Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 201

Text, translated from the 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612Spanish/Latin edition & 1624LParergon/1641Spanish [but text in Latin]:

201.1. {1603L{About the first FOUNDATION and ORDER of the GERMAN EMPIRE {1606E only{in the West}1606E only} GERMANICI TABVLA I.

201.2. After IVLIVS CĂSAR had by continuous wars appeased most of the unrest and seditious quarrels which for a number of years in the past had much troubled the Roman state, and after he had sent Pompeius and those other unfortunate enviers of his valour and prosperous success in martial affairs either into death {1606E only{or to the Devil}1606E only}, or had removed them far off into foreign countries alive by banishment, he entered Rome as a valiant conqueror of all, where, challenging and assuming for himself a sovereign authority and honour above everyone (he himself indeed as a monarch at his pleasure commanding everybody), [he] was the first who began the FOURTH MONARCHY, which after the place where it was located, was surnamed The Roman monarchy.
201.3. In this dignity, which was the highest that could be bestowed on any mortal being, he behaved himself most tyrannously and proudly, (for he ordered that his statue should be erected among the odious and wicked kings, and that his state throne should be made of beaten gold, and that the citizens should bestow divine honour on him, and that they should worship him as a god). Certain senators objected strongly to his lordly government, and in the senate house wounded him in 23 different places, of which he died in the year 709 after the foundation of the city of Rome.
201.4. In spite of the fact that he was removed in this way, the chief authority of the empire was not returned to the Romans, for AVGVSTVS, the sole adopted heir of CŠsar immediately stepped into the imperial seat and by force of arms assumed the sovereign dignity {1606E only{and whatever else his predecessor had gained possession of and enjoyed by hook or by crook}1606E only}. Under his government all things came to rest and were no longer spoken about, since there was now no longer the least noise of tumultuous wars stirring the world, and all people admired this blessed and happy peace.
201.5. And {1606E only{as is usual in all policies}1606E only}, they highly extolled the monarch as the author and preserver of it. Under the name of this title, the Romans alone, for many ages most honourable and fearful for others, were the victors and conquerors wherever they went, until finally some idle and cruel-minded people were promoted to that dignity [of becoming the emperor].
201.6. They decided in a rather tyrannical way to show their force and power at home against kinsfolk, friends, subjects and best men of all sorts, as well as abroad against public enemies and disturbers of the state. These men through all kinds of unlawful means succeeded one another, until at last the empire and management of the commonwealth was only in the hands of tyrants and usurpers. Nor was there any man now that would take the trouble once to defend the empire from furious attacks of the raging enemy, and no wonder. For the very empire itself, and whatever rightfully belonged to it, was by its soldiers bought and sold for money, or donated [to obtain] favours and affection.
201.7. While all things stood like this in the Roman empire, ODOACER, king of the Huns, with a mighty army invaded it, and in all places whatsoever where he came, he overthrew and conquered the Roman forces and garrisons. For at this time in the idle and dissolute soldiers there remained neither strength nor true fortitude.
201.8. AVGVSTVLVS the emperor, hearing this news and being afflicted with great fear, fled, and to be able to escape without being recognised, threw off his imperial robes and ornaments on his flight. Meanwhile Odoacer speedily went to Rome, besieged it, took it and within a few days wholly and quietly occupied it.
201.9. [He] changed the cities name, and ordered by proclamation to call it ODOACRIA after his own name. But together with its ancient name, the city also lost its former beauty and lustre, as there was nothing to be seen there now but miserable destruction and ruins.
201.10. This prosperous success and easy invasion of the city of Rome by Odoacer fourteen years later prompted THEODORICVS, king of the Goths, who was then in Thrace, to attempt the same [action]. Therefore he mustered his men and with many thousands of Goths he entered Italy, expelled Odoacer from Rome, and again a second time from Verona, and forcing him and his forces to flee, chased him to Ravenna, where he besieged him for a period of three years before he forced him to give it up, after which he [Theodoricus] caught him [Odoacer] and put him to death.
201.11. Frowning fortune was [still] not satisfied that Rome was thus once or twice taken, sacked and consumed by fire, [so then] the LONGOBARDI, {1606E only{[or] Lombardes}1606E only}, a strange and cruel people, also invaded Italy, and defaced and overthrew whatever the previous invaders had left untouched and standing. All things whatever were now deformed and destroyed which in former times used to be most beautiful and glorious, [and] Roman citizens were compelled to forsake the ancient and famous title so long enjoyed by them, and because of this irrecoverable damage the concept of an emperor was forever banished from Italy.
201.12. In this situation of the Romans, bereft of all help at home, and in vain expecting help from the Greek (who for their empire were satisfied with Constantinople only), the Pope of Rome was forced, in order to defend the church in this situation of distress, to ask help from Charles, king of the Franks, who was afterwards surnamed CHARLES THE GREAT.
201.13. This good king {1606E only{exerted himself with excellent zeal to preserve the Christian religion. He}1606E only} crossed the Alps with a large army, expelled the Lombards, took their king Desiderius and his wife and children captive, utterly destroyed their kingdom, and cleanly eradicated these impious people.
201.14. The Pope, noting his invincible courage and the singular love he bore towards the church and religion, with general consent and admiring applause from all men, crowned him in the year after Christ's birth 801 with the imperial diadem, and bestowed on him the title of AVGVSTVS and GREAT EMPEROR {1606E only{of the West}1606E only}.
201.15. This king was the first one who by the Germans was called emperor, and that dignity was [thus] transferred from the Greek to the Germans. He valiantly attacked the Huns, and through continuous warfare afflicted them in such a manner that they were never able to recover.
201.16. The Normans, Frisians, Danes, Angles, Saxons and others that threatened the empire he afflicted and weakened wonderfully. Having on all sides greatly enlarged the empire, he quietly swayed the sceptre at home for a period of fourteen years, without tumults and war, and [then] committed his government to his son Ludovicus, surnamed the religious, and ended his life at Aquisgrani [Aachen].
201.17. After the reign of this Charles, the dignity and title of the empire only remained with the Germans through continuous wars and bloodshed, since various kings desired to take it to their crown and nation and through force of the sword tried by all means to accomplish this goal. To have it for the French, Charles the Bald spared no efforts, exerted himself greatly, and caused a lot of commotion.
201.18. But the Germans, fighting bravely [to retain] the imperial title and dignity, after many grievous conflicts drove them cleanly and entirely out of Germany. Ludovicus the Fourth most furiously attacked Berengarius, a usurper just proclaimed emperor in Italy, defeated him on the battlefield, and forced him to take to his heels. The Italians often wished that this dignity that they lost might again be restored to them, {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{(and no wonder, considering that every nation considers it a most honourable thing to enjoy the title of empire as belonging to them)}not in 1624LParergon/1641S}.
201.19. Yet, in spite of all external envy, for altogether a very long time this dignity remained in the hands of the Germans, as the princes of this country bravely defended and preserved it by force of arms against all harm and foreign invasions whatever. Until at length the princes mentioned, realising what was best for the situation and well-being of the empire, chose as their emperor Otto the Fourth {1624LParergon/1641S have instead{the Third}1624LParergon/1641S instead}, a natural son of Otto the Third {1624LParergon/1641S have instead{Second}1624LParergon/1641S instead}, {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{a young man brought up in Rome and once under the custody and education of Henricus, the duke of Bavaria}not in 1624LParergon/1641S}.
201.20. The emperor, {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{aware that it would not be easy to make an appeal to end the wars and controversies resulting from the election and choice of the emperor, unless this choice was made by some other procedure and order}not in 1624LParergon/1641S}, therefore devised a new order and manner of election to remove from the people all causes for disagreement and uproar, through which procedure [the election result] might quietly be maintained among the Germans, as the following table demonstrates}1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.
201.21. {1606E only{This order is expressed on this map here, and amounts to the following: In the first rank are the seven PRINCE ELECTORS and Officers of the sacred Roman Empire, instituted by Otto the Third of which the three on the right are Ecclesiastical people or Churchmen, namely the ARCHBISHOP OF TRIER (a city situated on the river Moselle), chief Chancellor for the Empire in the kingdom of France. [Then] the ARCHBISHOP OF COLOGNE on the Rhine, Chief Chancellor in Italy, and [finally] the ARCHBISHOP OF METZ, Chief Chancellor of Germany.
201.22. The other four on the left are secular or lay men. The first is the KING OF BOHEMIA, the cup-bearer, the second is the [representative of] the COUNTY PALATINE of [the] Rhine, the taster. The third is the DUKE OF SAXONY, the sword-bearer. The fourth is the MARQUIS OF BRANDENBURG, the lord great chamberlain to the emperor.
201.23. In the second rank we have first the four dukes of the empire, namely the DUKE OF SWITZERLAND, the DUKE OF BRUNSWICK, the DUKE OF BAVARIA and the DUKE OF LORRAIGNE. Then on the left the four MARQUISES, namely the MARQUIS OF MEISSEN, the MARQUIS OF MORAVIA, the MARQUIS OF BADEN and the MARQUIS OF BRANDENBURG.
201.24. In the third and last row, follow the eight COUNTS of the empire, of whom the LANDGRAVE OF DURINGEN, the LANDGRAVE OF HESSEN, the counts of LUCHTENBERG and of ALSATIA are provincial counts. The other four, MEIDENBURG, NURNBERG, RENECK and STOMBURG are count marshal, or [counts] of the field}1606E only which ends here}.

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