to the kingdom of Valencia is 250 miles; its width, from Vall de Carol or from Lauet Coronaz all the way to Baršelona is as much as 94 miles. It has been divided into the old and the new part. The old part begins at the Pyrenee mountains and extends westwards to various rivers, partly to the river Rubricatus [the red one, now called Llobregat], and it partly has the river Cardoner as its border. The new part is what from there flows down all the way to the Valentians and the Arragonenses.
33.6 This includes the metropolis and archbishopric of Tarragona, eight bishoprics, [viz.] Baršelona, Gerona, Urgel, Vicq, Lerida, Tortosa, Elna and Solsona; further various large benedict and cistensian abbeys, [then] the principality of Tarracona, two duchies called Monblanc [White Mountain] and Cardona. [Then] five marquisates [viz.] Lerida, Tortosa, Pallares, Camaresa & Aytona. [Then] eighteen duchies [viz.] Baršelona, (far excelling above all the other ones in Catalonia considering its splendour), Gerona, Urgel, Cerda˝ia, Besalu, Rossillon, Empurias, Osona, Manresa, Prada, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Palamosia, Perolade, Sancta Columba de Queralt, Sancta Columba a Scintillis}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Sauallan, Vall Fogona, Guimera & Montagus.
33.7 [Then there are] fourteen burggraviates [viz.] Barcelona, Gerona (for these two cities were also ornated with this title), Cabrera, Bas, Rocaberti, Canet, Lilla, Castrobon, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Erelius}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Querforadat, Villemur, Ager, Escornalbou & Iocq. [Then] the baronies of Mon Caden (whose baron used to be the bailiff of all Catalonia), Pinos, Cervillon, Erills, Ripol, Angles, Cervaria, Mataplana, Alte˝a, Llagunas, Entencas & numerous other towns.
33.8. In summer it has a good climate, in winter the air is mild, especially in the coastal area which lies towards the South. For the part which extends towards the North has a rather cold climate, and is full of snow. All of Catalonia is mountainous, except for the part that also has some valleys, particularly those parts that have been named Urgel, Pentens, Tarragona, Osona, Gerona, Rossillon & Cerda˝a.
33.9. For the mountains and hills are dispersed over the area, and some have heights that are not barren, but ever covered with grass and shrubs, and planted with a variety of trees, so that all mountains and hills are full of woods, abundant with forests and trees. Beeches are most prevalent here, and there are also numerous pine trees, many oaks, and more than a few stone oaks. Then there are an uncountable number of firs, hazelnuts and chestnuts in abundance, and cork trees, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{whose bark is very heavy and regenerates, in infinite numbers}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.10. But these, and many other kinds of trees in the mountains are so excellent that in comparison to the great fecundity of the soil and the large number of ever running fountains seem to be somewhat exuberant, and they seem to trespass their boundaries, because they yield an abundance of branches and leaves. This is the reason why the wild animals in these mountainous forest are countless in number, and also why there is such an abundance here of all kinds of cattle. But with such gorgeous mountains and hills, I ask you what the pastures and the valleys in between these mountains will be like?
33.11. There are indeed pastures rich with grass, luxurious pasture flowers, and exceedingly fertile valleys. Some of these are watered by springs, others by rivers. For Catalonia has an abundance of rivers since there are about fifty of them flowing through it, all very rich in fish. Some of these rivers are small but worth seeing, some are of fairly great size and some are famous, such as of course the river Thetis [Latet]{not in 1609/1612/1641S{(also called Ruscison)}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, the river Tec (also Tetrum), {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{the Patriates (namely the Clovianus & Plumialbus)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, the river Ter, Tordera {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(also Tarnum)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, the Besos {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(also called Bisocto and Betulo)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, the Rubricatus [Llobregat], Cinca, Segre and the river Ebro.
33.12. All these flow into the sea, except for the river Cinca and the Segre, the first of which empties into the river Segre, whereas the other flows into the river Ebro, which, absorbing the water of one river as well as the other, is the only river of Spain formed by numerous of its larger tributaries. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{What will the whole area and its soil be like?}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It will surely be so rich in wine, olive oil, corn, beans and fruits that it is in no way inferior to any other region in produce. Don't we find mines here with gold, silver and other metals?
33.13. Let the nuggets of the best gold and silver assure you of this, nuggets which are eroded by the river Segre and some other rivers of Catalonia as their streams pass this area. The best iron of its kind is mined here in this principality in great abundance, although copper, tin and lead are not found here in equally abundant quantities. A vein rich in transparant gems with a violet colour was recently found near Mont Seny, called amethyst. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{Its violet colour approaches the colour of wine. The stone has a purple hue, not glowing, but reduced to the colour of wine}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.14. On the same spot as well as in the mountains of Nuria, crystal is found in the Cardines rocks. The best coral comes from the Catalan sea in the East. The gem called onyx which reminds one of the polish of a human fingernail, with some veins resembling the colour of jaspis and of sarda occur in the border area of the city of Tivica. Red iron ore, truly capable of stopping any bleeding, is found at the origin of the river Rubricatus [Llobregat]. The stone quarries at Tortosa are rich in jaspis, reflecting many colours, [viz.] purple, green, yellow, pink, white and black.
33.15. In Tarragona and Beuda, many different kinds of marble such as parium, luculleum, ophites [marble with a snake-like pattern] and porphyrites are dug from the ground here, whereas in the city of Sarreal they find transparent window panes of alabaster, that is, these panes are suitable for allowing the light to enter while the wind remains outside, and this alabaster may be the same as the mirror stone which Plinius claims to be prevalent in Hispania Citerior. Mons LŠtus [Mont'alegre, the Happy Mountain] {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(also called Hilaris [the hilarious one])}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} provides the soil of the border area of Populetus with the colour of alume, and also of chalk, vulgarly called vitriol, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and it explains the name of shoe polish [cf. Plinius Bk. 34 Chapter 12 & 32]}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.16. The hemp that grows here in Catalonia is very useful for ropes; and this hemp, which according to Plinius has the peculiar splendor of flax and an amazing softness, comes from a mountain stream which polishes it naturally and which flows past Tarracona, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{after it has first been located by Carbasis}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and it was first used to make sails, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{which hence is called Carbasa}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. And since we are now dealing with these matters, I cannot relate sufficiently the praise of the indigenous Catalan abundance of all things which are provided by this area, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{where they make from the fundament of the keel upwards up to the last sails which are made into freighters, and especially triremes [ships with three rows of oars] and equipped with all kinds of rigging, which are entrusted to the Baršelonian sea}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.17. So many houses provide to Catalonia this indigenous abundance of all kinds, and conspicuous wealth, for they have been built splendidly, distinguishing themselves in the entire area from the cities and towns, spread as they are over plains, fields, valleys, hills, forests and woods, so that all of Catalonia, so to speak, may be regarded as one big city. Its abundant castles and bulwarks have been fortified by the nature of the place as well as by human art. I am unable to sufficiently praise its honest Christian faith for it has many churches spread out over the area and many famous monasteries that are testimony of the strength of their faith.
33.18. It brought forth numerous men and women distinguished by their piety, such as, of course, Eulalia, the virgin and martyr of Baršelona, and also Severus, the bishop and martyr of Baršelona; then Anastasius, Vincentius Caucoliberitanus [Colibre], the martyrs Lucianus & Marcianus; then Otto & Ermengaudus, the bishops of Urgel; then Bernardus Calvonis, the bishop of Vicq; {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{then Ollegarius, the bishop of Baršelona as well as the archbishop of Tarragona}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}; then Raymundus of Pennafortis belonging to the order of the dominicans and many others, which would take too much to list here.
33.19. It distinguishes itself with six grammar schools. It abounds with wool factories and other trades. It shines with the strength of men, and with prudent knowledge, with memories of martial deeds and with the victories of those who fought with numerous peoples. For in Catalonia numerous battles were fought by these inhabitants with the Cartagenians; there were also battles of the Romans against the Cartagenians, of the Goths with the Romans, of the Sarracenes against the Goths, and of the French against surviving Goths still inhabiting this area, and finally between the dukes of Baršelona and the Sarracenes.
33.20. But who was there to give reports about the wars which their sons fought against the kings of Arragona who, together with foreign tribes, initiated wars against the duchy of Baršelona and to admire all their great vicories? It is Mallorca, Minorca, Ibiza, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Murcia}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Valencia, Sardinia, Sicilia, and Naples, and in Greece Lepanto {1609/1612L instead{Athens and Neopatria}1609/1612L instead}. Further there are memorable miracles, attributed to nature and to divine grace which usually ornate one region or another. In Catalonia, there is a countless number of them. There is a cave, a marvel by itself, and inside, the church of the holy Michael {not in 1609/1612/1641S{of Fagus}not in 1609/1612/1641S} has been built, and a very old benedictan monastery. Above its roof flows some significant river, called Tanes by the inhabitants, which from there falls into a deep abyss, and by its fall and the foam which results from it provides much admiration to those who watch it.
33.21. Some very high mountain in the middle of the Pyrenees is a surprising feature of the duchy of Rossillon, because of its whitish or white snow which with it is covered both in winter and in summer. I think it is called Canigo [the grey one]. Its top has a large lake, exceedingly deep, rich in numerous trouts of a marvellous size. If a stone is thrown into its water, it is set into motion and emits vapours which, after they have turned into threatening clouds, cause an uninterrupted storm, with lightning, thunder and hail. In the bishopric of Gerona, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{towards the South}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, there is a hill of white and fine sand which (as in Africa {1609/1612L instead{Libya}1609/1612L instead) is blown from here over the entire area, to the detriment of travellers.
33.22. And people will wonder, and not without reason, that near the town of Cardona, famous for its title as a duchy, there is a mountain which has many colours due to its natural and medicinal salt, reflecting the sun colourfully, which (as Plinius similarly relates about Mount Oromenus in India) is mined like a stone quarry, but will grow again to its former size. For it is clear to everyone that this mountain grows, and even increases in size as its salt is being mined from its quarries. It is also to be wondered that while the area where salt is dug is empty of vegetation, yet this mountain has many pines and vines. This yields a considerable income for its dukes. This happens in a place, which like mount Monserrat, is at a distance from Baršelona of about seven miles to the West.
33.23. This mountain is very high, full of cliffs in the shape of a saw, full of protruding rocks as if they were made of jaspis, offering a view to the Pyrenees and the distant mountains of the Isle of Mallorca. It is eleven miles in circumference. Some springs originate here. Various medicinal herbs grow here, and it is washed by the river Rubricatus at its North side, where it elevates itself further, as is also the case with the St. Silvester {1609/1612L instead{Soracte}1609/1612L instead} mountain in Italy and the Tabor in Galilea. That is the reason why it offers a view not to be scorned at. In former times heathen idols were venerated here, but now that an image of the divine Virgin has wonderfully been found there in a certain cave, it can in no way be denied that Guifredus, duke of Barcelona, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{the second of that name}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, has carried it off and kept it out of the hands of the Agareni [Moors] {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{around the year 875}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, as was also the case for the abbey of the holy Cecilia and for other churches near this mountain, also supposedly containing an image of the divine Virgin.
33.24. Who could enumerate the wonders that God performed in answer to his holiest mother? This is why daily an innumerable crowd of people from all over the world assemble at her cave. Here is also a famous monastery of the benedictines. In the church of the holy Felix, near Rossillon, in every single year in the night of the proclamation of the Lord, on the altar of Lucullus [a Roman consul who introduced it here], made of black marble, you can see some faint signs, gradually growing in size, but so far nobody has succeeded to fully fathom its meaning. The fields of Ba˝ols have a spring which reflects a golden colour on anything held in its water.
33.25. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{Why should I not consider this to be a miracle, when Plinius, in his elaborate description of wonderful springs, mentions a spring in the fields of Carrinensis which colours all fish in it in gold, whereas once outside the water they do not show anything of this at all?}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. And what would you say if I contend that all elements of the world like never ceasing springs emanate wonderfully from Catalonia? As regard its water, nobody who is familiar with the wholesome spring which was opened by the shepard's staff of the holy Maginus, a soldier of God in a barren mountainous and rocky area, after long, pious and earnest prayers. This water is drunk everywhere in abundance. It is not heavy on the stomach, but also brings miraculous healing to those who are afflicted by various sorts of weaknesses.
33.26. No less miraculous than this is a small spring near the city of Arles in the duchy of Rossillon, which begins in a certain large stone sepulchral monument of the monastery of the benedictans, at some distance from the wall of the church building, from the soil located above some stone pillars, to the ornaments of which it does not belong, but from which it is separated. Its water is not allowed to drip away, but is caught in a linen sieve, and after that retrieved. About its earth, what could be more marvellous? What about the preachers of this church, what about the virgin and martyr called Cecilia {1609/1612L instead{Catharina}1609/1612L instead}. For nobody would deny that this earth miraculously raises itself in Barcelona near that sepulchral monument where the Holy Raymundus of Pennafortis [Pe˝afort], once the third magister-general of the same order, was first buried.
33.27. This in spite of the fact that from antiquity onwards for more than 300 years the colossal edifice was so rich with dust or fine earth that it was an excellent medecine for good health, brought in such quantities from such a limited spot that that several deep caves and large pits would not have been capable of containing it.
33.28. As concerns the air, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{this subject is easier to explain}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. For in front of the city of Aulos, where you have the river Fluuia, there are about twelve sources of air, night and day, in summer and winter, that emit sweet air, warm in winter, but in summer so cold, that one can only be exposed to it for a short time. This same cold air will freeze jars with water which have been placed there by the inhabitants as common property, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and these jars will contain snow as well}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, a delicious drink for the over-heated stomach.
33.29. As concerns fire, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{how will I be able to convince you of that after having commented on the other elements? Shall I point out mount Assignabone which is supposed to glow every night, like mount Ătna on the isle of Sicily? Not at all. Yet}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, I would be able to mention quite a few springs with water which is always warm, day and night, testifying of the fire which hides itself in the bowels of the earth. For there are more than four of such hot springs in Catalonia, all of them of no mean abundance, and better than many others in helping mankind, which is the reason why many people with ailments flock to them. But let us proceed and discuss some of the more famous towns of Catalonia, because it would be awkward to discuss them collectively.
33.30. DERTUSA [Tortosa, Tolosa] is located in the most distant coastal area {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{where the Ilercaones tribe lives}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, extending Eastwards {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(with these and similar names which were also used by Plinius and PtolemŠus, I will make my round through the Catalan area I will address them)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It is not an insignificant city, and used to have a population of Roman citizens, four miles off the coast, at the foot of a mountain, for a long time now extending to the Southern bank of the river Ebro, which is navigable in this part, and teems with fish, including the best salt water fish. Also salmons that, once having tasted its sweet water, will hardly ever return to the sea, and even kingsfish, and in particular Shads, or Trissas, vulgarly called Sobogas, which spawn there and leave it to the warm water to take care of their offspring, and which remain in this river all through the winter {1609/1612L instead{springtime}1609/1612L instead}.
33.31. There is a grammar school in the preachers college, close to a stone quarry with the most colourful jaspis, with an abundance of oil. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{It is also famous for its large quantities of silk and}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} it is also famous because of its bishops see. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{Some think that this is the Spanish city which was founded in this area by the Spanish son of Tubal, the second king of the two Spanish regions after the deluge. Titus Livius writes about this city that in the time when the two Scipios, Publius & GnŠus, defeated Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, at the border of this city, not far from the city itself. They were the most affluent people of this region.
But this author places the city on the Spanish, that is the Western bank, whereas other authors claim it to be at the mouth of the river, but I think that it altered its course, and moved to where you now find Dertusa}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.32. TARRACO [Tarragona] {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{is the most prominent city in the region of Cossetania. It is a very old city at a river emptying into the sea, and although}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} some claim that it was founded in the time of Tubal, yet Plinius calls it the work of the two Scipios, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{because it was these who were sent by the Roman population to the two Spanish provinces to fight the Pťni or Carthagenians. Either they founded this city, or they very much enlarged and fortified it, and made it a threat to the Pťni}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. At the time it was a Roman settlement, yes one community of Romans of seven, into which Hispania Citerior had been divided, and which was called Tarraconense after the big city with that name.
33.33. After all tribes had been brough to a peaceful state, CŠsar Augustus retired there and from there issued a decree mentioned by Saint Lucas, so that the state of the world would be evident to all, including the bishop of Gerona. This area, which used to comprise various episcopal sees, but now only those that are in Catalonia, has a church devoted to the holy Tecla. It has been constructed on top of a mountain, is surrounded by very strong and high walls, and has a miraculous view, for in the South it overlooks the sea, but in the North it has its own very extended territory, which they call the field of Tarragona, with numerous beautiful towns, such as Cambrils, Reus {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(I use the names that the inhabitants use)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, Valis, Alcover, Selva and other ones, famous for their wine, corn and olive oil. In the furthest part you see the very steep mountains of Pradell.
33.34. In these mountains, you find the invincible castle of Suriana, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{inaccessible because of its abysses}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and the town of Prades, the capital of this duchy, where an annual fair attracts numerous visitors. Montalvo or Montblanc [Mons albus, the white mountain], a town famous for its title as a duchy, has among other things the very famous monastery {1609/1612/1641S only{Olmet}1609/1612/1641S only}{not in 1609/1612/1641S{of the Cistercienses of Populetus}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and the sepulchre of the kings of Arragon {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{in a region watered by many excellent springs}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.35. VILLA FRANCA is a town {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{in the same Mediterranean region of Cossetania with numerous excellent houses, surrounded by a moat and walls}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, formerly called Torre de Dela [Turris DelŠ], and anciently Carthago Vetus, built by the leader of the Pťni, Hamilcar Baršino, Hannibal's father. By these Pťni, also called Carthagenians, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{it is reported as a region with much corn. Its population should not be underestimated}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and its castle, although now almost totally destroyed, is called Pennafortis, where the holy Raymundus was born, is still called Pťnitensis. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{This is where according to PtolemŠus the cities of Carthago vetus, Tarracona and Barcelona are located, as can be seen on his second map of Europe, although he states in the sixth chapter of his second book that the settlements of the Ilercaones extended into the interior}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.36. In the South it has mountains, close to the sea, which the inhabitants call Costas de Garraf. But in the North, at the banks of the splendid river Noya, vulgarly called Igualada, there is a famous town where Ferdinand, king of Arragon, the first one of that name, gave up his life and died.
33.37. Baršelona {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{in Laletania}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} is the foremost city in all of Catalonia, located at the sea, and at a promontory which for many years has been called the Jewish one, after the ancient graves of Jews that can be found there. Anciently it was perhaps called Iovis [of Jupiter] and vulgarly Monjuyque, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(consisting of earth and rocks, watered by springs, and famous for its fertility) which clings to the earth as if rooted in it}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It has been built on top of a hill which was called Taber by the ancients, on top of which hanging gardens used to root with various columns, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{of which more than a few still exist}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, truly resembling the Babylonian gardens of this kind, so that both were called wonders [of the world]}1609/1612L}, until the time of the first duke of Baršelona, called Raymundus Berengarius, endured a storm, but its name was changed into paradise {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{which also means gardens}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.38. Hercules the Egyptian was the founder of this city, as various famous writers contend, but the leader of the Pťni, Hamilcar Baršino, made it grow, which is perhaps the reason why it obtained the name of Baršelona, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{although others think that this happened before the city was founded}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. In the time of the Romans it was also named Faventia, and it was one of the twelve Roman colonies of Hispania Citerior; but in the time of the Goths it was the royal seat of Ataulfus, Spains first king, and finally, in the time of the counts of Baršelona, it was the capital of the counts.
33.39. It was then the holy bishops see of the most Holy Cross, the tribunal of the holy inquisition, the meeting place of kings, and it had a general school, {1609/1612L{refined church buildings, remarkable monasteries, stone houses, neat roads, water from springs that never dry up}1609/1612L}, everywhere gardens rich with golden apple trees [oranges] and lemon trees, truly a wonderful sight to behold, with eternal springs, a double wall and it was partly surrounded by three walls, a deep moat and additional fortifications.
33.40. Molle (which is its harbour, so to speak), well designed and capacious, but not yet quite finished, is so excellent that ships {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{with three decks, and even freighters}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} can be harboured safely and can hibernate here. It is a large area with an excellent soil, enclosed by the rivers Llobregat [Rubricatus] and Besos [Besotius], {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and finally there are many other memorable things which make this city a splendid one}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.41. EGARA, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{a city situated more towards the inland of the same Laletania in the North}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, at a distance of four miles from Baršelona and very close to Terrašio [Castrum Terracium], but in the same area where you now find the church of holy Peter and the cloister of holy Mary, was from at least the year 460 to 675 or later splendid because of its bishops see. This has been recorded at various meetings of the two Spanish provinces and by king Vamba when he himself partitioned the area into bishoprics. But now it has been lying waste since many years, and [its divinities] have been transferred, as I think, to where you now find Tarrašio castle [Terracium Castrum].
33.42. MANRESA [MINORISA], a city {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{located more inland of the same Laletania}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, located as much as seven miles from Baršelona, surrounded by the rivers Llobregat [Rubricatus] and Cardoner, was much more famous in the past, for Ermesenda, the countess of Baršelona, married to Raymundus Borellus, called it the devastated city. I think it is called Minorisa because it is smaller than it used to be, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and I think this city is the same as the city of Rubricata, of which PtolemŠus notes that it is located in the inland area of Laletania. He places it on the West bank of the river Rubricatus. It grew out of the ruins on which the enlarged city of Barcelona expanded into a big city, as the bishop of Gerona has recorded, although he does not say where the city of Rubricata was exactly located.
33.43. But he forces me to believe what PtolemŠus teaches us about Rubricata, namely that it was located in the inner part of Laletania, built on the West bank of the river Rubricatus, and what the bishop of Gerunda adds to this, namely that it was a wealthy city in this area, means that it must have referred to the city of Minorisa}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.44. Vicq [VICUS], the capital of the area of Osona [Ausetania], with anciently a population of Latini [people with Roman citizenship] earlier had the names of Ausa, Ausona or Ausonia, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{or alternatively it means the venture of its people, because its inhabitants are hardier than its neighbours, or}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} because of the Italian Ausonii, its founders at the time of the coming of Hercules the Egyptian {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{who brought prosperity to both Spanish provinces}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It was a large and wealthy city until the time of Ludovicus Pius, at which time Ayzo the Visigoth, rebelling against the king of Aquitania, coming to this area, invaded Ausonia through ruse and treachery, and totally destroyed it.
33.45. But later this city was resurrected, and called Vico [city quarter] because it seemed to be no more than a city quarter of that great old city. It is very famous for its bishops see devoted to Peter, the most prominent of the apostles, for its large stone monastery, its tasty, refined gallery, vulgarly called convent garden, near the largest church building, and also for its large market square. When you leave the city, you reach a large open field, 1609/1612/1641S only{and you come to the foot of a mountain called Mont Seny which always has plenty of snow}1609/1612/1641S only}{not in 1609/1612L{rich with gatherers of herbs and stone cutters, who collect many herbs, and who find crystal, gems and amethyst. For the mountain brings gems}not in 1609/1612L}. {1609/1612L{In the South, at the coast, you find the flourishing city of Mataron, by PtolemŠus called Diluron, where marvellous glass jars are made}1609/1612L}.
33.46. GERUNDA [Gerona] is the most excellent city of the area of Osona or Ausetania. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{It used to have a population of Latini and is}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} located near a lofty mountain, and is washed by the river Unda, vulgarly called Onar, which empties into the Tech, in Latin called Ticer. It received its name from Gerio, the father of the three brothers Gerio {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(also called Deabus and Chrysaurus)}1609/1612L}, king of the two Spanish provinces}not in 1609/1612/1641S} before the coming of Hercules the Egyptian, as is generally believed. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{For many people think that Gerio was the founder of this city}1609/1612L}. It is provided with a bishops see, of which the large church building, devoted to the holy Virgin, has a very costly altar unlike any other in Spain, surpassing almost all others in gold, silver and precious stones.
33.47. It also has a grammar school. It borders are wide open, and have many large towns, and its soil surpasses all other regions of Catalonia in richness and fertility, and it is splendid because of the abundance of produce provided by nature. In the South, where the river Tordera empties into the sea, it has Blanda, Cabo de Tossa, and the harbour called Palamos. In the North there is of course the large town of Aulos, famous for its bronze fountains on the banks of the river Fluvia, formerly a medium-sized city {1609/1612L{called Becula [Besala]}1609/1612L}, with a bishops see in the convent of the Holy Redeemer. Pope Benedictus the Eighth erected this bishops see in the year 1017 at the humble request of Bernardus, surnamed Talafer, count of Bisuldunum, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and his brother Guifredus, count of Cerretania. His son Guifredus, abbot of the convent of the holy Joannes Rivipolensis, vulgarly called de las Badesas, was consacrated as its first bishop. The last one had the same name}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.48. EMPORIUM [Ampurias] {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{is located in the area of Indigetania}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, also at the bank of the river Fluvia, not far from the sea. It is now a small and insignificant town, but it used to be a very large and wealthy city, founded by the Greeks from Phocis, and it was much enlarged by Julius CŠsar, who marched against Pompeius {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and promoted it to a Roman colony in continuous civil strife}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. In that era it was divided into three cities, separated by bulwarks, guards and local languages, protecting themselves against the others. What extended Eastwards belonged to the Greeks. Whatever extended to the West belonged to the Romans, and the rest to the North belonged to the old inhabitants of the area. Later it distinguished itself with a bishops see, as could be noted in the populous meetings in the time when the Goths were in Spain.
33.49. Thus this most prominent city of the entire area, which is one of the best, gave the name Emporitana to the entire area, which is now vulgarly called Ampurdan. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{It was still famous in the time of the emperors Maximianus and Diocletianus, and I think that from there a part was transferred to a place, a little further to the East, not far from where there is a large and very beautiful lake}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} with a prominent town called Emporarium Castellium [Castellon de Ampurias], {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{graceful because of its beautiful stone church building, surrounded by high walls and a moat}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.49. RHODA [Rosas] is {1609/1612L{an old city in the same region of Indigetania, founded by the inhabitants of Rhodos, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{itself located in the East in the capital of the Crosses}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, where you now find the benedictan convent {1609/1612L{of Holy Peter of Rhodos, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{a splendid building, mentioning M. Portius Cato, also called Censorius, who came to the two Spanish provinces to subdue rebelling peoples, using the harbour of Luna as his home base}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It persisted until the time of the Goths, and at that time had bishops who participated in various councils. Now it is totally in ruins. And I think that it has been transferred from there to the West on the same coast to a place with a large harbour, where you now find Rosarum Oppidum [the city of roses, Rosas], {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{famous for its strong walls and safe bulwark. For Rhoda and the Isle of Rhodos, whose inhabitants founded this city, indeed means Rose}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.50. ILLIBERIS, {1609/1612/1641S only{the fields of Copliure or Colibre}1609/1612/1641S only} now called Caucoliberis is located in the area of {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{Sardones, which is also named Sardinia or}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} Cerreta˝a, at the coast itself, at the other side of the harbour of the Pyrenee Venus {1609/1612/1641S only{now called Port vendres}1609/1612/1641S only}. It is a very safe harbour, and leaves some traces of what was once a very large city, as Plinius has on record. It was here, as many famous writers assert, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and not in the city with the same name in BŠtica, close to Granada}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, that the well frequented council of Illiberis, the most important council of all that were ever organised in Spain, was held in the time of Constantinus the Great. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{This is the view which I have defended in the book The History of the Counts of Barcelona which I published last year, notably arguing this in Book 1 Chapter 2. I have even proved there that this city was provided with a bishops see}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. There are two castles in this city, {1609/1612, not in 1609/1612/1641S{both of them well fortified by art and nature}1609/1612, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.51. Elna [Helna], which has been called like that only for the last 200 years, but which was always called Helena by the ancients, is a city in the area of Sardones, at a distance of less than two miles from the sea, on the East bank of the river Ter [Techus], called Tetrum [awful] by the Romans because it is full of veins of iron, and therefore black, and is very harmful in its overflowing. Various writers think that this city was founded by Helena, the mother of Constantine, but other writers think that it was founded in her honour by her grandson Constans, who took leave from the living there, as Eutropius & Paulus Orosius, pupils of the divine Augustinus have written. It has acquired significance through its bishops see.
33.52. PERPINIANUM [Perpignan] is also located in the area of Sardones, not far from the ancient and eradicated Latini. It was also calle Rusšison, as a result of which the county later received the name of Rossillon. It is a large and refined city, far excelling above all other cities in Catalonia except Baršelona. It was founded by the count of Rossellio called Guinardus in the time of the count of Barcelona, Raymundus Berengarius, the first with that name, fortified with very strong walls and other never sufficiently praised strongholds, and surrounded by a deep moat, and so well equipped by nature and with guns and soldiers that it can hardly be taken and is a terrible threat to the enemy. The river Rusšison waters these fields and renders them so fertile by its water {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{as if it were a breast}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and this is why by the Romans it is called Thetis, and vulgarly Latet, {1609/1612L{the name of Oceanus' wife, mother of the nymphs, who by the poets are called he goddesses of the water. {not in 1609/1612/1641SIts soil is rich in corn and wine}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
33.53. Conflent [CONFLUENTANA] is the next area in the West, turned towards Sardones, located in a long and narrow valley, watered by the river Latet [Thetis], surrounded by mountains of marvellous height, yielding wine in the sunnier places. They mine iron here {not in 1609/1612/1641S{at the bank of the river Sparsis}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, which is processed in workshops which the inhabitants call Fargas. There are many towns here, and not just small ones, of which those best known are Villa Franca and Prada [PratŠ], and not far from there we find the well known benedictan convent of San Miguel de Cuxano [Saint Michael of Cuxanus], with a wonderful church.
33.54. LIBYCA is now called Livia, {not in 1609/1612L{and vulgarly Giula}not in 1609/1612L}. It lies in the area of Sardones. It is a very ancient city {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{on the North side of the river Sicoris, whose spring is near}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and it received its name from its founder Hercules the Egyptian, who was also called Oron Lybicus. And it assumed this name, and Julius CŠsar later called it Iulia Lybica. The population then consisted of Latini who became so dominant over the other Cerretani that Plinius made the remark that Cerretani were also called Iuliani. But now it has been reduced to a town of average size with an insignificant, but very safe castle.
33.55. Podio Cerretano [PODIUM CERRETANUM], {not in 1609/1612L{now called Puig Ceredan}not in 1609/1612L}, is also located on the North bank of the river Segre [Sicoris], {not in 1609/1612/1641S{so called after an elevated area or hill on which it has been built, rising up from a Cerretania valley}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It is a pleasant town, and capital of the county of Cerde˝a [Cerretania]. It is surrounded by strong walls provided with a good stronghold, and so excellent in the strength of its men that it may rightly be considered the strongest bulwark of Catalonia against France. In the area bordering on France, it is provided with {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{many apple-bearing mountains, various pleasant lakes rich with}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} trouts covered with small scales, sparkling with red spots which turn into gold on the back, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{with which the river Sicoris and almost all other rivers of Catalonia are teeming}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Many springs originate there and among them there are two with wholesome water, one of them hot, the other {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(which is preferable)}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} cold. Various herbs, of medicinal use, grow here. You also find all kinds of wild, white partridges, and multicoloured jaspis is found here. In the North it has the valley of Carol [Carolitana] and the Pyrenee mountains, in which there are crowned firs {1609/1612/1641S instead{Lauet Coronat}1609/1612/1641S instead}which mark the boundary between the two Spanish provinces and France.
33.56. But in the South there is the town of Ripol [Rivipullum] {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{in that area where the river Freserus empties into the river Ticer}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Here is a certain large benedictan convent, {1609/1612L{dedicated to the Holy Virgin}1609/1612L} with a sepulchral monument of the dukes of Baršelona. Here is also the town of Baga [Baganum], {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{formerly belonging to the area of Ilergetum}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, a city located among steep mountains, near the spring of the river Llobregat [Rubricatus], called Bergulia by PtolemŠus.
33.57. SEDES Urgelli, {not in 1609/1612L{commonly called Seu de Urgel}not in 1609/1612L} is a city founded by Hercules of Egypt {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{and was called Urgellum by him, for he made war [urgere] with the inhabitants of this land}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} between the high mountains, full of vines in a fairly fertile valley, built on the Northern bank of the river Segre [Sicoris], and famous for its bishops see. {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{On the left side of the curve made by the river}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S} it has the valley of Andorra. On the right side there is Solsona, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{earlier a city belonging to the Ilergetes}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, called Calea by PtolemŠus, and after that generally called Celsona, {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{sounding somewhat like heaven [CŠlum] because of the height of its old castle. In our times it has been elevated to a city}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, and has been provided with a bishops see. Here is also Cardona, a city located on top of a mountain with indigenous and multicoloured salt, {1609/1612L{about which I spoke before}1609/1612L}.
33.58. In the West there is the burggraviate of Castrobon [Castribonus, good castle], not only with a good name, but also in fact dependable and very strong. Then there is the marquisate of Pallares on the river Noguera Pallaresa [Paleariensis], in earlier times around the year 840 {1609/1612L instead{940}1609/1612L instead} famous for its bishop and its many small towns, one of which is called Tremp by its inhabitants which, although it has little more than 200 houses, is dignified because are more than 20 knights there who rule over the local population.
33.59. Balaguer [BALAGARIUM] is a pleasant and beautiful city of the Ilergetes at the foot of a lofty mountain. Its top used to have a very fortified stronghold, at the North bank of the river Segre [Sicoris]. The produce yielded here, and its fertility can hardly receive the praise which it deserves. In the South are the very broad fields of Vrgel [Urgellum] which although it is not watered by any river, yet it is very rich with the finest corn. It is distinguished by various cities such as Ceruera [Cervaria], Terrega [Tarrega], Belpuig [Bellopodium], Agromont [Acromons] and others.
33.60. Lerida [ILERDA], {1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S{according to Plinius belonging to the Surdaones people, a Roman tribe, but according to PtolemŠus a splendid city in the area of the Ilergetes}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}, lies close to a high mountain in the South, close to the river Segre [Sicoris], which is much enlarged by other rivers emptying into it, is the place where near its border there were various fierce battles between CŠsar and Afranius & Petreius, the leaders of the army of Pompeius. Its castle is much fortified by being at the top of a mountain. Formerly, it was the palace of the kings of Arragon. Somewhat lower, it has the largest church building of the city, and the most splendid house of the bishop. For the city is famous for its bishops see. In the church building is the largest and most beautiful stone gallery, with at the sides large windows with a wide view on the city, founded to defend this mountain, but also on the river itself and its wide, flourishing banks.
33.61. The grammar school of this city is excellent. In the West, on the same bank of the river Segre [Sicoris] there is Aytona [Hitona], a city that should not be underestimated, famous for its title of marquisate, ruled by the important house of Mont Caden [Mons Cathenus]. There are some who claim that this is the city of Octogesa, which CŠsar mentions in his Comments. But they are truly deceived, for Aytona [Hitona] is rather far from the river Ebro. But Ictosa [Octagesa], as the same CŠsar states, was indeed located at the river Ebro. This name was later corrupted to Ictosa, where in the time of the Goths there was a bishops see called Ictosense, and which is supposed to have been mentioned by Vamba when bishoprics were being arranged. Now that town is called Mequinenša, and is located where the river Segre [Sicoris] empties into the Ebro}1608/1612I, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Bibliographical sources

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