Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 209

Text, translated from the 1595 Latin 5th Add., 1595 Latin, 1597 German 5th Add., 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish/Latin & 1624LParergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] editions). The 1597G5Add and 1602G differ from the one given below and will be presented separately below as the second translated text:

209.1. {1595L5Add{LATIVM.

209.2. LATIVM, which the excellent poet Vergilius surnamed the Great, the Fair and the Western, [basing himself] on the description of Augustus, who, as Plinius writes, divides Italy into eleven regions, [as] the chief and principal region {1606E only{when compared] to the rest}1606E only}, consists of two parts, namely Latium the Old, and Latium the New. LATIVM VETVS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{old Latium}1606E & 1608/1612I only} began at the river Tiber, and extended itself all the way up to the Circæian mountains (or to [the] Fundi, as Servius says), [and] LATIVM NOVVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{new Latium}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, which stretches out from here to the river Liris {1608/1612I only{or Gariglianus}1608/1612I only}, as Plinius and Strabo both claim, and even further, as both of them state. For even as low as Sinuessa, (which was also called Sinope), being in that part which is named Adiectum Latium is by the same Plinius called Latium beyond the Liris {1608/1612I has instead{Gariglianus}1608/1612I instead}, which is in fact a part of Campania. This was maybe the reason why Servius extended it all the way to the river Vulturnus, so that the borders of this Latium are the Tyrrhenian sea, the mountain [range] Apenninus, [and] the rivers Tiber, Anio and Liris {1608/1612I instead{Gariglianus}1608/1612I instead}.
209.3. The neighbouring people living around it are the Tusci, Sabini, Marsi, Samnites, Prægutiani and the Campani. It was named after the verb Lateo, {1606E only{which means to lurk or to lie hidden}1606E only}, because Saturnus hid himself here, as Servius writes, {1601L{and truly, before him Herodianus, Eutropius, Cyprianus and Minutius Felix say the same}1601L}. Yes, and that poet who in everyone's opinion is considered the best in these verses of his [wrote]: Primus ab ætherio venit Saturnus Olympo, | Arma Iovis fugens & regnis exul ademptis. | Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis, | composuit legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari | Maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris, {1606E only{thus translated into English by Mr.T. Phaër: {1608/1612I only{First from mount Olympus (right close to the skies) good old Saturnus, when he fled from Jupiter, & stood outlawed from his kingdom, He first crossed that wayward, skittish lands hills and woods, Brought them prosperity and gave them laws, and called all the land around here Latium, for he lurked here safely for a long time}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
209.4. The same is reported by another poet, as famous as the previous one, both as regards his eloquence and his long exile, relating the words of god Janus: I may have experienced much, but why is one ship made of bronze, and why is the other the same as regards its front and back? He said: you may recognise my duplex image, unless the long period of time has damaged the contours. Remains the purpose of this vessel. He came with a vessel to the Tuscan river. In old times the God who carries a falcon had traversed the earth. I remember that Saturnus has been received by the earth. By Jupiter he had been expelled from the heavenly kingdom. Hence this nation retained Saturnus' name for a long time. It has also been called Latium, because this is the region which took the God in hiding for a long time. But worhty posterity made a bronze ship, thus testifying the arrival of a lord received hospitably.
Prudentius, {1606E only{the Christian poet}1606E only}, in the book which he wrote addressed to Symmachus, also writes like this about Saturnus: Num melius Saturnus avos rexisse Latinos | creditur? edictus qui talibus informauit | Agrestes animos & barbara corda virorum? | Sum Deus, advenio fugiens, præbete latebras. | Occultate senem, nati feritate tyranni | Deiectum solio: placet hic fugitius & excul, | Ut lateam, genti atque loco Latium dabo nomen. {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Is it thought that Saturnus did the Romans better rule, Who taught them first when they were as wild as horse and mule? A God I am indeed, nowhere I may myself hide, For I have lost my royal crown, by Iove's untimely pride, And still I fear his power, I dare him not abide, If that you'll grant me leave with you to hide my head, Latium this country shall be called long after I am dead}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
209.5. Solinus Polyhistor had therefore good reasons to make the following demand: Who is it, who does not know that after Saturnus this land was both called Latium and Saturnia? But if anyone regards these reports as untrue and merely poetical fiction, let him hear what the learned Varro says, an author much more ancient than all those mentioned before, who claims this country to have been named as it is quod lateat inter Alpium & Apennini præcipita, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{because it lies hidden enclosed or contained between the steep and craggy cliffs of the Alps and Apennines}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. But what region, I pray you, in all [of] old Italy is there, quæ non æque latet?, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{that is not thus surrounded}1606E & 1608/1612I only}? If I, as a poor goose, may be permitted to cackle among these well tuned swans, I should prefer to think that it got this name not a latendo, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{from lurking}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, but a latitudine, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{after its extension}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. For there is no region in true and ancient Italy that between the sea and those mountains extends itself more broadly and widely in every direction than this one, as you will see when you consult this map. {1601L, in 1608/1612I after § 8{But let antiquity still be believed, I poor fool will not [further] impeach their credibility, lest finally it turns to diminish my own trustworthiness.
209.6. There are some, [such] as Hieronymus Columna reports, writing about the fragments of the famous poet Ennius, who think that this name of Saturnus is merely a Syrian word, and in that language has the same meaning as latens in Latin, {1606E only{(that is, one who keeps out of sight)}1606E only}. And on this basis, those ancients, as it were interpreting this word, have called that area and region where the Romans lived LATIVM}1601L, in 1608/1612I after § 8}. {1606E only{It is a truth, as all learned in these oriental tongues will confirm, that the Hebrew sequence [in Hebrew lettering:] Sathar means to lurk, or hide oneself from the presence or sight of others, which meaning is still retained both in Syrian and in Chaldean and [other] Arabic dialects. From this, by analogy, may be formed [Hebrew lettering] Sithron, (from which with the Latin ending -us we can form Saturnus), [and] also in [Hebrew lettering:] from Pathar one can form [Hebrew lettering:] Pithron, [meaning] interpretation, and from [open space, presumably for Arabic lettering which was never inserted] Rahama can be formed [open space, see before] Rahman in Arabic, or [Hebrew lettering] Rahmana in the Syrian tongue, [meaning] a man with pity in his heart. And of [Hebrew lettering] Thirgem, [meaning] to translate from one language into another, can be framed also [Hebrew lettering] Thurgmana, [meaning] an interpreter, also used by the Chaldean paraphraser in the seventh Psalm, as also by the Arabic translator of the New Testament in the 28th verse of the fourteenth chapter of the first Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians.
209.7. And commonly amongst the Moors, Turks and other Oriental peoples they call an interpreter, or him who usually helps strangers or travellers unfamiliar with their language a [space, see before] Turgman or, as they commonly pronounce it, a Trugman. Note further that even the word Latium itself supposedly derived from Latin only, together with this theme Lateo seems to derive from the Hebrew root [Hebrew lettering] Lat, with the same meaning, from which is derived Lot, the proper name of Haran's son, who with Terah, his grandfather, and Abram, his father's brother, came from Ur of the Chaldees, and lived in the land of Canaan, Gen. 11, 27-31. From the same root also, as some learned people think, was derived [the word, in Hebrew lettering] Lutan, the proper name of one of the sons of Seir the Horite, Gen. 36, 20, which comes closer to the Italian [word] Latinus. But perhaps we have paused here too long}1606E only}.
209.8. Strabo and other ancient writers of Roman history plainly state that that the inhabitants of people of this area were called Latini after Latinus, a king of this region; according to the interpretation of the poet {1606E only{Vergilius}1606E only} genus unde Latinum is where the Latins took their name from. Plinius also mentions the Latinienses, a people of this region, but extinct before he lived, as he adds. These were called the Prisci according to Halicarnasseus and Festus.
209.9. About the characteristics of this country {1601L{Strabo, in the fifth book of his Geography writes like this: All Latium, he says, has generally a very good soil, and is fertile in all kinds of things, except only in some places at the sea coast, which are marshy and very unhealthy, as specifically the fields around Ardea, and the whole area between Lavinium and Antium, even as far as Pometia, as well as in some places around Setina, and others near Tarracina and Circeium. Then there are also all those fields which are stony and mountainous, although even these grounds are not altogether barren and unfruitful, all of them having either some good pastures and large woods, or yielding a great abundance of marshy and mountainous commodities.
209.10. Cæcubum, a place in this marshland, yields a kind of vine which grows in height like a tree, the wine of which is considered to be the best of all Italy}1601L}. Hear also what Theophrastes writes about this area in the fifth book of his History of Plants, {1601L{ninth chapter}1601L} of this book. Latinus ager}not in 1608/1612I}, the country of Latium, he says, has plenty of water. Its excellent plains have a great amount of laurel and myrtle trees. Also, they yield a wonderful kind of beech, Scissima he calls it, {1601L{others call it oxea, Latinus calls it an oak)}1601L}, of such an amazing length that that one tree may serve as the entire keel for such kinds of ships as they commonly make in Etruria. The hilly and mountainous places produce pine and fir trees.
209.11. Plinius highly recommends the wines of Latium (Latiniensia vina). The same author claims that their main food was far, {1606E only{a kind of hairy or red wheat}1606E only}, and he states that it is certain that the Romans for a very long time lived on pult, {1606E only{by which they mean all kinds of corn besides wheat and barley}1606E only}, not on bread. How populous this country was, and how many cities and people it contained, is told to us by the same author where he writes that in Old Latium alone, fifty-three tribes have decayed and become extinct without any traces being left bearing their names.
209.12. Also, that Pomptina paludis, the fen Pontina, {1606E only{(now called Aufente palude)}1606E only}, also a part of this country, in former times contained twenty-three cities. Of all the cities of Latium in old times, Alba longa was the main and metropolitan one. But later [it was] Rome, which grew to such a greatness and power that it was not only the head of this province, but also of even the whole world next to that, of which I will not utter the other name, because it is considered illegal to speak about that which is concealed and shrouded in ceremonious mysteries, lest, just like Valerius Soranus, I will duly be punished for that.
209.13. Yet, if I shall list here the surnames, epithets and recommendable titles it was graced with, as published by the best writers of all nations, I hope there will be nobody who is an impartial judge that will blame me [for that]. It is called and named a city [in 3 columns in 1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L as running text in 1606E, in one column in 1624LParergon/1641S:]
ÆQUÆVA POLO, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{as ancient as heaven}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Claudianus;
ÆTERNA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{immortal}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus, Tibullus, Ausonius, and [in] marble inscriptions {not in 1606E{and coins}not in 1606E};
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I {ALTA, {1606E only{stately}1606E only}, by Vergilius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
ALTRIX IMPERII, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The nurse of the empire}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Corippus;
ALTRIX ORBIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The nurse of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only} by Rutilius;
ANTIQVA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The ancient [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Prudentius and Corippus;
ARX OMNIVM GENTIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The fortress of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only} by Nazarius;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{ARX TERRARVM, {1606E only{the bulwark of all lands}1606E only}, by Symmachus}1601L, not in 1608/1612I };
AVGVSTA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The imperial [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Corippus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{AVREA, {1606E only{The golden [one]}1606E only}, by Ausonius and Prudentius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
BEATA NOBILIBVS POPVLIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Most happy for honourable people}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
BELLATRIX, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The warlike [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius, Claudianus and Sidonius;
209.14. CAPVT GENTIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The head of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Martianus;
CAPVT IMMENSI ORBIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The head of the huge globe of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
{not in 1606E{CAPVT MVNDI, [head of the world] by Cassiodorus {1601L{& Sidonius}1601L, not in 1606E};
{not in 1606E{CAPVT ORBIS, {1608/1612I only{head of the world}1608/1612I only} by Plinius, Trogus, Ovidius, Gratius, Fortunatus, Æthicus}not in 1606E}{1601L{& Prudentius}1601L};
CAPVT RERVM, {1606E only{The head of all things}1606E only}, by Livius, Ovidius, Ausonius {1601L{and Tacitus}1601L};
CÆLESTIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The heavenly [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only} by Athenæus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{CELEBERRIMA, {1606E only{The most famous [one]}1606E only}, by Statius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
CELSA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lofty [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Prudentius;
CLARISSIMA, {1606E{The brightest [one]}1606E}, {not in 1606E, in Greek lettering{Diasemotatos}not in 1606E} by Stephanus;
DARDANIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{of Dardanus}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius and Silius Italicus;
DEA, {not in 1606E, in Greek lettering{thea}not in 1606E} {1606E only{The goddess}1606E only}, on coins;
DEA GENTIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The goddess of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only} by Martialis;
DEA TERRARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The goddess of all lands}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Martialis;
DESIDERABILIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{That all people wish to see}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Eusthatius and Dionysius Afer;
DEVM LOCVS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The seat of the gods}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
DIGNITATVM CVRIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The court of dignities and honour}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Sidonius;
DITISSIMA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The richest [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Prudentius;
DOMINA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mistress}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius, Arnobius, Horatius and Nemesianus;
DOMINA GENTIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lady mistress of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Eumenius;
DOMINA RERVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mistress of all things}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Appianus, Eunapius {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{and Ausonius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
DOMINA TERRARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lady mistress of all lands}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus;
DOMINA TERRÆ MARISQUE, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lady mistress of sea and land}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Halicarnasseus;
DOMINA TOTIVS MVNDI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lady mistress of the whole world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Æthicus;
DOMINA VNIVERSORVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lady of all things}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Halicarnasseus;
209.15. DOMINANS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The commanding city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Silius Italicus;
DOMVS AVREA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The golden palace}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ausonius;
DOMVS DIVVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The palace of the gods}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ausonius;
DOMVS MAGNA REGVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The excellent palace of kings}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Eusthatius and Dionysius Afer;
DOMVS QVIRINI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The palace of Quirinus}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ausonius;
ELOQVENTIÆ FOECVNDA MATER, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{A fruitful mother of eloquence}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
EXCELSA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The lofty [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Lucanus;
FELIX, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The blessed [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Propertius, Cassiodorus and on a certain inscription in marble;
FEROX, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The fierce [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Horatius;
{1601L, not in 1624LParergon/1641S{FVTVRA}1601L, not in 1624LParergon/1641S}, {1608/1612I only{Our future}1608/1612I only}, by Rutilius;
GENETRIX HOMINVM ET DEORVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of men and gods}1606E & 1608/1612I only), by Rutilius;
GENETRIX REGVM, {1606E only{the producer of kings}1606E only} by Priscianus;
GYMNASIVM LITERARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{A school of good learning and liberal sciences}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Sidonius;
IMMENSA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The exceedingly large city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Statius;
IMPERII LAR, {1608/1612I only{homeground of the empire}1608/1612I only} by Ammianus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{IMPERII LATIALE CAPVT,}1601L, not in 1608/1612I [head of the Latium empire] by Statius;
IMPERII {1601L{DEVMQUE}1601L} LOCVS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The native country of emperors and gods}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
INCLYTA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The renowned [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Vergilius, Ennius {1601L{and Ausonius}1601L};
INVICTA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The invincible}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, on some old coins;
209.16. LÆTA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The fortunate [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{LATII PARENS, {1606E only{The mother of Latium}1606E only}, by Ausonius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
LEGVM DOMICILIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mansion place of all good laws and justice}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Sidonius;
LEGVM PATRIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The native soil where all good laws are bred and born}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Iustinianus in his Code;
LIBERTATIS PARENS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of liberty}1606E & 1608/1612I only} by Corippus;
LVX ORBIS TERRARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The light of the whole earth}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Tullius Cicero;
MAGNA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The great [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Vergilius, Horatius, Calpurnius, Siculus, Neon. Marcellus, {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{Ovidius and Claudianus}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
MARTIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The martial [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius and Ausonius;
MARTIGENA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{obtained from Mars, the god of battle}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Silius Italicus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{MARTIS VRBS, {1606E only{The city of Mars}1606E only}, by the poet Martialis}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{MATER CIVITATUM, {1606E only{The mother of cities, the metropolitan city}1606E only}, by Ennodius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
MATER DVCVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of famous generals}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Claudianus;
MATER DIGNITATVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of honour and dignity}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
MATER ELOQVENTIÆ, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of eloquence}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
MATER MVNDI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Rutilius;
MATER OMNIVM VRBIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of all cities, the metropolitan city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Dionysius Afer and Eusthatius;
MATER REGVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mother of kings}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Claudianus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{MAXIMA RERVM, {1606E only{The greatest of all things to be seen under heaven}1606E only}, by Vergilius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
MVNDI MIRACVLVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The miracle of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
209.17. MVNDI TOTIVS TEMPLVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The temple of the whole world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus Marcellinus;
NVMINIS INSTAR, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Like a goddess from heaven}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Lucanus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{OFFICINA ORBIS, {1606E only{The shop of the whole world}1606E only}, by Seneca}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
ORBIS CAPVT, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The head of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
ORNATA SENATORIBVS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Beautified with solemn senators}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
PATRIA COMMVNIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The common country}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Modestinus;
PATRIA GENTIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The country and native soil of all nations}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Plinius;
PATRIA LIBERTATIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The country of liberty}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Sidonius;
POTENS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mighty [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Horatius, Ausonius, Paulinus {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{and Ovidius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
PRÆPOTENS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The mighty [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Nazarius;
PRIMA TERRARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The principal of all lands}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Paulinus;
PRIMA INTER VRBES, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The chief city of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ausonius;
PRINCEPS VRBIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The principal city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Horatius;
PVLCHERRIMA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The most beautiful [one]}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Vergilius;
PULCHERRIMA RERVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The most excellent and beautiful thing in the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Vergilius;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{PVLCHRA, {1606E only{The beautiful [one]}1606E only}, by Athenæus and Ovidius;
QVIRINI VRBS, {1606E only{The city of Quirinus}1606E only}, by Ovidius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
REGIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The palace}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Horatius;
REGINA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The Queen}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Athenæus and Ammianus Marcellinus;
REGINA PVLCHERRIMA MVNDI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The most beautiful Queen or Princess of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Rutilius;
209.18. {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{REGINA RERVM, {1606E only{The Queen of all things}1606E only}, by Eunapius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
REGINA TERRARVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The Queen of all lands}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus and Nazarius;
REGINA VRBIVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The Queen of all cities}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Athenæus;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{ROMVLEA, {1606E only{The city of Romulus}1606E only}, by Ovidius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
SACERDOTII FONS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The fountain and source of priesthood}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, in the code of Iustinianus;
SACRA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The holy city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ausonius, Mamertinus, Æthicus {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{and [inscribed] in some ancient marble}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
SACRATISSIMA VRBS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The most sacred and holy city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, in Iustinianus' code;
SATVRNIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Saturns city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ovidius;
SEDES TOTO MIRABILIS ORBE, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{A seat which all people in the world admire much}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
SEPTEMGEMINA, {1608/1612I only{the sevenfold, as regards its hills}1608/1612I only} by Statius;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{SVPERBA, {1606E only{The proud and stately [one]}1606E only}, by Ausonius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
TEMPLVM BELLICOSI MARTIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The temple of warlike Mars}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Plutarchus;
TEMPLVM LATISSIMVM OMNIVM VIRTVTVM, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The largest and most spacious temple of all heavenly virtues}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Cassiodorus;
TEMPLVM MVNDI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The common temple of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus Marcellinus;
TROIVGENA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{teaser of Troy}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Livius;
TVRBIDA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The foul and filthy city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Iuvenalis {1606E only{and Persius}1606E only};
VALLATA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The well defended city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Silius Italicus;
VENERABILIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The reverend and honourable city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Ammianus;
VERTEX MVNDI, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The top or centre of the world}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Sidonius;
{1601L, not in 1608/1612I{VICTRIX, {1606E only{The conqueress}1606E only}, by Ovidius}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
VICTVRA CVM SÆCVLIS, {1606E only{A city that shall stand as long as the world lasts}1606E only}, by Ammianus;
{1601L{VIRTVTVM LAR, {1606E only{The seat where virtue dwells}1606E only}, by Ammianus}1601L, not in 1608/1612I};
VRANOPOLIS, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The heavenly city}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Athenæus.

209.19. These and various other [forms of] praise and recommendations you may find in various good authors [writing] about this city, Cui par est nihil, & nihil secundum, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{To which nothing is equal, or comparable}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as Martialis speaks about it. Et, qua nihil in terris complectitur altius æther,{1606E & 1608/1612I only{A statelier thing than this in all the world the glorious sun has never seen}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as Claudianus writes. {1601L{And, as Martianus asserts, it was the head of all nations as regards weapons and holy men, as long as it was in its prime, equalling the glory of even heaven itself}1601L}.
209.20. The walls [of this city] (as specified by Olympiodorus in his Collections, according to the survey and measuring of Ammon, the geometrist, at the time that the Goths first captured and sacked it) were found to be twenty-one miles in circumference. {1601L{It was enlarged by emperor Aurelianus, as Vopiscus tells us, so that its walls had a circumference of almost 50 miles}1601L}. About Arpinum, the native ground of Cicero, the famous orator, (because it is depicted on this map), I can only write what Volaterranus has noted about it, namely, that on their ensigns and banners they have the three letters M.T.C. {1606E only{which are the first letters of the name and surname of that famous orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, as is supposed}1606E only}. About the Circæan mountain, because it is separately depicted in this map, I do not think it amiss a make a specific description separately.

209.21. {not in 1608/1612I{MOUNT CIRCÆIUS}not in 1608/1612I}
{1606E & 1608/1612I only{Now,
MONTE CIRCELLO}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.

209.22. Plinius and Pomponius Mela call this mountain CIRCÆVM MONTEM {not in 1606E, in Greek lettering{Kirchaios}not in 1606E}. Strabo and Ptolemæus [call it] CIRCÆUM, and an ancient inscription in this area calls it CIRCÆIUM, so named, as ancient writers confirm, after Circes, {1606E only{the famous sorceress, who once lived here, as they truly believe}1606E only}. For which reason Mela and Solinus, as well as Ovidius himself, call it Circes Domum, {1606E only{Circes house}1606E only}. Apollonius too, in a similar manner, calls it Circes habitation, {not in 1606E, in Greek lettering{Kirkès megaron}not in 1606E} & Æææ portum, {not in 1606E, in Greek lettering{Aiaiès limena}not in 1606E} (with three diphthongs Æææ, as Servius notes in Vergilius), the Ææan harbour.
209.23. It received this name, {1606E only{as the same grammarian writes}1606E only}, from a derogatory word used by those who passed by that way, uttered in contempt of those witchcrafts and sorceries of hers, by which she bewitched men {1606E only{into swine}1606E only}, which she practised here. For a long time this has been an island, surrounded by the ocean sea, but now, in the course of time, it has joined the mainland, according to Solinus. The same is confirmed by Plinius. It was once surrounded by the main sea, he says, as seems to be confirmed by Homerus, but now it is firmly joined to the main land. But was Homerus perhaps wrong? He surely was, as Procopius seems to express in the first book of his Gothica, {not in 1606E{as confirmed by Christopher Persona}not in 1606E}. About mount Circeius, he says, where they report that Ulysses had a meeting with the enchantress Circe, as I think, they say many things that cannot be true, except perhaps that one might say that this mountain used to be an island, because it extends a very long way into the vast ocean, &c.
209.24. And although Homerus receives support from Theophrastes in his History of Plants, and from Servius in his Commentaries on Vergilius' Æneides, {1601L{patrons of fabulous antiquity as they are}1601L}, yet, I prefer to side with Procopius, [as expressed in] the opinion of the learned M[r]. Isaac Casaubonus, who in his extensive Commentaries on the Geography of Strabo has observed that often even among the best geographers, islands and promontories are confounded, and one is taken for the other, so that that [area] which one author calls a promontory, is by another called and isle or a peninsula. Therefore I gladly prefer the description which Strabo provides of this place, {not in 1606E{as Xylandrus explains in his words, saying that the sea and woods do not turn it into an island}not in 1606E} {1606E only{above those descriptions provided by any of the other authors, as being more probable and true.
209.25. From Antium, he says, it is two hundred and ninety furlongs to where mount Circello (Circæum) is located; [it is] a hill partly surrounded by the sea and partly by marshy fens and bogs}1606E only}. I agree with Servius in attributing those things which the poets tell about the witchcraft of the sorceress Circe, and that fabulous transformation and change of men into various different forms and shapes, to forces of nature, rather than to magic or witchcraft, namely to the horror of those who pass by there, where men seem to be changed into beasts, and I may join Plinius in saying: How infinite are those fantasies that are told about Medea of Colchis, and others, but especially about our Italian Circe, who because of her outstanding skills in the art of magic was proclaimed as a goddess?
209.26. And let it be far from me, and from every Christian man, that we should believe those things which are wicked and profane to think or imagine. For I have read in the Ancyrane council [council in Ankara, Turkey, which convened three timed in the fourth century] that those are worse than pagans and infidels, who believe that any creature may by any man be turned and transformed into any other shape or likeness other than by the creator himself, who first determined that form and fashion. Therefore, let anyone else say what he will, and try to persuade me as he can, yet, they shall never make me believe these fantasies. It seems that this fantasy arose from the nature and quality of this place, for those places which lie out into the sea, as this promontory does, are usually more threatened by storms and winds than are those in any other place whatsoever. These blasts, accompanied by the waves, ebbs and tides of the surging sea, which beats on rocks, cliffs and hollow places, causes such a variety of sounds and noises that those who sail by this way, in great horror and trembling imagine to hear at one instant the mourning of men, the roaring of lions, the howling of wolves, the barking of dogs, [and] the grunting of hogs and bears.
209.27. These words of Lucanus in his sixth book [also] belong here: Omnia subducit Circææ vela procellæ [all sails are lowered in Circæan storms]. That this promontory is full of trees, especially oaks, myrtle and bay-trees, is what Theophrastes writes on the authority of others. Strabo says that it abounds with various sorts of roots. Maybe, he adds there, they claim this so as to apply it better in all respects to the fable of Circe. And don't you think that the following statement by Aristoteles, {1606E only{the prince of philosophers}1606E only}, in his Admiranda came from there? They report, he says, that on mount Circæio there grows a deadly poison of such a great strength that as soon as it is taken, all the hair of the body immediately falls off, and it so much weakens all its parts and members, that the body reduces and shrinks markedly, and acquires the appearance of a dead carcass such as would grieve anyone to behold.
209.28. Strabo writes that on this mountain there was an altar dedicated to Minerva, and to this very day one can see a certain goblet or bowl there that once belonged to Ulysses, but this last thing he claims to be the opinion and report of the common people only. But let us leave these fables for what they are, to return again to tell the history about those things which are truly found here or which have truly happened in this place.
209.29. Horatius has left on record that that the sea on this coast yields a great abundance of good oysters, which for that reason are called Ostrea Circæia. Suetonius reports that Marcus Lepidus was by Augustus Cæsar forever confined and banished to this place. Plutarchus writes that Julius Cæsar intended, right beneath the city, to alter the course of the Tiber by [digging] a deep channel, and to turn its course towards this Circæium promontorium, and thus to lead it to empty itself into the sea at the city of Anxur. By these means he intended to make the passage easier and safer for those who for trade and traffic were to travel by ship to Rome, but he was prevented by death from achieving what he aimed at.
209.30. Here also was the city of CIRCÆIUM or Circæia, or, as Strabo calls it, Circe's town. It is jointly stated by Tarquinius, Livius, Halicarnassæus, Cicero, and Plutarchus that it was made into a settlement of the Romans. Strabo says that it has a good and convenient harbour. I think that the reference or actual location of this ancient city of Circæia still remains on this mountain there where in this description you see certain ruins and foundations of walls, as it were of a city which was long ago razed and levelled to the ground, which place nowadays is called by the name Citta vecchia, which means as much as the old city. Certain remnants of this name can still be seen, engraved on the top of this same mountain, as stated on the basis of first hand knowledge by Angelus Breventanus, a man with a good reputation, the author of this description, and a most diligent explorer of the Roman antiquities, yet they are much defaced, as he also concedes, and worn out in the course of time, namely in the following form:

//////////// ///////

209.32. The Breventanus just mentioned thinks that this description indicates the distance from this place to Rome. And it can be seen to this day in that place on the mountain where you see this mark of a star * printed}1606E ends here}. [In 1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L there are here, in 1624LParergon/1641S at the bottom of the text two Roman copper coins, each with both sides displayed. The first coin shows a man's head, and on the other side a ship's bow with ROMA written under it. The other coin shows a double head, perhaps referring to the Roman god Ianus, and on the other side a ship's bow with ROMA written under it, very similar to the previous coin. Between the first and the second coin there is the text: ex ære [in copper]. The 1606E edition does not have these coins].
209.33. In gratitude to those who study Roman antiquity, it has pleased me to add images of our ancient coins: for to some exent they testify those matters which we reported from Vergilius, Ovidius and Prudentius here. Further, what Macrobius remembered from the first book of Saturnalia, in these words: Ianus, when he had hospitably received Saturnus who had come by ship, & and by him had been thoroughly instructed about country life, and having improved his morals, which previously had been of a wild and rude nature, he offered him a share in the rulership. He had committed this to stamps for making copper coins, to commemmorate Saturnus for posterity. Therefore, copper coins have this image, one with the image of a head, the other with a ship, and can be seen today in dicing, when children throw denarii coins into the air, shouting head or ship [cf. heads or tails], as was the custom in antiquity.}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

What follows now is the translation of the text of the 1597 5th German Additamentum and the 1602 German editions, which are identical except for page number:

209.33a. {1597G5Add{Latium.

209.34. Latium is the first of the eleven regions in which emperor Augustus divided Italy according to Plinius and it consists of two parts, namely the Old and the New Latium. Old Latium extends from the river Tiber to the Circeian fields. New Latium to the river Liris as Plinius and Strabo, or, as Servius writes, a little further, to the river Vulturum. Its borders are the Tyrranean sea, the Apennine mountains, and the rivers Tiber, Anius and Lyris.
209.35. It is surrounded in the form of a ring by the Tuscians, Sabines, Marsi, Samnites, Pregutians and Campanians. Servius whom we mentioned before claims that its name derives from the Latin word latere which means to be hidden, because Saturnus, who had been chased away, hid himself here, or as the ancient writer Varro says, because it lies hidden between the Alps and the Apennine mountains, but when we consider the other areas of Italy, which lie equally hidden, it is more credible that it has been derived from latitudine, which means width, because there are no other regions which extend so much in width between the sea and the mountain range as this one, as you can see on the map.
209.36. Its inhabitants were the Latins, named after their king Latinus. About the nature and characteristics of this region Theophrastes writes that it is very marshy. Laurel and myrtle trees grow here to such a height that the Etruscans could make the keels of their ships out of them. In the mountains one finds firs and pine trees. Plinius praises the Latin wine and also says that this area has been built up and is inhabited in many gorgeous cities since he writes that in Old Latium only there have been 53 different tribes, and that in the Pomptinian marsh there are 23 cities.
209.37. Among the cities of Old Latium Alba was the capital, and after that Rome, not just of this region, but of the entire world, and with what names it was adorned can be found in the ancient reliable writers. At the time when it was first attacked by the Goths, as Olympiodorus says in the description of Ammon, it was of a size of 21 miles. Mount Circæus, which is depicted separately on this map, will be described below.

209.38. Mount Circæus.

209.39. This mountain, as indicated in ancient writings, has obtained its name from the famous sorceress Circe, who is supposed to have lived here. In former times, according to Solinus, Plinius and Homerus, it used to have the form of a ring of islands in the sea, but in the course of time, it formed a connection with the mainland, but Procopius contradicts this when he writes that this mountain extends itself far off into the sea, which is easier to believe, because the words island and promontory in the writings of geographers have often been mixed up and are used interchangeably, and what one calls a promontory, the other calls an island or a peninsula.
209.40. Whatever has been said by the poets about Circe whom we mentioned before, who through magic is supposed to have changed people into different shapes, may be ascribed to nature, rather than to magic. It is not Christian to believe in such things, since it has been established in the Ancyrian council [council of Ankara which convened 3 times in the fourth century] that those who believe that any creature can be changed into another form by anyone else but God our creator, are worse than the pagans and unbelievers. We should rather suspect that these fables originated from the location and nature of this place.
209.41. For it is remarkable how far this promontory extends into the sea, in all kinds of curves, and is battered by the sea raging against its rocks and cliffs with great violence, and makes such terrifying noise in doing so that those who pass by on a ship, not without great fright, think that they hear at once the sighing of people, the roaring of lions, the howlings of wolves, the barking of dogs, the grunting of swine, and the growling of bears.
209.42. This promontory is densely covered by trees, particularly oaks, laurels and myrtle trees, as Theophrastes writes. According to Strabo, it is also supposed to have numerous roots and herbs, which, as he claims, has been the cause of the fables just mentioned about Circe. This may also be the reason why Aristoteles writes that there is such a lethal poison growing on this mountain, that as soon as it has been eaten, all hair of the entire body will fall out, the limbs will be weakened, until these people are similar to a corpse. On this island there seems to be the altar of Minerva, and a dish belonging to Ulysses. But to return to its history, Horatius writes that the sea around this mountain yields plenty of excellent oysters.
209.43. To this place, as Suetonius writes, did Emperor Augustus banish M. Lepidus. Cæsar has wanted to guide the river Tiber, which traverses the city, through a deep ditch into the sea near the city of Auxur, as we find in Plutarchus, so that the merchants could in greater ease and safety reach the city of Rome, but (because of his untimely death) he was unable to finish his intentions. There used to be a city here named Circæum or Circæia. King Tarquinius is claimed to have led various citizens of Rome to live here, as has been recorded by Livius, Halicarnassæus, Cicero and Plutarchus. It is also supposed to have had a harbour, as Strabo writes. There are still some old ruins to be seen there, which are nowadays called Citta Vecchia, the Old City}1597G5Add & 1602G only which end here}.

Bibliographical sources

For questions/comments concerning this page, please e-mail