Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 220


Text, translated from the 1584 Latin 3rd Additamentum, 1584 Latin, 1584 3rd German additamentum, 1585 French 3rd Additamentum, 1587 French and 1592 Latin editions:

220.1{1584L3Add{The other part of Egypt.

220.2. The situation of this country, its rivers, mountains, cities, wonders and other things there we have already described {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{as could be contained}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F} on the previous page. Now it remains that we speak about their religion on the basis of Diodorus, Herodotus, Strabo, AthenŠus, Ălianus, {1592L{Plutarchus, Philo}1592L}, Eusebius, Plinius, Heliodorus, Lucianus, Ammianus, Clemens, {not in 1587F{Athanasius}not in 1587F}, {1592L{Prudentius}1592L} and others. But not only the Holy Script, but even profane authors also testify plentifully that the Egyptians were always, from the beginning, the most religious people in the world in their divine service and choice of gods, most fond and foolish [compared to other religions].
220.3. For besides the gods of the gentiles, such as Iupiter, Iuno, Vulcanus, Venus, Bacchus and all other such [gods], which they had and worshipped as did the whole world, they also, as Dion, Cicero in his third book of the Nature of Gods, {1592L{and Artemidorus}1592L} show, worshipped all kinds of beasts and [other] living creatures.
220.4. And they did not only worship these [we mentioned] as gods, but also Anubis, {1592L{Orus, Typhon}1592L}, Pan {1592L{(whom they called Mendo, depicting him according to Suidas with the head of a goat)}1592L} and the Satyrs.
220.5. And in the city of Anabis they performed all kinds of divine services not only for man, as to an immortal god, as Eusebius assures [us], who furthermore adds that they had another peculiar god who they called Canopus given shape in the form of a pot.
220.6. Athanasius and Heliodorus testify that they considered water, but especially [the river] Nilus as a god. Of four-legged animals, the crocodile, ox, {not in 1587F{mnevis [bull]}not in 1587F}, lion, bear, cat, he-goat, monkey, bull, ram, {1592L{Suillum}1592L} dog, {not in 1587F{Ichneumon or indian rat}not in 1587F}, wolf, sheep, and shrew-mouse and spider, [all these animals] they put into their inventory of gods. Of fishes, [they worshipped] the oxyrinchus, the lepidotus, {1584G3Add only{the big red sea-bream}1584G3Add only}, latus, phagrus, MŠotis [fish belonging to the river Nile] and eel.
220.7. Of birds, [they worshipped] the eagle, the ibis {1584G3Add instead{Egyptian storks}1584G3Add}{1587F only{which the Flemish call BRANTVOGHEL, and the hawk. {1592L{Also the blackbird, if we believe Hyginus}1592L}. Next to these, they had the dragon, the serpent and the beetle. Also inanimate ones, like onion {1592L{leech}1592L} and garlic.
220.8. No, they did not content themselves with these natural things, but also [worshipped] certain monsters as were never seen in the world, as the cynocephalus [dogs head], which was worshipped by the Hermopolitans, and Cepus by the Babylonians. {1592L{Add to these from Athanasius idols with a serpents head and an asses head. Lucianus in his Tragedy of Iupiter, if he is not joking, says they honoured their right shoulder, or, if they lived on the opposite side, their left shoulder. Some sacrificed to one half of the head, others to a Samian cup, or dish}1592L}.
220.9. Diodorus Siculus reports that they considered their private parts as a god. Clemens in the fifth book of his Recognitium adds, it is a ridiculous thing, that the Egyptians worshipped the anus and a fart as their gods, {1592L{which is also reported by Minutius Felix. (Osiris came later, as can be seen in Eusebius' De PrŠp. EuangelicŠ). Clemens mentions}1592L} {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{onions, which I will ignore unless the text is corrupt and refers to catta a word also used for cats. And also garlic, or perhaps Cepus [a vegetable]}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F}. {1592L{If we believe Philo, everything under the moon, whether peaceful or savage, was an object of their devotion}1592L}. It has aptly been said that this region is the mother of religions.
220.10. Afterwards, when the light of the Gospel began to shine, great swarms of monks and hermits were bred here, and from here spread and scattered over all of Christianity}1585F3Add & 1587F end here}, as we find in the records of the primitive church}1584L3Add, 1584L & 1584G3Add end here}. {1592L{About the philosophy of the Egyptians, their hieroglyphs and mysteries, consult the sixth book of the Stromaton by Clemens Alexandrinus}1592L which ends here}.

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