Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 214

Text, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish/Latin editions which have identical texts in Latin, and 1624LParergon/1641 Spanish [but also with Latin text]:

214.1. {1590L4Add{THRACIA.

214.2. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Under the name of THRACIA many and various countries with different people are comprehended, {1595L{for excepting India it is the largest country in the world, as Herodotus says}1595L}. Plinius gives as its borders the river Ister, Pontus, Propontis, the Ægean sea and the river Strymon. {1595L{Yes, and Strabo in the first book of his Geography, according to what Homerus thinks, extends it as far as the river Peneus}1595L}, {1606E only{which river Ptolemæus attributes to Macedonia}1606E only}. Marcellinus claims the Scordisci to be a people of this country. Appianus adds to these the Illyrians. So does also Mela on the West, who also in the South includes mount Athos to it. Many of the ancient writers also make the peninsula Pallene to be a part belonging to this country.
214.3. Yes, if one may believe Eratosthenes, mount Olympus separates Macedonia from Thracia. But in the Epitome of Strabo {1595L{in his seventh book}1595L}, he gives a quite different description of the bounds of this region. For in Strabo himself the description of Thracia is lacking altogether. This Epitome, I say, separates Thrace from Macedonia by the mouth of the river Nessus. And indeed, in subsequent times the area of this country was not much smaller, for Ammianus, Procopius, Sextus Rufus and the book of records (Liber Notitiarum) divides it into these six provinces: Mœsia the second or lower, Scythia, Europa (particularly calling this part by the general name of that quarter of the world where the whole area was located), Rhodopa, Hæmimontus and Thracia, properly and especially called by this name.
214.4. {1595L{This is the reason why in Trebellus and Orosius mention is made of the THRACIAS in the plural}1595L}. Yet this map of ours does not extend so far towards the North. For we have indeed followed the description by Ptolemæus in limiting it. He separates it from the Northern countries by mount Hæmus. And this true THRACIA we think to have been so named after the enchanting nymph Thraca, as Eusthatius tells us after Arrianus {1606E instead{Athenæus}1606E instead}, having been called PERCA in former times. And it has also been known once, as many truly think, by the names of ARIA, ODRYSA, CRESTONIA and SCYTONIA. Josephus, a most serious scholar says that the Jews called it THYRAS.
214.5. The above mentioned Ptolemæus names these fourteen shires in it: Dantheletica, Sardica, Vsdicesica, Selletica, Mædica, Drosica, Cœletica, Sapaica, Corpialica, Cænica, Bessica, Bennica, Samaica and Vrbana. Plinius divides it into fifty {1606E only{(or fifty-two, as I remember from Dalechampius)}1606E only} regiments (strategiæ) {1606E only{shires, I think they call them in some places in England, hundreds, or wapentakes I would call them}1606E only}. This Thracia, as it is properly called is compared by Ammianus to the half moon, or to a theatre, the higher part of which is enclosed by high and steep mountains, which separate this country from Dacia. Its lower part opens up towards the Ægean sea}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}.
214.6. About the nature and qualities of this country Vergilius speaks in the following manner: Terra procul vastis colitur Mauortia campis [Aeneas Bk.3 §13], [that is:]{1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{A martial country lies far off, containing champion vast regions}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Plutarchus tells us that it has in it many huge fens, and that it is divided or crossed by various deep and dangerous rivers. Plinius says that the soil of Thracia is very fertile for all kinds of corn, and recommends its wheat, for weight. Also, in terms of excellence he states that this wheat takes the third place.
214.7. Athenæus says that it has some vines, especially around Biblina, which is also called Oesyma. Plinius also recommends [its] Vinum Maroneum, {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only{the wine of Marogna}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, {1606E only{or Marolia, as Lewnclawe calls it}1606E only}. Homerus also confirms that the Achivi {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead{Greeks}15914GAdd, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead} were used to transport wines by boat from Thracia {1608/1612I only{after the siege of Troy}1608/1612I only} {1606E only{into Greece}1606E only}. Xenophon writes that on mount Pangeus there are gold mines, and Strabo reports the same about Philippi {1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Macedonia}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Here is also the Thracian stone which is kindled by water, and quenched by oil, as Plinius reports.
214.8. But because no one of all the ancient writers has described this country better than Pomponius Mela, let us hear him speak: It is, he says, a country that cannot brag either about the excellence of its soil, nor about the wholesomeness of its air. Nay indeed, except for some places near the sea coast, it is barren, cold, and very unkind to all [growing] things in general that are sown in its earth. It seldom produces any apple trees {1606E only{or other fruit trees}1606E only}, yet, vines do here and there grow in different places. But the grapes never ripen sweetly, nor come to any perfection, except in some places where the vine cultivators protect the leaves from the cold.
214.9. It is a country much kinder to man, yet they are not very proper, for they are very clownish, ugly and rough fellows. But further, in number and hardiness, (for they are with many, and all of them very uncivil), this nation far surpasses its neighbours.
This last remark is also made by Pausanias who states that it contains such wonderful multitudes of people that if you exclude France, it may for all I know, in all likelihood, in multitude of people surpass any country in the world.
214.10. Similarly, Herodotus says that after the Indies, it is the largest country of the whole world. Livius calls it a desperate and most fierce nation, and Solinus says that they are very hardy people. Sextus Rufus presents them as the most cruel people that he ever saw or heard about, {1595L, not in 1602G{which Florus expresses very well by the following example, when he writes that some of them, being taken captive by the Romans, and bound as happens with captives, bit their fetters with their teeth, and in this way sufficiently punished their own barbarous cruelty.
214.11. And that they are here trained by their parents from their cradle onwards in this wild, inhuman kind of life, is reported by Sidonius in these words:
Excipit hic natos glacies, & matris ab alvo |
Artus infantum molles nix cimbrica {1624LParergon/1641S{alias cinica}1624LParergon/1641S} durat. |
Pectore vix aliter quisquam, sed ab ubere tractus |
Plus potat per vulnus equum, sic lacte relicto, |
Virtutem gens tota bibit. Crevere parumper, |
Mox pugnam ludunt iaculis: his suggerit illis |
Nutrix plaga iocos: pueri venatibus apti, |
Lustra feris vacuant rapto ditata iuventus, |
Iura colit gladij. consummatamque senectam |
Non ferro finire pudet. Tali ordine vitæ |
Ciues Martis agunt.
{1606E & 1608/1612I only{[That is:] As soon as [an] infant here is born, The thing they say is sure,
To frost and snow their tender limbs They immediately inure [expose].
Scarce one of many thousands here, Does suck the nurses tit,
Warm blood of warlike horses here, For most part is infants meat [food],
This diet makes them bold and hard. And as they come to growth,
They learn to toss the spear and pike. Here no man lives in slowth [laziness].
These are the sports that these men use, As soon as boys can ride,
The fallow deer they learn to chase, &c}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
214.12. But let us add to this the recommendation given to them by emperor Iustinianus in his Authentica [eulogy]: This is most certain, he says, and considered by everyone as the truth, that if anyone only mentions the country of Thracia, then as soon as this word has left his mouth, there immediately enters into the heart of the listening by-stander a concept of manhood and warlike valour, fit for all kinds of service on the [battle]field. For these things are naturally bred into their bones, and as it were proper qualities, typical for this country only}1595L, not in 1602G}.
214.13. {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Valerius Maximus highly recommends the spiritual wisdom, (animosam sapientiam) of the Thracians}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. But Thucydides says it was such as to be next door to barbarous cruelty. Whenever the Thracian feels secure, he is most bloody. When there is thunder and lightning, they shoot their arrows up into the air, threatening even God himself, because they think there is no other God than those they worship. These Gods, as Herodotus writes {1624LParergon/1641S{in his books 4 & 5}1624LParergon/1641S}, [namely] Mars {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the god of war}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, Bacchus {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the god of wine}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, Diana {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the goddess of hunting}1591G4Add & 1602G only} and Mercury {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the god of commerce}1591G4Add & 1602G only} they worship, and no other. Yet the same author somewhere else {1624LParergon/1641S instead{in book 9}1624LParergon/1641S instead} mentions Plistorius as a God belonging to this nation only.
214.14. Ammianus also writes that these people worship the goddess Bellona {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the sister of Mars}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. To [honour] these Gods, as Eusebius writes, they slew and sacrificed people before they set out to engage in a battle, in which, as reported by Livius, they used two-hand swords of a huge length. Their helmets or head pieces were of fox skin. Every man would carry his own darts, {1591G4Add{a round small shield}1591G4} as well as a short dagger. Every man thinks it to be a gallant thing, and very honourable, to live by wars, robbing and spoiling {1624LParergon/1641S{as Herodotus says in book 5}1624LParergon/1641S}. An idle fellow is considered to be a right, honest man, and it is a most base and contemptible thing to be a farmer.
214.15. Clemens Alexander in the seventh book of his Stromaton writes that these people are of a complexion and colour brownish yellow {1606E only{as a lion, and pale, or as it were the colour of the sky}106E only}. {1595L{Homerus calls them Comatos Thraces}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1606E only{long-locked Thracians}1606E only}. Iulius Pollux [calls them] In vertice crinitos, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{wearing a long lock upon the crown of their head}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}. It was considered an honourable thing among them to have their faces full of scars, and indeed, Herodotus says {1624LParergon/1641S{in book 5}1624LParergon/1641S} that that was no disgrace to any man. Yes, and Plutarchus adds that they used to imprint marks upon their wives' faces, {1595L, not in 1602G{which Athenæus in the twelfth book {1606E only{of his Deipnosophiston}1606E only} confirms to be true}1595L, not in 1602G}.
214.16. Heraclides {1595L, not in 1602G{and Sextus Empiricus jointly}1595L, not in 1602G} confirm(s) that every man usually had more wives than one. It is very certain that they were great drinkers of wine, and sound drunkards, and that they brewed their wine with honey, as we learn from Plinius. {1601L, not in 1602G{Yet, in Pomponius Mela I read that various [Thracians] never knew what wine meant. But when they intended to be merry, sitting around the hearth, certain seeds were strewn on the coals, which [then] emitted such smoke that it made everyone feeling so light-headed and pleasant as if he was exhausted}1601L, not in 1602G}, {1606E only{or had taken a glass or two too much of the strongest wine or beer that might be drunk}1606E only}.
214.17. Athenæus also writes that they had here a kind of drink which they called brytum made of barley and other kinds of corn. Suidas writes {1595L, not in 1602G{that whatever wine the drinking companions in their draining and drinking bouts cannot further consume, they pour out over their clothes {1606E instead{over their heads}1606E instead}. The same author reports}1595L, not in 1602G} that they are very fond of eating garlic which of its own is very hot, while the country where they live is bleak and cold.
214.18. Iulius Pollux writes that they used to exchange slaves for salt. After which Sale empti {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{bought with salt}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}, was said proverbially about bad servants, {1606E only{and such as had been taken at jade fairs}1606E only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Also he says that this nation as the first invented a kind of musical instrument called Canthorum}1595L, not in 1602G}. But about the manners and behaviours of this people, many things may be observed by reading those authors whom I have cited before, especially from Herodotus, {1595L, not in 1602G{Athenæus}1595L, not in 1602G}, Solinus, Pomponius Mela and Heraclides in his Politics.
214.19. These [Thracians], although mere barbarians and unlearned, yet in one thing various ones were right in judging that they thought the soul to be immortal. Others thought that it died, but in such a way that it got to a better state than when alive. This is the reason that they mourned {1606E only{when women took to bed}1606E only}, and wept at the birth of their children. {1595L, not in 1602G{An ancient writer says that the Tracians had a kind of nation where they could not count further than the number four. Any higher number they could not remember}1595L, not in 1602G}.
214.20. What now remains is that we should, on the authority of Antigonus, say something about the miracles found in this country. {1591G4Add & 1602G only{In the region of Eubœa or Nigroponto}1591G4Add & 1602G only} in Chalcidis, a province here, there is a place called Cantharoletron. Any animal that goes there will return from it safe and sound again, except only the beast called Cantharus. These never return from it alive, but they immediately fall down, and turn around until they die.
214.21. In this country is the river Cochryna. If any sheep drinks from its water, it will only bring forth black lambs. Between Byzantium {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E instead{(Constantinople)}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E instead} and the isle of Chersonesus, there is a hill which they call the holy mount near to which the sea sometimes carries on top of its waters a kind of slimy substance called bitumen {1606E only{by the Romans}1606E only} In Agria, {1606E only{a shire of this country}1606E only}, the river Pontus carries down its course certain stones much like coal, which, when they are lit and if water is cast upon them, they will burn better, but being blown on by bellows, they will be extinguished. There is no reptile {1606E instead{kind of vermin or venomous creature}1606E instead}{1608/1612I instead{snake}1608/1612I instead} that can abide the smell of this kind of fire.
214.22. Amongst the Cinchropsoses there is a fountain whose water, if drunk, leads to immediate death. In Botiæ there grows a stone which by the heat of the sunbeams is set on fire, {1606E only{and casts forth sparks and flames of fire}1606E only}. Plutarchus writes that there is a spring not far from the hill Pangæus whose waters, if you fill one and the same vessel with it, and then weigh it, you shall find out that it is twice as heavy in winter as it is in summer.
214.23. Plutarchus (Tzetzes calls him the younger, someone else calls him Parthenicus) reports certain things {1595L, not in 1602G{about the herb Cythara, [about] the stones Pansilypus and Philadelphi}1595L, not in 1602G}, found in the rivers Ebrus and Strymon which, because they are fables rather than true stories, I willingly omit in this place.
214.24. To list the various tribes, mountains, rivers or cities of this country I do not consider necessary, because you can see them better by casting one look on the map itself. Yet, about the city of Byzantium, (now Constantinople) since it is so often mentioned in ancient histories, saying nothing at all might somehow be offensive, [therefore] I do not think it amiss to write these few lines that now follow by way of description of it.
214.25. The first founder of BYZANTIVM, which was formerly also called LYGOS, was, as Trogus and Eustathius think, one Pausanias, a captain of the Spartans, and that, as Cassiodorus writes, at the time when Numa {1606E only{Pompilius}1606E only} was king of the Romans. It was so called after Byzantes, the son of Cerœssa, a captain of the Megareans, whom Eusthatius confirms to have been a most honest and just man. This city is located upon a high cliff, at the narrowest place of the Bosporus, {1606E only{[viz.] Thracius, (the firth or straits of Constantinople)}1606E only} {1591G4Add & 1602G only{only five furlongs or 3/4 mile wide}1591G4Add & 1602G only} on a very fertile [stretch of] soil, {not in 1602G{and on a fruitful and commodious sea as Tacitus writes}not in 1602G}.
214.26. In view of its location, being strongly fortified by nature, this city is thought to be almost invincible. For which reason Trebellius Pollo calls it claustrum Ponticum, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{The enclosure of Pontus}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Orosius calls it Principem gentium}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the first of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only}; Sextus Rufus calls it Arcem secundam Romani orbis, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{the second fortress of the Roman empire}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}; Procopius [calls it] Arcem Europæ & Asiæ obicem ponentem, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{the castle of Europe, and the protection against Asia}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}; Themisthius Euphrada [calls it] Magnificentiæ officinam, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{the shop of all kinds of court-like fashions}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}, and Ovidius calls it Vastam gemini maris ianuam, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{The huge gate of two seas}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}, to wit Propontis {1606E only{(Mar di marmora)}1606E only} and the Euxinus sea, {1606E only{(Mar maiore)}1606E only}. For its ramparts and walls (which Pausanias and the two Dions recommend so highly) were so strong that the Athenians used it in former times, as the same Eusthatius writes, to carry all their goods and treasures to it and there to keep them, considering it to be an impregnable place, and not to be surprised by any enemy whatsoever.
214.27. Of the great good fortune of this city you may read many things worth observing in various ancient writers, especially in Polybius, Herodianus, Xiphilinus, Dion Pruseus, and Themistocles Euphrada in his sixth oration, who considers its citizens to be the happiest people, both because of the excellent river which passes by, the temperature of the air, fertility of its soil, capacious harbour and outlet of the sea, its gorgeous church and its stately walls. This formed the basis of their daintiness, luxurious behaviour, drunkenness and wantonness of these people, which vices of theirs have been noted by Athenæus in the tenth book {1606E only{of his Deipnosophistai}1606E only}; and Ælianus in the fourteenth chapter of the third {1608/1612I has instead{fourth}1608/1612I instead} book of his Variæ historiæ.
214.28. This city, upon which fortune often frowned, was at one time in the hands of the Spartans or Lacedemonians. After that it was under the command of the Athenians. Then, shaking off their yoke, it began gradually to acquire for itself a kind of sovereignty and freedom from any foreign jurisdiction, which it held for a while, until Vespasianus, the Roman emperor subdued it, and reduced it to the status of a province. While it thus stood under the command of the Romans, it was by Septimius Severus, who stuck to Nigers side, assaulted, battered and razed to the ground, and [turned] from an excellent flourishing city into a poor village, and was by and by considered to belong to the Perinthij.
214.29. But Antonius Caracalla, Severus' son, restored their ancient liberties to them, and [the city] was now called by the name of ANTONIA, as Eusthatius says. Yet, instead of Antonia (which I would like to note by the way), an ancient brass coin of mine showing emperor Severus tells us that it ought to be spelled as Antoninia. For upon this piece of money was stamped [in Greek lettering] ANTONEINIA BYZANTIOON SEBASTA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{that is Antoninia, the imperial city of the Byzantini}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. But after this it was again destroyed by Gallienus the emperor, and all its citizens and garrison soldiers were slain.
214.30. Yet, fearing that the Scythians, Getes and other barbarous nations might break into the Roman territories through this side, it was again rebuilt, repaired, and fortified by the same emperor. But Constantinus, worthily indeed, and surnamed the Great, fortified it even far more strongly, and adorned it with the excellent temple of Sophia, and moreover graced it with many stately ornaments and wonderful works of architecture which he ordered to be brought from Asia, Africa, Europe and even from Rome itself, and after his own name by proclamation ordered it to be titled and called by the name of CONSTANTINOPOLIS, {1606E only{that is, Constantine's city}1606E only}.
214.31. {1595L, not in 1602G{He took it from the Perinthij, made it into a free corporate [city] and endowed it with many large and ample buildings}1595L, not in 1602G}. After him, as Themistius Euphrada says in his sixth oration, Theodosius the Great beautified it with various gorgeous and costly buildings. Moreover, Iustinianus the emperor, as Procopius as an eye witness testifies, adorned it with many most fair and beautiful works of splendid architecture. But in particular he graced it with that glorious work of that stately temple of Sophia, which he repaired (being recently burned down and utterly defaced by fire) and bestowed such expenses on it that the emperor himself, as Glycas notes, boldly said that with this edifice he had surpassed even the temple of that glorious king Salomon. This work of his, {1595L, not in 1602G{as P. Diaconus writes about it}1595L, not in 1602G}, did so much excel above all other buildings that in the whole world, next to it there was no other to be found that might in any respect be compared to it.
214.32. {1601L, not in 1602G{Corippus, in his 4th book {1606E only{on the glorious king of great Iudah}1606E only} speaks of his Praise to emperor Iustinus}1601L} about this church like this: Iam Solomoniaci sileat descriptio templi,| Cedant cunctorum miracula nota locorum}1601L, not in 1602G}, [that is] {1606E & 1608/1612I only{That stately work of Salomon, great Iudahs glorious king, May now be still and brag no more. The greatest wonders of the world may well be surpassed by this. No eye has seen the like before}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Constantinus Manasses calls it Orbis ornamentarum, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The glory of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, which he truly believed even the Seraphim themselves revered and adored. But if anyone desires to know the shape and model of this building, let him have recourse to Procopius [in] the first book of his Ædifices. {1601L{About this church Paulus Lyrus Florus wrote a treatise in heroic or hexameter verse, as Agathias mentions in his fifth book, so that}1601L} it might seem that there was nothing more that might be wished for the further beautification of this city. Sozomen had no doubt in boldly stating that Constantinople both for the multitude of its inhabitants and its store of wealth and money all peoples jointly consented to far exceed even great Rome itself.
214.33. Moreover Nazianzenus writes that Constantinople in beauty {1606E only{and bravery}1606E only} did so much excel above all other cities of the world as the highest heavens in glory exceed above the lowest elements}1595L, not in 1602G}. Due to this, it was graced with the following proud titles: VRBS ÆTERNA, VRBS REGIA, NOVA & SECVNDA ROMA, {1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{the eternal city, the imperial city, new Rome, and another Rome}1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. In excellence and taxation of the chief cities of the Roman empire this city, in a council held there, was placed second in rank, but in earlier times, as Egesippus states, it only ranked third.
214.34. Zosimus writes that there is no other city whatsoever, whether in terms of its large size and circumference of its walls, or great fortune of it in every way, that may justly be compared to it. {1595L, not in 1602G{The buildings of it are so close and near to each other, and its houses are so full of people and thronged, that whether someone stays at home or goes walking outside, he will be so crowded in and thrust about, that he might scarcely walk without being in danger, because of the huge crowds of people and infinite multitude of cattle passing to and fro in it}1595L, not in 1602G}. He who wants to know [about] all the glorious ornaments and wonderful things worthy to be observed and seen in this city, let him read Georgius Cedrenus' history of the life of Theodosius the Great. In this book he does not only list and rank them wonderfully, but he also most diligently describes them and portrays them in their true colours. {not in 1606E{But nothing about this city is without an end}not in 1606E}.
214.35. This city was conquered in the year of Christ 1453 by Mahomet the first with that name, emperor of the Turks, who still hold it to the present day}1591G4Add & 1602G end here}. Many other things pertaining to the beauty and magnificence of this city are to be found in the book of Records [liber Notitiarum] of both empires, {1595L{and in Procopius' first book De Ædificijs}1595L}. {1601L{About the original and famous buildings of this city, read George Codinus, for no one has handled that matter better than he [does]}1601L}. But of the later writers Petrus Gyllius has most exactly and learnedly described it in a specific booklet.
214.36. About the Thracians this one thing I cannot omit here, namely that in former times they had a great influence on [surrounding] foreign countries, {1606E only{and were great lords of their own native soil}1606E only}. For they conquered and subdued a great part of Asia which is situated opposite to them, and ordered it after their name to be called THRACIA ASIATICA, yes, and towards the South, beyond the bounds of their own country, on the Ægean sea (where Pausanias described THRACIA CARIA), they had established settlements a long time before. This province is called THRACESIVM by Porphyrogenetta.
214.37. Xenophon had no doubts to call this kingdom the greatest of all between the Ionian sea and Pontus Euxinus. Moreover, Strabo mentions, a certain nation, living above Armenia, which was called Thraces Sarapetræ. To this Thracia also belongs Chersonesus {1606E only{or neckland}1606E only}, which therefore was named THRACIA CHERSONESVS. Suidas calls it CHERSONESVS HELLESPONTIACA, after the sea Hellespontus which is close to it. It is also called PALLENE by Halicarnassæus and Stephanus, who moreover adds that it was inhabited by the Crusæi [crusaders].
214.38. Xenophon says that it has the richest soil, and is fertile in all kinds of things whatsoever, and says that altogether it comprises eleven or twelve great and excellent towns. But compared to all ancient historians, we have much exceeded this number, as the map proves sufficiently}1590L4Add & 1592L end here}. {1606E only{This neckland or}1606E only} Chersonesus once belonged to Marcus Agrippa, after whose decease, as Dion reports {not in 1606E{in his 54th book}not in 1606E}, it fell to Augustus Cæsar. Whoever desires from ancient writers a more elaborate description of Thracia, let him read Wolfgang Lazius' Histories of Greece}1595L ends here}. {1601L{Also, the fifth book of Agathias, {1606E only{a Greek native}1606E only}. It is a strange thing that Guilelmus Brussius writes about this Chersonesus that by no way of method or diligence can vines be made to grow here in any great abundance}1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

Bibliographical sources

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