Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 3

Texts: 2 versions, translated from the 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598/1610 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish, 1609/1612 Latin and 1613 Dutch edition). First we present the scholarly text from 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L; then we present vernacular the text from 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D.

3.1. {1592L{THE WORLD

3.2. This {1606E only{next}1606E only} map contains and represents the portrait of the whole world and the oceans which surround and contain it. This earthly globe was divided by the ancients (who were then not acquainted with the New World {1602G has instead{New India}1602G instead), into three parts, namely Africa, Europe and Asia. But since the discovery of America {1602G instead{new India}1602G instead}, the modern writers {1606E instead{the learned of our age}1606E instead} have made that the fourth part, and (1606E only{the huge continent}1606E only} under the South Pole is thought to be the fifth part.
3.3. Gerardus Mercator, the prince of modern geographers, in his never sufficiently recommended universal map of the whole world, divides the entire earth into three parts {1602G instead{continents}1602G instead}: the first is that which the ancients divided into three parts and about which the Holy Script states that mankind originated there; the second is what now is called America or the West Indies; for the third, he designates a southern continent, which some call Magellanica, as yet with coasts largely unexplored.
3.4. That this mass of earthly globe measures, where it is largest, 5400 German or 21600 {1602G instead{216000}1602G instead} Italian miles, has been demonstrated in antiquity, and recent writers have supported these ancient opinions. [from here in 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L in italic] And these regions of the world (says Plinius in the second book of his Natural History, {1608/1612I only{chapter 68}1608/1612I only) or rather, as some others have called them, the mere dot of the world, (for so small is the earth in comparison to the whole universe), this is the seat of our glory. Here we seek honour, here we hunt after riches, here men live in turmoil and tire themselves, here we move about and fight civil wars, and make more room on earth by mutual slaughter.
3.5. And to bring about the public outcries in the world, this is where we force our neighbours to make place for us and thus remove them, and where we encroach by stealth upon our neighbours' land. Like he extends his lands and lordships farthest, and cannot tolerate that anyone should settle near. How great a portion of earth does that person enjoy? Or when through his avarice he has stuffed his body to the full, what portion shall his dead body maintain in possession {1602G only{but a piece of soil of seven feet}1602G only}? [until here in 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L in italic]. So far Plinius.
3.6. [the following paragraph in 1602S in italic script] The situation of this earth and its oceans, the disposition of its various regions, with their inlets and gulfs, the manners and inclinations of its people, and other noteworthy matters have been described by men of former times, {1606E only{such as the following}1606E only} [in two columns]:

3.8. C. PLINIVS the Second in books 3,4,5 and 6 of his Natural History,
3.9. ARISTOTELES in his De Mundo [about the world], dedicated to Alexander [the Great],
3.10. STRABO in 17 books,
3.13. DIONYSVS APHER, and his commentator
3.15. APVLEIVS in his book about the world,
3.16. DIODORVS SICVLVS in his first five books of his Bibliotheca,
3.18. PAVLVS OROSIVS in the beginning of his History,
3.19. {in 1592L and later, but not in 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S:{ÆTHICUS [1595L has ÆHITCVS], and someone else by that name, surnamed SOPHISTA, not yet printed}1592L & later but not in 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S},
3.20. {1601L, but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{ IVLIVS the orator, called PRIMVS by Cassiodorus}1601L but not 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S},
3.21. BEROSVS described the antiquities of the world,
3.22. ANTONIVS AVGVSTVS (if indeed he was august) in his Itineraria [travels] {1606E only{in the Roman Empire}1606E only},
3.23. {not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{SEXTVS AVIENVS described the sea coasts}not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S},
3.24. STEPHANVS described the cities,
3.25. VIBIVS SEQUESTER provided, in alphabetical order, described the rivers, springs, lakes, woods, hills and nations on it.

3.26. Descriptions by modern writers such as:

3.28. ABILFEDEA ISMAEL, in the Arab language,
3.29. IOANNES HONTERVS {1601L, not in 1602G{ and HIERONYMVS OLIVERIVS, both in verse}1601L, not in 1602G},
3.30. BARTHOLINVS in his eighth {1608/1612I has instead{fourth}1608/1612I instead} book on Austria,
3.31. SEBASTIANVS MUNSTERVS, {only in 1606E{that learned, divine, diligent historian, painstakingly knowledgeable of Hebrew, a linguist, well studied in all manners of learning, a pleasure to behold and study}1606E only},
3.32. ANTONINVS, the Archbishop of Florence, in his History, first title, third chapter.
3.34. IOANNES AVENTINVS in {not in 1602G{the second book of}not in 1602G} his Bavarian Annals,
3.35. IOANNES CAMERS in his Commentaries on Solinus,
3.39a. {1608/1612I only, split over two columns{FRATE ANTONIO PIGAFETTA, Knight in the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who sailed with Magellan and wrote in Italian about his journey around the world.}1608/1612I only},
3.40. ANTONIVS VERONENSIS [1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E & 1609/1612L new column here:]
3.41. GVALTERVS LVDOVICVS in his Mirror or Looking Glass of the World, [in 1609/1612/1641S new column here:]
3.42. ISIDORVS HISPALENSIS [of Sevilla] [1602S now new column:],
3.43. MICHAEL VILLANOVANVS in his comments on Ptolemæus,
3.44. ZACHARIAS LILIVS VICENT {1602G only{in his situation of the world}1602G only, next column here},
3.45. HIERONYMVS GIRAVA in the Spanish language,
3.46. ALEXANDER CITOLINVS, in his Typocosmia {1606E only{or Pattern of the World}1606E only} written in the Italian language,
3.47. VINCENTIVS BELVACENSIS {1592L, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{GALLO}1592L, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} in the second book of the Mirror of Histories,
3.48. GVILIELMVS POSTELLVS {1606E only{Barentonius}1606E only},
3.49. IOANNES MANDEVILIVS and his companions,
3.51. {not in 1602G{MICHAEL NEANDER of Soraw}not in 1602G}, [50. and 51. reversed in order in 1595L],
3.52. GAVDENTIVS MERVLA in his 5th book of Memorabilium [matters to be remembered],
3.53. FRANCISCVS MONACHI, in his epistle to the archbishop of Panormus [Palermo],
3.54. ANDREAS THEVETVS, {not in 1602G{FRANCISCVS BELLEFORESTIVS, and PETRVS HEINSIVS, in French, but the latter also in Dutch rimes or verse,
3.55. LAVRENTIVS ANANIENSIS, in the Italian language}not in 1602G},
3.56. ANTONIVS PINETVS, in French, and he has altogether set forth many maps (as the title shows) of countries, cities and towns of Europe as well as of Africa, Asia and America,
3.57. IULIVS BALLINVS has put forward drafts of the most famous cities of the whole world, with a brief historical discourse, written in the Italian language. The same is done by
3.58. GEORGIVS BRVNO, in Latin, but much more beautifully and diligently,
3.59. BENEDICTVS BORDONIVS has described all the islands of the World. So also has
3.60. THOMAS PORCACCIVS, both in Italian.
3.62. IOANNES GOROP.[IVS] BECANVS, the origin and shifting of the nations of the world.
3.64. BARTH.[OLOMÆVS] AMANTIVS has gathered ancient incriptions. And so has
3.65. {not in 1602G{MARTINVS SMETIVS, but with greater diligence than is ordinary}not in 1602G}.
3.66. IOANNES BOHEMVS, and ALEXANDER SARDVS have written about the manners, rites and customs of all nations and their people, The same has
3.67. FRANCISCVS BELLEFORESTIVS done in the French language}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1602G, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S end here}.
3.67a. {1608/1612I{GIOVANNI BOTERO BENESE, in his General Relations in Italian}1608/1612I}.

The vernacular text of the 1598 French edition for this map, (which resembles that of the 1598 Dutch text for plate 2, also used in the 1613 Dutch edition of the present plate 3) differs so much from the standard one that a separate translation of the 1598F and 1598/1613D editions is provided below:

3.68. {1598F{The World.

3.69. This map shows the entire earth and the seas surrounding and traversing it. Nowadays, it is divided into five parts, called Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Magellana. About the last part very little is known, as ships have hardly explored it as yet. Europe is the name of the part which for a long time has been the seat of Christianity. It is surrounded by the sea except for the part adjacent to Asia, where the river Tanais [Don] constitutes the border, and further the line you have to imagine connecting the source of this river with the Northern sea near the harbour of St. Niclæs, which the English nowadays reach by ship for trade.
3.70. Asia is also surrounded by the sea except where it joins Europe, as just mentioned, and Asia is also with a small piece of land connected to Africa, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean as you can see, between the land of the Jews and Egypt. Africa would also be an island, if it were not connected to Asia by the narrow piece of land just mentioned.
3.71. About America it is as yet unknown whether it is on all sides surrounded by the sea or whether it is connected to Asia (although we present it as an island, thus following the best geographer of our time, Gerard Mercator). Then we have the fifth part, located down under at the South Pole which we call Magellana, about which we cannot say very much, since we have only been informed about two or three places there, such as the Magellan straights, called Terra del Fuego [land of fire] and concerning New Guinea (which is supposed to be a part of it as well) etc.
3.72. And because every part of the world will have its own map as well in this book, and will be discussed at some length, we will therefore refrain from discussing those here, and restrict ourselves to the seas, since together with the land they constitute the entire globe. Before us (as we think) nobody has planned and endeavoured to do this.
3.73. The first thing one has to know is that the sea, just like the land, also has various different names which it derives from the lands to which it is adjacent. Thus, one speaks of the Spanish, Indian, or Venetian sea, etc, or alternatively named after its orientation as Northern, or Eastern sea. The sea located between Europe, Africa and Asia is called the Midland or Mediterranean sea, because it finds itself between those three parts of the world.
3.74. Seas are sometimes named after their colour. For instance, the Red Sea near Arabia does not have a red colour, but is called like that after its red sands, as described by John Barros in his book on Asia, based on his meticulous observations and judgment. There is another sea near New Spain in America called by the Spanish Mar Vermejo (that is: Red Sea), because it is similar to the other Red Sea, (as asserted by Hieronymus Girava). The sea north of Constantinople which the Italians call Mar Magiore is by the Turks called the Black Sea.
3.75. It is also sometimes called after some history that has happened there, like is the case with the sea between Spain and the Canary islands located more Westwards, so many horses and other animals of burden, (because, when these islands were first discovered), there being none of these animals, were brought there for breeding, in which sea many drowned through storms and shipwrecks. This sea was therefore called Golfo de las yeguas, that is Horses Sea, etc.
3.76. Ebb and tide in the seas is not the same everywhere. In our regions high tide occurs at full moon, but in India (as Vartomannus says), at the waning of the moon. In our regions the water reaches a marvellous height, as also in the North Sea, at Cambaia in India and in Africa around Rio Grande. We see the same thing in the Great Sea between America and the Moluccas and New Guinea, a sea called del Zur. But the situation is quite different in the Mediterranean sea and also in the big sea between Europe, Africa and America (excepting the Rio Grande as mentioned), called Mar del Nort by the Spanish.
3.77. Similarly, at the isle of St. Thomas the water rises so moderately that it can hardly be noticed. And what is most remarkable, the sea near Cabo Rosso in Africa rises for four hours, but falls for eight hours. Also, the sea always runs in the same direction along the North coasts of America, and along the isle of Espagnola it always runs Westwards, as is also the case in the sea we called Mar Magiore before, and again as happens in the archipelago and in the Eastern {1598/1613D only{or Finnish}1598/1613D} sea, although the water does not run so fast there.
3.78. Some are of the opinion that beneath the polar star the waters go down as if they rush into an abyss and disappear, and never surface again. In some places the sea water tastes sweet, as often happens at shores where large rivers empty themselves with a strong current into that sea, but this is also true for the entire sea in the North, Plinius called it Sciticum, if we may believe him.
3.79. There is also variation in depth, because the Mediterranean sea is deeper than the ocean surrounding the entire world, and deepest around the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. The Red Sea is so shallow that it cannot be sailed at night. The oceans del Nort and del Zur mentioned before are in some places for hundreds of miles covered so densely with a green weed that it seems that ships there do not seem to cross through water but rather through luxurious meadows.
3.80. The sea is also, (like the land), at some places more fertile than at others. For it happens, (as some report who cross the sea between Spain and the new countries of America), that sailing at a certain place for hundreds of miles, not a single fish is caught, whereas passing along other places, so much fish can be found that the sea seems packed with them.
3.81. Mister Wind, called Æolus, also displays a strange behaviour at sea. In our sea, he is so unpredictable that one can hardly count on him. Elsewhere, he is so reliable that you hardly need to rise from your chair, as for instance in the Indian sea where, when one travels from Calicut to the Moluccas, the wind will continue to blow from June to October Eastwards, and the next six months always Westwards. In Brazil at the Rio de Plata it tends to blow Eastwards all year long.
3.82. Nature seems to enjoy itself in the watery element to make counterparts of almost all the animals which you see on land, as we also find in it quadrupeds like elephants, pigs, tortoises, dogs, calves, horses etc. Similarly for birds we find the sea-falcon, volador (or sea swallow), etc. And additionally you find all kinds of {not in 1598/1613D{fish}not in 1598/1613D} and mussels etc. And that you would also find some creature resembling a human being, the sea also produces sea knights and mermaids, although by some considered as imaginary or fabulous, yet by many ancient and modern authors, having seen them at various times and places, these are considered to be real, existing creatures. And whoever wants to see one, can go to the village of Swartewael near den Briel in Holland, and there can behold one, hanging in a church, in dried form.
3.83. Next various herbs and plants, such as coral, pearls, amber, aghats, sponges and many other things which may serve mankind for pleasure and necessity, so that it seems that humanity is not truly forgotten anywhere. But if we should want to describe all the strange things and peculiarities brought forth by seas, lakes, rivers, fountains and other waters, we would need an entire book for that, whereas we only shortly wanted to mention them here}1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

Bibliographical sources

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