Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 22

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1573L1Add/1573(AB) Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin and 1606 English edition:

22.1. {1573L1Add/1573L{IRELAND

22.2. Ireland, which the Romans and Greeks call Hibernia, others Iverna {not in 1588S & 1602S{and by some Ierna}not in 1588S & 1602S}, is by the Irish called Eryn. This is why strangers, hearing it from the mouth of the English who pronounce the second vowel [of the alphabet, e], with the same sound that others pronounce as the third vowel [i], have made it, so it seems, into Irynlant, and by contraction Irlandt, as is apparent, from Eryn, and Land, for the Anglosaxons and the Germans simply means Eryn land. Who doubts that the Romans derived the word Irlandia from it?
22.3. {1606E only{The first inhabitants which settled these islands came, as may easily be demonstrated from Britain or England, not from Spain, as some most absurdly have written. For the summary of Strabo simply calls the inhabitants of this island Britains. And Diodorus Siculus says that Irin is a part of Britain, for which reason it was justly called by all ancient writers Insula Britannia, [that is] one of the British isles.
22.4. Around the year of Christ 400, in the days of the emperors Honorius and Arcadius, at which time the Roman Empire began to decline}1606E only}, {1592L, not in 1602G & 1602S{the Scots, {1606E only{a second nation}1606E only}, entered Ireland, and settled, as Orosius writes}1592L, not in 1602G & 1602S} {1606E only{in the Northern parts, which they called Scotland}1606E only}. Sylvester Gyraldus Cambrensis about 400 years ago described this land in a specific treatise. But because his book has not yet been printed, and therefore not common nor to be obtained everywhere, we will from it gather so much as this limited space may contain, not doubting that we shall worthily deserve great gratitude from the studious reader for this. Listen therefore to his words:
22.5. After England, Ireland is the largest island {1606E only{of the world}1606E only} as we know it. It has the larger Britain on its East side. On the West lies the ocean. To the North, three days sailing from the coast of Ireland {not in 1602G{lies Iceland}not in 1602G}, of all the Northern islands by far the largest. Britannia is almost twice as large as Ireland. Because considering that the [largest] length of both of them goes from North to South, it is [for Britain] about 800 miles long and {1573L(AB), 1574L & 1606E only[200 miles}1573L(AB), 1574L & 1606E only{all other editions have instead{2000 strides}all other editions instead} wide, [and it is] for this [Ireland] from the Brendan hills to the isles of Columbina, also called Thorach, about an eight days journey, that is at least 40 {1606E has instead{400}1606E instead} {1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1602S only{large Irish}1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1602S only} miles.
22.6. Ireland contains altogether 176 Canweds. The word Canwed is a compounded common word, used by the English as well as the Irish, and means an area of ground containing within it one hundred mansions {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{farmhouses}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}{1606E instead{villages}1606E instead}.
22.7. The soil of Ireland is uneven, full of hills and valleys, soft and moist, full of woods, bogs and fens. On the top of the highest and steepest hills, you will often find large ponds and bogs. Yet, in some places, it has the most worthy and excellent plains, but with respect to woods, there are very few of them. The soil is very heavy, and fertile in corn. The mountains abound with cattle, the woods are full of venison. The whole island is generally better for pasture than for arable ground, better for grass than for corn.
22.8. For the grains of wheat are here so miserable and small that they may hardly be cleaned with a wan. That which the spring time brings forth, and what flourishes for a while in summer, watery autumn will hardly suffer to ripen, or to be reaped. For this country is more exposed to Northern winds, and rain storms than any other country.
22.9. It is very rich in honey and milk. Solinus and Isidorus assert that it has no bees. But if they allow me, had they more diligently examined the matter, they might in contrast have written that it lacks grape vines, but it is not devoid of bees. For this island does not have, or ever had, any vines. But of bees it has (as any other country) more than plenty. They would, in spite [of what has been asserted], as I think, have swarmed in even far greater numbers if it were not for the poisonous bitter yew-trees which all over the island grow in great abundance.
22.10. The island is traversed and watered everywhere by many good rivers, of which the main ones are these: the Avenliss [Liffey] runs past Dublin; the Boine [Brosna] through Media [the Middle]; the Banna [Bann] through Ulster via Connagh; the Linne and the Moad through Kenelcunill, Slechy [Sligo] and Samayr; the Modarn and Furne by Keneleon [Kilkenny]. There are also very many other rivers, some issuing forth from the inner earth and their clean springs, others directly running from lakes and fens, going here and there, and dividing and parting the island into many good parts. At the foot of mount Bladina, {1606E only{(now called Bliew Blemy)}1606E only} [Slieve Bloom mountains], three famous rivers find their source, called the three sisters (for they bear the names of three sisters:), the Berna {1606E only{(Birgus, now Barrow)}1606E only} which runs past Lechlin; the Eoyr {1606E only{or Neorus - they now call it Nore -}1606E only} past Ossire; and the Swyre [Suir] past Archfine [Ardfinnan] and Trebagh. Near Waterford {1606E only{they kindly greet each other [again] and reuniting into one track}1606E only} they flow into the sea. The Slane [Slan] runs by Wexford. The Boand [Boyne] by Media. The Avenmore by Lismore, and the Sinnen [Shannon] by Limerick.
22.11. And indeed, amongst all the rivers of Ireland, the Sinnen [Shannon] takes the prize not only for its vast size, and its long wanderings through the country, but also for its abundance of fish. It issues from a very large and lovely lake, which separates Connaugh from Munster, and then splits itself into two branches, running in opposite directions, one of them turning to the South, passing the city of Kelleloe [Killaloe] and then encircling the city of Limerick with a direct course and large flow for a hundred miles and more, separating the two Momonias [Munster] before emptying itself into the Brendan sea.
22.12. The other [branch], not less than the previous one, separating the middle and the further parts of Ulster from Connaugh, runs in a crooked course, at last dissolving into the Northern ocean, so that this river separates the fourth and [most] Western part of the island from the other three, like a midland stream runs from [one] sea to [the other] sea. For this island was formerly divided into five almost equal parts, namely into North Munster, South Munster, Leinster, Ultomera and Connaugh. {1573L, 1574, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1588S & 1602S only in right margin; 1580/1589G & 1602G as regular text{Whether all the proper names of places and rivers can be considered to be correct is something I have grave doubts about, but I hope that you, by comparing this with copies of other books, will find the right way out. Meanwhile, the benevolent reader has to be satisfied with this, for we provide what we can provide, not what we would like to}1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1588S & 1602S only in margin, 1580/1589G & 1602G as regular text}.
22.13. This country has various good lakes. The sea coast abound plentifully with all kinds of sea fish everywhere; the rivers and lakes also hold a great variety of fish, in particular these three sorts, [:] salmons, trouts and muddy eels. The river Sinnen [Shannon] swarms with lampreys {1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L instead{eels with [nine] eyes, {Lampetra fluviatilis, Petromyzontidae]}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L instead}. But many other sorts of good sweet water fish as occur in other countries are lacking, such as pikes, perches, gubions [gudgeons, or Gobio fluvatilis, a small fresh water fish, often used for bait], and almost [all] such fish as do not come from the sea or salt water. In contrast [to this], the lakes of this island have three kinds of fish which are not to be found anywhere else. For they are somewhat longer and rounder than trouts, with very white, solid meat, tasting very tasty and pleasant, very similar to the halibut {1606E only{(Umbra our author calls them)}1606E only} but with a much bigger head.
22.14. There is another kind, very similar to herring, in proportions as well as size, and also as regards colour and taste. Then there is a third sort, in all respects like trout, but without spots. These [different] sorts of fish are only seen in summer. In winter, they never appear.
22.15. In Media [Meath], near Fonera, are three lakes, not very distant from one another, each of which has a certain variety of fish proper to it, and not found in any of the other two lakes. Nor, do I mean, does [this fish from] one [lake] ever go to the other, although there is a most convenient access via the river which runs from one [lake] to another. If, by chance, the fish of one lake is carried to another, it either dies in a while, or it returns to its own lake again.
22.16. This island breeds more numerous falcons, sparrow hawks and regular hawks than any other country. Eagles are as common as harriers in other countries, and cranes flock together in such numbers that often you shall find one hundred in a group. Here are also great quantities of bernacles, which nature brings forth in a strange and unnatural manner. They are like wild ducks, but somewhat smaller. They are bred from piles of fir wood, which have fallen from the shore [into the sea] in this way: first upon this wood you will see as it were a certain jelly. Then, when the reeds and sea weeds hold the logs, they develope shells (for better shape and safe preservation) and they hang by their bills, and in the process and passing of time, they grow to a decent size, and become covered with feathers, [until] they either fall into the water, or, by the benefit of their wings, fly into the open air. I have myself repeatedly and often seen with my very own eyes many very small bodies of this kind of birds, clinging to a woodblock on the sea shore, enclosed in shells and fully shaped. These do not mate as is usual, lay no eggs, and they never sit on them. And therefore, in certain places of Ireland, at Easter or on other fasting days, it is allowed to eat these fowls, as they are not of flesh, and do not come of flesh.
22.17. There are also numerous birds here which have an ambiguous nature, called Aurifrise, smaller than an eagle, but larger than a hawk, having on one foot sharp talons, with a clawing grip, but the other foot is closed and peaceful, and only fit for swimming. A strange and admirable product of sporting nature.
22.18. Here are also certain birds which they call martinets, smaller than a blackbird, shaped like a quail, but differing from them in that their bellies are white and their backs black. [I have] a strange thing to tell about these birds: if they die, they should be kept in a dry place, and they will not produce any stench, and being laid amongst clothes or wool, they will provide safety against moths. And what is even much more admirable, being dead and hung up in some dry place, they will every year shed their feathers and grow new ones instead.
22.19. In the Northern part of Ireland there are many swans. But storks are rare throughout the island, and such as they do have are black. They have no partridges, pheasants, magpies and nightingales. It has just about all kinds of wild animals. The stags here are so fat that they are hardly able to run. They are small in body size but do excel [above others] in rich branching of their antlers.
22.20. I never saw anywhere larger groups of boars [than here]. They also have many hares. The bodies of their animals and fowls are in their sort smaller than in other places. There are badgers, and weasels, but of fallow deer, goats and hedgehogs they have none at all, and moles, if any, are very rare. But of mice they have an infinite number.
22.21. There are also many wolves and foxes, but no manner of poisonous creatures. For the spiders and lizards here are not poisonous and harmless. The country is never shaken by earth quakes, and scarcely once a year shall one hear thunder.
22.22. From these natural things, let us pass to those strange wonders which nature has issued within the borders of these lands. In North Munster there is a lake with two islands, a large and a small one. The large one has a church, the small one a chapel. Should any woman, or living creature of the female kind ever come to the large one, it would die immediately {1606E instead{by and by}1606E instead}. This was often proved by bitches, cats, and other creatures of the female sex. On the small one, no man ever died, or could die a natural death.
22.23. In Ulster there is another lake in which there is an island with two different qualities: one part of it with a church devoted to the service of Christianity, is very beautiful, excellent and pleasant. The other part, very rough, overgrown and unpleasant, is said to have been bequeathed to devils and evil spirits. This part has in it nine caves or trenches in any of which if a man happens to sleep there all night, he is immediately assaulted by the evil spirits, and so grievously tormented and vexed all night, that by the morning he shall scarcely be able to breathe and will be almost half dead. This place is called by the country people the purgatory of St. Patrick.
22.24. There is also a spring or fountain in Munster whose water, if used for washing, will turn the hair of a man grey. I myself saw a man who washed one half of his beard with this water, and the hair became white, the other [half] retaining its original brown colour as it was before. In contrast, there is in Ulster a spring in which, if any man washes his hair, he shall never become grey-headed.
22.25. In Connaugh there is a spring of fresh water on the top of a very high mountain which recedes twice every 24 hours, and flows as often [also twice], imitating the changeable motion of the sea. There is a spring in the Northern part of Ulster which because of its great coldness in seven years' time turns wood cast into it into stone.
22.26. In Connaugh there is a spring which is only kind and wholesome for humans. But for cattle and other such kinds of brute beasts it is pestilent and dangerous. There is a spring in Munster which, if touched by any man, will result in a flood going over the whole province through rain.
22.27. The people of this country wear coarse black cloaks or rugs (for the sheep of this island are black) and they wear these sloppily and not handsomely. They also use small hoods, which hang down to their elbows. For riding, they do not use saddles, boots or spurs. But with a rod, sharpened and tapering at one end, they prick their horses, and make them run. Their bridles are such that they serve as bit and reign, made such that their horses, only used to eat grass, are never prevented from eating.
22.28. To make war, they go into the field naked and unprotected. They use three kinds of arms, [namely] long spears, darts and battle axes. The people are uncivilised and inhospitable {1602G only instead{but hospitable}1602G only instead}. They delight in nothing more than to live in idleness, and prefer liberty above riches. The people take much pleasure in playing musical instruments, and they deserve praise for that.
22.29. This is what we have briefly collected from the history of Gyraldus Cambrensis, {not in 1602G{diligently retaining the meaning of his own words,}not in 1602G} {1606E only{which we have thought it correct to translate word by word as they were delivered by the author so that [in] later times [one] may realise either the credulous simplicity of former times, or how time changes countries, people and their behaviour}1606E only}. {1602S, 1603L & 1606E only continue with § 38}1602S, 1603L & 1606E only}. And because we have spoken before about St. Patrick's purgatory, it shall not be amiss to add to that the following discussion, taken from the twelfth book of Cęsarius, his history of things worth remembering.
22.30. {1606E only{Ireland, says Mr. Camden, according to the manners of the people is divided into The wild Irish and The pale English. But according to the ancient jurisdiction and the natural situation, it is more properly divided into five parts (and indeed it once contained five kingdoms) [namely] Munster in the South, Leinster in the East, Connaugh in the West, Ulster in the North, and Methe almost in the middle and the heart of the land. MUNSTER, Monomia, the Irish call it Mown (once divided into West Munster, which in Ptolemys time was inhabited by the Gangani, Luceni, Velabri and Itermi, and East Munster, possessed then by the Vodia) now comprises these seven shires:
22.31. Kerry, Limerick, Core [Clare], Tipperary, Holy Cross, Waterford and Desmond. Of which Kerry and Tipperary were earlier county palatines. Leinster, Lagenia (they call it Leighnigls) [Laois] has a fertile soil, and is a wholesome place to dwell, inhabited at the time by the Brigantes, Coriondi, Menapij, Cauci and part of the Eblani. Now it is divided into the counties Wexford, Caterlogh [Carlow], Kilkenny, Dublin, Kildare, the Kings county, the Queens county, Longford, Fernes & Wicklo. Methe (Media, the Irish call it Mijh, [situated] almost in the middle of the country), has the other part of the ancient possessions of the Eblani, because of its great fertility in corn or grass, fish or meat, its pleasant location and healthy air, its multitude of people, strength of its castles and towns, commonly called the chamber of Ireland, as Bartholomey reports in English, was recently divided into East Methe and West Methe.
22.32. Connaugh, Connacia, (they call it Connaughty) where the Auteri and Nagnatę settled long ago, now contains the following shires: Clare, Leitrim, Galloway, Roscommon, Mayo and Sligo. The whole province, though in many places fertile and pleasant, is everywhere full of dangerous bogs, dark woods, creeks and bays, and convenient ports and harbours for ships.
22.33. Ulster, Ultona, (the Irish call it Cui Gully, the Welsh Wltw) is a large country, everywhere full of lakes, thick and huge woods, in some places reasonably fruitful, in others lean and hungry, but in all places green and pleasant to the eye. It therefore maintains large numbers of cattle. Here lived in Ptolemys time the Voluntij, Darni, Robogdij, Vennicnij and the Erdini. At this day, it contains the shires Louth, Down, Anwimme, Monalion, Tiroen, Armagh, Colrane, Donegal, Fermanagh and Cavan.
22.34. On all sides around Ireland in the sea (as also in the bays, rivers, lakes and fresh water) many small islands lie scattered, some of which are fertile, and others are waste and barren, to speak of which would require more text than we are here allowed [to use].
22.35. Pope Cœlestinus of Rome, in the year of Christ 431, sent into Britain Paladus [pale] a bishop, as Prosper Aquitanus writes, to purge it of the pelagian heresy which had lately come upon it. And by this means, at that time, caused Christian religion to be established in Ireland. [But] Palladius died in Britain before he had achieved what he came for. Whereupon Patrick, a Britain related to Martinus Turonensis was by Celestine put into his place. He preached the Gospel in Ireland with such wonderful success, that he converted the greater part of that isle to Christianity, so that he well deserved the name of the Irish apostle.
22.36. After that at various times a number of settlements, if I may use that word, were established of learned and religious men who were sent from here to various parts of Europe and [they] were not only great patrons and spreaders of the Gospel there, but also founders of monasteries, cities and towns as schools of that profession. In those bloody wars of the barbarous Saxons, all schools of learning in Britain were shut, and all religion almost totally banned, so that whoever desired instruction along these lines, was forced to seek it in Ireland.
22.37. And after these wars ended, those that returned brought with them not only the Irish letters, (which characters, as can be seen clearly, are still common to both nations) but also liberal arts and sciences, which together with Christianity they taught to the Saxons}1606E only}
22.38. {not in 1602G{To these the studious reader may add such writers as {1601L{Henry of Huntingdon,}1601L, not in 1602G} Polydorus {1606E only{Vergilius,}1606E only} {1579L, not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{William of Newberry}1579L, not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}, John Major and others have written about this island. Daniel Rogers has published a description of this island in verse, dedicated to Thomas Rhediger}1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G end here}. {1592L{And Mr. William Camden in prose has most exactly described it in his Britannia}1592L ends here}. {1595L{But Richard Stanihurst {1606E only{a worthy gentleman born in this country}1606E only}, has recently published an separate treatise on the history and state of this island.{1601L, 1602S & 1603L only{But about St. Patrick's purgatory, I would like to add the following from Cęsarius memorable history book 12}1601L, 1602S & 1603L only}.
22.39. {1595L{When St. Patrick, he says, converted this nation to Christianity, and they expressed doubt and disbelieved that man should be punished for his sins in the world to come, he obtained by earnest prayer the following place by the hand of God. The place looks like this: there is a deep pit or trench, enclosed fully by a round wall. There are also certain regular canons. No man is so terrible a sinner as to deserve a greater penance than to abide for one whole night in that purgatory.
22.40. If any man be desirous to enter it for the first time to make his confession, they administer the sacrament to him, anoint him, perfume him, and instruct him as follows: thou shalt see this night, they say, the assaults of the devil, and the horrible pains of hell, but they shall not hurt thee, if thou have the name of Jesus always in thy mouth. But if thou shall yield to flattering the enticements or terrible threats of the devil, and shall cease to call Jesus' name, thou shall surely be a dead man.
22.41. Then in the evening, lowering him into the pit, they shut the door and come back in the morning. And if they do not immediately find him, they look no further for him. Many have died there, and many have gone home again, whose visions have been written down by the friars mentioned, which are shown to those desirous to see them}1595L, 1601L, 1602S & 1603L end here, 1606E continues in § 22.30}.
22.42. {1606E only{Baptista Boazio has described it in a separate map [Ort23], dedicated to the late Queen Elizabeth; and my good friend Mr. Speed, with no less care and diligence, has done the same in his Imperium Britannicum or empire of Great Britain, recently published and dedicated to his highness}1606E only}.

Now the vernacular text version, based on 1573D1Add/1573D, 1573G1Add/1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D is presented.

22.43. (1573D1Add/1573D{Ireland.
Ireland, which by the Latin and Greek writers is called Hibernia, and by others Iverna, {1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1598/1610/1613D{and by some Ierna}1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1598/1610/1613D} is by its inhabitants called Erin. Of which {1573G1Add/1573G instead{It may be believed that}1573G1Add/1573G instead} the foreigners, from the speech of the English, who pronounce the second vowel [e] like the other nations pronounce the third vowel [i] have made Irynland, and later by shortening {1573G1Add/1573G{of the third syllable}1573G1Add/1573G} Ireland. {1574F1Add/1574, not in 1598/1610/1613D{For Eryn & land for the Saxonian English and for all Germans means nothing but region or land of Eryn}1574F1Add/1574F, not in 1598/1610/1613D}.{not in 1573G1Add/1573G only{Who doubts that the Romans that the Latin Irlandia is also derived from it? 1573G1Add/1573G only}. About this island Gyraldus Cambrensis has written a specific book about four hundred years ago, but because this book has not been printed, and therefore is owned by few people, we will quote from it as much in this place for those who love to hear about it {not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{as can be done in the hope to receive no insignificant gratitude from them for this}not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. He writes as follows.
22.44. Ireland, after England of all islands the largest, has on its East side Great Britain, in the West only the ocean, in the North, three days of sailing away Iceland, the largest of the Nordic islands. Britain is about twice as large as Ireland, for while both of them extend from South to North, the other [island, i.e. Britain] has 8000 strides in length {1573G1Add/1573G instead{800 miles}1573G1Add/1573G instead} and about 2000 strides [must be 200 miles] in width. And this island [i.e. Ireland] from the Brendan mountains to the isle of Columbine called Thorach extends for eight large Irish day journeys, that is to know, forty Irish miles.
22.45. In this island there are 176 Cantareds. A Cantared is an ancient {1573G1Add/1573G instead{compounded}1573G1Add/1573G instead} word, common in both the British and the Irish language, and comprises so much land as can contain one hundred mansions. Ireland is a hilly and mountainous island, soft and marshy, full of woods and swamps. At the tops of the highest mountains stagnant waters are found, and swamps. Yet in many places it has fair plains and fields, but far fewer of those than of woods, and it has a rich and very fertile soil.
22.46. The mountains are full of cattle, the woods full of venison. Yet there are more meadows than fruits, and more grass than corn, for wheat grains remain very small here, so that it can hardly be cleaned by winnow. Whatever spring produces, and what grows in summer, can hardly be gathered as a harvest as a result of the rain for this island is above all others very windy and rainy. It is rich in honey and milk. Solinus and Isodorus say that it has no bees, but (if they allow me) they could better have said that it has no vineyards, but is not without bees, for it always lacked vineyards, and still lacks them. But it has honeymaking bees, like other countries do. And there would be even more, in my opinion, if the bee swarms would not shun the bitter and venomenous yew trees (of which this country has plenty).
22.47. This country is full of beautiful rivers, named as follows: the river Avenlis [Liffey] which flows past Dublin, the Boandus [Boyne] flowing through {1573G1Add/1573G{Media}1573G1Add/1573G}, Ultonia and Connaught, the Linnus and Moadus flowing through Kenelcunillia [Kilkenny], Slicheia and Samaira, and the river Modarnus and Furnus run through Keneleonia [Carlow]. There are many other rivers, some of which spring from the depths of the earth, and veins of springs. Others break unexpectantly from stagnant waters, separating this island into many lovely parts.
22.48. From the foot of mount Bladina [Slieve Bloom] flow three noble rivers, called the three sisters because they have the names of three sisters, namely Berna [Barrow] which traverses Lechlinia [Lechlin], Eyorus [Nore] which traverses Ossiria [Ossire] and Suyrus [Suir], which traverses Archfina [Archfinnan] and Trebactia [Trebagh]. And at Waterford they empty into the sea. But the river Slana [Slane] flows through Weiseford [Wexford], and the river Boandus [Boyne] through Media {1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1598/1610/1613D{Avenmorus, Lysmoriensis [Lismore] and the Sinnensis [Shannon] through Luniricensis [Limerick]}1573G1Add/1573G, not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
22.49. Among all the rivers of Ireland the river Sinnenus [Shannon] is truly the main one because of its size, its course running far and wide, as well as its abaundance of fish. It originates from a very wide and lovely lake which separates Connachia [Connaught] from Momonia [Munster]. and its stretches its arms to two parts of the world which are opposite to each other. For one arm of the river stretches towards the South, and running to the side traverses the city of Killelon and also comprises Limicicum, and a hundred miles further, separates the two Momonias [Munster], and finally empties into the Brendan sea.
22.50. And the other arm of the river, which is not of less importance, separates Media from the ultimate parts of Ultomere and Connaught. and after having crossed various regions finally empties into the Nordic ocean. Thus it parts and separates as a mediterranean river the fourth and most Westward part of the island from the other three, from one sea to the other. For this country has of old been divided into five parts of almost equal size, namely the following: two Momonias [Munster], the Northern and the Southern, Lagemera, Ultomera and Connachia [Connaught].
22.51. This land also has many lakes. It is abundantly provided with sea fish in all parts which are close to it. The rivers and lakes teem with their own fish, mostly of three sorts: salmon, trout and muddy eals. The [river] Sinnenus [Shannon] also has many lampreys. But there are no other noble river fish as there are in other countries, such as pikes, perches, guebin [?] and almost all the others which do not live in salt water. On the other hand, the lakes of this country have {not in 1573G1Add/1573G only{three}not in 1573G1Add/1573G only} other sorts of fish which are nowhere else to be found, for they are longer and rounder than trouts, they have white, tasty and firm flesh, and are similar to trouts but with a larger head. Then there are fish like herrings, similar in form, size, colour and taste. The third sort of fish is similar to the trout in all respects, except that they have {not in 1573G1Add/1573G{no}not in 1573G1Add/1573G} spots.
22.52. These three sorts of fish can only be seen in summer. In winter, they disappear. In Media, close to Fonera, there are three lakes, not far from each other, which each have their own sort of fish. And no other fish come to this lake although they can, for there is a river running through all of them. And if one puts fish from one lake into another, it will die or return to the lake from which it came.
22.53. This country has more falcons, hawks and sparrow-hawks than any other. There are no fewer eagles here than there are marsh-chickes elsewhere. Crane birds are so numerous here that you may often see no less than a hundred of them. There are also many birds here called barnacas, which nature engenders in an unnatural manner. They resemble wild ducks, but smaller. For they grow out of fir branches which have fallen into the sea. First they resemble gum, then they acquire mussel-like shells, and hang by their bills in moss and weed caught in the branches, and grow to attain a decent size, until they have grown feathers, and then they fall into the water or fly in the air. I have often seen such small bodies like shells, hanging from a branch, almost fully grown.
22.54. These birds lay no eggs, nor do they brood on eggs. Therefore these birds in some part of Ireland are eaten during Lent for they are not of flesh, nor have they come from flesh. There are also birds of prey here of two sorts called aurifrisios, smaller than an eagle but larger than a hawk which sporting nature has provided on one foot with claws, open and ripping, but the other foot is closed, peaceful, and only fit for swimming. There are also birds called martinets, smaller than a blackbird, short like a quail but with a white belly and a black back. These birds are a miracle. For, when dead and kept in a dry place, they do not decay. And when put between clothes or other things, they will be a protection against moths. And what is even more miraculous, when hung up under dry circumstances, they grow new feathers each year {1573G1Add/1573G{and become alive again}1573G1Add/1573G}.
22.55. On the North side of this island are very many swans. But of storks there are only few, and those that we see are black. There are no partridges, pheasants, magpies and nightingales. Of wild animals it has all kinds. For there are deer which because of their fat can hardly flee, and though they smaller in size, their antlers reach higher. Nowhere did we see more wild hogs. There are also many hares. But all animals, wild beasts {1573G1Add/1573G{and birds}1573G1Add/1573G} are each of them of smaller size than elsewhere. There are badgers and weasels here, but no goats, chamois, nor hedgehogs. Few or no moles, but an abundant amount of mice. There are wolves and foxes, but no venomenous animals. It has spiders and lizards, but harmless. There is never an earthquake here, and thunder is harldly heard once a year.
22.56. Let us now speak of the miracles which nature has achieved in this end of the world. In Northern Momonia [Munster] there is a lake with two islands in it, one larger than the other. The larger one has a church, the smaller one a chapel. On the larger one, no woman or female animal has been allowed to come, or she has died instantly. This has often been experienced with cats and dogs, and other such animals of female sex. And on the smaller island, now one ever died, or had a natural death. In Ultonia there is a lake with an island separated into two parts. One part has a church of the true religion, and is very lovely and peaceful. The other part, which is very rough and dangerous, and it is said that it is possessed by the devil. On this part there are nine holes or pits and if someone stays overnight in one of them, he is seized by evil spirits, and is tortured so gravely that next morning there is hardly any life left in his miserable body. This place is called the purgatory by the inhabitants of St. Patrick.
22.57. There is a spring in Momonia [Munster] where, if you wash your hair, it will immediately turn white. I have seen a man whose beard, for the part that was washed with it, turned white, while the other part retained its natural brown colour. There is another spring in the far end of Ultonia the water of which, when used for washing, will protect hair and beard from ever turning grey. In Connachia [Connaught] there is a spring with sweet water on the top of a high mountain which in one day and night has twice ebb and tide, following the movements of the sea. In the Northernmost part of Ultonia there is a spring which because of its harsh cold, within seven years turns wood that is thrown into it to stone. In Connochia [Connaught] there is a spring which is healthy for people only, but poisonous for animals.
22.58. In Momonia [Munster] there is a spring which, if stirred by a human being, causes the whole province to be in a flood of rain. The people of this island wear simple black woollen clothes (for the sheep of this country are black), made in a simple and plain manner. They commonly wear hoods which hang down to the elbows. When they ride [a horse] they do not use a saddle, boots nor spurs, but with a stick curved at the top they steer their horse. They use reins also serving as a bridle, made in such a manner that it does not impede the horses to graze. They go to war naked and unarmed. Yet, they have three kinds of weapons: long lances, darts and axes. It is a rude and inhospitable people. They consider it a great luxury to be idle, and consider to be free the greatest of riches. Only concerning their use musical instruments, I find that they are to be praised for their mastery. This I have gathered here and there from Giraldus' History}1573D1Add/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D end here {1574F1Add/1574F{following the order of his book}1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}.{1573G1Add/1573G only{Further, the avid reader should turn to Polydorus, John Major &c. who have written about this island. Daniel Rogers has written about this island in eliagic verse addressed to Mr. Thomas Rhedinger}1573G1Add/1573G only, which ends here}.

Remarks: The scientific text does not deviate much from the popular text, particularly when we disregard the numerous additions that Bedwell wrote for the 1606 English edition. The miracles which Ortelius reports as his own should be attributed to Gyraldus Cambrensis, his main source for this text, since they are reported in the Ort22 map texts as early as 1573, whereas Ortelius spent some time in Ireland on his first and only in visit in 1576/1577, when he fled the first Spanish fury in Antwerp, which happened in 1576.

Bibliographical sources

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