Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 170

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 Latin and 1575 Latin edition:

170.1. {1570L(ABC){Palestine or the Holy Land

170.2. Palestine, once called Chanaan, comprises Idumĉa, Iudĉa, Samaria and Galilĉa. Yet, we often call all of Palestine Iudĉa. In the East its border is the Libanon mountain range, in the West the Phœnician sea, in the North Phœnicia, in the South Arabia Petrĉa. The IDVMĈANS live in the West from the lake Sirbonia onwards; their cities are Maresa, Rhinocorura, and more inland Raphĉa, Gaza (by others attributed to Iudĉa), Anthedon, Ascalon and Azotus.
170.3. IVDĈA in the West and South borders on Idumĉa, but with indistinct borders, and on our sea which belongs to it in the North all the way to lake Asphalt [the Dead Sea], and it extends a little further to what is called Transjordanes. Iudĉa has many cities. But by far the most famous city is Hierosolyma [Jerusalem], renowned for its temple which has filled the lands of the earth with its glory. King Salomo built it in seven years with 150,000 workers all the way to the roof. There is also Joppe, nowadays Jaffa, and the stronghold of Strato, rebuilt as Cĉsarea by the Tetrarch Herodes in honour of emperor Augustus.
170.4. And more inland, not far from Jerusalem, you find Bethlehem, Hebron, Cypris, and in Transjordanian Macherus, Sodom and Gomorra. SAMARIA is next to Iudĉa, located between our sea and lake Tiberias. Its cities are Sichem or Sichima, later called Neapolis. Then Capernaum at the bank of lake Genesareth, then Bethsaida on the river Jordan, Corazim and Magdalum. GALILĈA is in the East enclosed by the cave of Syria, and in the West by Phœnicia. In the North it borders on the Libanus and Antilibanus, in the South on Samaria. Its cities are Nain, Cana, Nazareth and Gadara.
170.5. Galilĉa, also called of the heathens, [is] the area of the tribe of Naphtali bordering on Syria; the other [part of Galilĉa covers] the area of the tribe of Zebulon near Tiberias and lake Genazareth.
170.6. The river Jordan originates from two springs on the Antilibanus mountain range, one called Jor, the other Dan. It flows through the middle of Judĉa. Similar to its [confluent] names, its confluent waters make two lakes: the first is lake Genesara, the other lake Tiberias. Then it flows into lake Asphalt [Dead sea], where you find tar, and where nothing will sink and which for the immobility of its waters is called the Dead Sea. That is where it sends its waters, which is praised for its medicinal significance. At a greater distance from Jerusalem there are fields burned by divine fire, for the land there is covered with a heavy layer of ashes. Fruits grow there which are green on the outside and which seem to be edible, but which have black soot inside and cannot be eaten.
170.7. The Essenes live in the interior of Judĉa, who keep aloof from the habits of the other inhabitants. They abstain from wives, wine and meat. Every day they spend fasting in the open air. They do not know money. A life more patient than the service of God or other religious activities is ignored by them. They are an eternal people, although nobody is born there, for daily new adherents are born by the arrival of newcomers. This we have from Georgius Rithaymer.
170.8. This area, praiseworthy above all others (except the Holy Script) has been described elaborately by Josephus in About the Jewish War, Book 3 chapter 2, by F. Brochardus the monk, most learnedly by Vadianus in his Summary of the Whole World in three volumes, by Jacobus Zieglerus, by Wolfgang Wissenburgius and by Postellus in his book on Universality {1570L(C){and in a booklet about Syria}1570L(C)}. And also by others who have seen and observed it, like Petrus Bellonius in his Observations, by Andreas Thevetus in his Cosmography of the East, and by Jodocus van Ghistel. {1574L{and also by Bartholemĉus à Saligniaco}1574L}. {1573L(A){But best of all by the learned Benedictus Arias Montanus in a specific writing on Chaleb in his Biblical Apparatus}1573L(A)}. {1573L(AB), 1574L & 1575L only{To these may be added the Itinerary of Blessed Maria by Georgius Agricola Hammonius}1573L(AB), 1574L & 1575L only}.
170.9. The most prominent city of this area, or rather of the whole world, Jerusalem, has been described most precisely by Josephus in his Jewish War book 6 chapter 6, and recently in seven books by Adamus Reisnerus}1573L(AB), 1574L & 1575L end here}. {1570L(ABC) & 1571L only{To these may be added the Itinerary of Blessed Maria by Georgius Agricola Hammonius}1570L(ABC), 1571L end here}.

Text, vernacular version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German & 1572/1574 French editions:

170.10. {1571/1573D{The Holy Land.

170.11. By the old pagan writers this land is called Palestina. For the Jews it is the Land of Promises, and the Christians call it the Holy Land. This Holy Land borders in the East on Mount Libanus, in the West on the sea, in the North on Phœnicia and in the South on stony Arabia. This area comprises Idumea, Judea, Samaria and Galilea, although sometimes all these are comprised under the name of Judea.
170.12. Idumea begins at lake Sirbonis in the West. Here are the cities of Maresa, Rhinocorura, Raphea, Anthedon, Ascalon, Azotus and Gaza (although this last one is sometimes attributed to Judea). Judea lies between the Great and the Dead Sea, and is the best part. It has many cities among which the prime one is Jerusalem, whose name is known all over the world. It is here that Salomon built the widely celebrated temple, accomplishing this with the help of one hundred and fifty thousand people in seven years.
170.13. The Turks nowadays call this Jerusalem by the name of Cuzumobarech. Then there is Joppe, now called Jaffa, lying on the sea coast where the pilgrims land who are going to visit the holy grave. Then Turris Stratonis, rebuilt by Herodes as Tetrarcha, and called Cesarea in honour of Augustus. Then there are Bethlehem, Hebron, Cypris, and across the river Jordan Macheris, Sodom and Gomorra.
170.14. Next comes Samaria, which lies between the Great Sea and lake Tiberias. The cities there are Sichem, later called Neapolis, Capernaum at lake Tiberias, Bethsaida on the Jordan, Corazim, Magdalum etc. Galilea extends from here to mount Libanus. The cities there are Nain, Cana, Nazareth, Gadara etc. From mount Libanus spring two waters, one called Jor, the other Dan which, when they merge, also merge their names, and are then called the river Jordan. This river runs through the entire holy land and makes two lakes after which it ends in the Dead Lake or Sea.
170.15. This is a miraculous sea by nature, always stagnant, (hence its name), and containing a gluish substance like tar, which is called {1572/1574F{in German}1572/1574F} Jewish glue (in Latin Bitumen). In this lake, because of its tar which floats there, nothing can sink, no matter how heavy it is. It also emits a smokey stench or vapour. This sea used to be a pleasant and beautiful area where the cities of Sodom and Gomorra etc. were located, which now, as a perpetual memory have degraded into such a pool. For us this is a scar teaching us about the abominable sins and Gods perpetual punishments of them.
170.16. This land of Promise is the one about which much has been written {not in 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F{in the Holy Script}not in 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F} in the old and new Testament. Also the one which God had chosen above all other lands to plant there the right religion and service to God, so that its branches and fruits from there could be extended and tasted throughout the entire world. Here is the glorious city of Jerusalem (symbol of eternal paradise and peace) with its precious and ornate temple of Salomon (an image of his glorious bride or churches). Here used to live the patriarchs and prophets, who in the service of God have proclaimed the future of our Saviour. Here God became human, adopting our mortal flesh, and he died for our sins, and rose from the dead for our justice.
170.17. Here his beloved apostles received the Holy Ghost and from here they departed to preach the gospel throughout the entire world. Therefore this land may with good reason be called Holy, and the events which took place here may be read and contemplated by us in great dignity}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F end here}.

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