Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 153

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

153.1. {1575L{TRANSSYLVANIA{1580/1589G & 1602G only{or Siebenburgen}1580/1589G & 1602G only}.

153.2. Stephanus Broderith in his treatise printed at Basel, together with the Hungarian history of Antonius Bonfinius describes this country like this: Transylvania, he says, was once a part of Dacia. Its chief city is Alba Iulia, {1606E only{(Weissenburg)}1606E only}, so called either after Iulius Cĉsar or rather after Hiula, a certain prince of the Huns. It has many other excellent towns, among which there are Cibinium {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{(or Hermannstadt)}[Nagyszeben]1580/1589G & 1602G only} called Seben by the Hungarians, situated on the river Cibin}1606E only}. [Then there are] Brassovia {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{(Chronstadt) [Brasso]}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}, Colosium {1606E only{(Clausenburg)}1606E only}, Bistricia {1606E only{(Bestereze)}1606E only} and many others, built up and inhabited by a people of high Germany that we call Saxons.
153.3. In this country live the Siculi, a fierce and warlike people, among whom there are no tramps nor gentlemen, because all men are of equal rank, as is also the case among the Swiss. Transsylvania is very abundant in all kinds of things, especially in gold, silver and other metals, and also in salt dug from its mountains. It breeds excellent horses, and yields a great amount of wine, though not as good as [that from] Hungary and Slavonia. Two Walachies, [viz.] Walachie Transalpina [or] Walachie beyond the mountains and Moldavia enclose Transsylvania. One lies at the river Danube, the other at the Euxine sea {1606E only{or Mar maiore as the Italians call it}[Black sea] 1606E only}.
153.4. Both of them, together with Transsylvania now occupy that part of Europe which in ancient times was called Dacia. Thus, the whole area beyond [the] Danube which not only contains higher Hungary but also Transsylvania together with the two Walachies, is enclosed on every side by [the] Danube, the Carpathian hills, {1606E only(Crapacke as some think)}1606E only}, the Euxine sea and again by the same Danube. So far Broderith.
153.5. I do not think it amiss here to publish its description [taken] from Antonius Bonfinius' first decade of the first book of his history of Hungary. Beyond the Carpathian mountains, he says, is the utmost area of Dacia, extending even to the river Axiaces [Oczakow]. This is now commonly known by the name of Transsylvania, {1606E only{they call it Sibenburgen, the Hungarians Herdel}1606E only}. It is a most fertile country for cattle, wine and corn, [and] also for gold and silver.
153.6. Certain rivers bring down traces of gold, and [even] pieces, sometimes a pound and a half in weight, [the rivers] being all around beset with steep hills like a crown. In the woods are cows oxen with long manes like horses, aurochses {1606E instead{buffaloes}1606E instead} and wild horses, very swift and light in their running, and the horses have very long manes hanging down all the way to the ground. Those which are tame and have been brought up for service naturally have a very fine [and] easy way of walking.
153.7. This country is inhabited partly by the Scythians {1608/1612I only{or Siculi}1608/1612I only}, partly by the Saxons and Dacians. Those [first mentioned] are more civil, those [last mentioned] are more rude. In old times, before the attacks of the Goths and Huns, all of Dacia was occupied by the Roman and Sarmatian settlements &c. {1579L(A){Georgius of Reichersdorf has described this country in a specific treatise}1579L(A)}. See also Georgius Rithmayer, {1592L, not in 1602G{Petrus Rantzanus}1592L, not in 1602G}, Pius the second in his description of Europe, Ioannes Aventinus, and Martinus Cromer in his twelfth book on the history of Poland.
153.8. This country is commonly called Siebenburg and [also] Zipserland, as Sebastian Münster has written}1575L ends here}. {1584L, not in 1602G{More about the knowledge and exploration of this area is to be sought in {1595L{the first chapter and second section of}1595L} the twelfth book of Wolfgang Lazius' Roman commonwealth,}1584L} {1595L{and in Laonicus' fifth book}1595L}. {1601L{Finally, in the oration Protreptica of Ioannes Cuspinianus}1601L, not in 1602G}.

153.9. {1579L(A)Synonyms or different names of one and the same place in Transsylvania according to how they are called by the Hungarians, Germans and Romans, [as well as some in English in the 1606E edition] given by Ioannes Sambucus.[in three columns; first column:]

153.10. Erdel, SIBENBURGEN, Dacia ripensis, Pannodacia, Trans.vel Ultrasiluania.
153.11. Nagbanya, NEWSTEETL, Riuuli domin.
153.12. Rudbanya, Rodna.
153.13. Bestercze, NOSN, Bistritia
153.14. Bonczyda, BONISPRUGH.
153.15. Kolosuar, CLAUSNBURG, Claudipolis.
153.16. Offenbanya, OFFNBURG.
153.17. Aprukh, SCHLATN.
153.18. Samosfalu, MIKLDORFF.
153.19. Buza, BUSATEN.
153.20. Vorosmarth, ROSPERG.
153.21. Demetersalua, METERSDORFF.
153.22. Teuuisch, DURNEN.
153.23. Balasfalua, BLASNDORFF.
153.24. Gulafeyruar, WEYSSENBURG, Alba Iulia, Sarmisdacia.
153.25. Zekluafarhel, NEWMARKH.
153.26. Kizekmezeu, IBISDORFF.
153.27. Felseupold, OBERSPALD.
153.28. Absopold, NIDERSPALD.
[1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1609/1612L second column:]
153.29. Zazzebes, MILLENBACH, Zabeus.
[1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S second column:].
153.30. Holduilagh, SCHARN.
[1606E second column:]
153.31. Apafalu, APSDORFF.
153.32. Monera, DONNERSMARKHT.
153.33. Braniczka, WERNTAPFF.
153.34. Baijon, BONISDORFF.
153.35. Ekemezeu, PROSDORFF.
153.36. Zelindes, STOLTZEBURG.
153.37. Naghczur, GROSSCHEYREN.
153.38. Rihonfalua, REICHERSDORFF, Requiescit.
153.39. Brasso, CRONSTATT, Corona, vel Stephanopolis.
153.40. Varhel, ZARMIS.
153.41. Segesuar, SCHESBURG.
153.42. Zazhalom, HUNDERTBUHL, Centum colles, {1606E only{A HUNDRED HILLS}1606E only}.
153.43. Zarkan, SCHIRCKINGEN.
153.44. Keuhalom, KEPS.
153.45. Kykelvwar, KIKLPURG.
153.46. Veczel, Venecia, Vlpia Traiana.
153.47. Kerestien mezeu, AW, Insula Christi, {1606E only{CHRISTS ISLAND}1606E only}.
153.48. Muschna, MESCHEN.
153.49. Kakasfalu, HANDORFF.
[1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1609/1612L third column:]
153.50. Recze, RATZILD.
[1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1592L, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I third column:]
153.51. Ioffij Val. Dobra.
[1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S third column:]
153.52. Vizakna, SALTZBURG.
153.53. Barczalagh, WURTZLAND, Burcia.
153.54. Vaskapu, EYSVTHOS, Pila Getica {not in 1606E{veteribus}not in 1606E} {1606E only{THE ANCIENTS CALL IT}1606E only}.
153.55. Veurostorn, RATERTUERN.
153.56. Zakadat, Zaka.
153.57. Feketetho, Nigra palus, {1606E only{BLACK MOOR}1606E only}.
153.58. Tolmacz, TALMISCH.
153.59. Aran, Auratus fluv.
153.60. Zamos, SAMISCH, Samosus fl.
153.61. Keureuz, DIE KRAYTZ, Chrysius fl.
153.62. Feier Keureus, WEISS KREYSZ.
153.63. Fekethe Keureus, SCHWARTZ KREYSZ.
153.64. Sebes keureus, DIE SCHNEL KREYSZ fl.
153.65. Maros, MERISCH, Marysus fl.
153.66. Olt, DIE ALTH, Aluata, Aluttus fl.
153.67. Strell, ISTRIG, Sargetia, vel {not in 1606E{{potius}not in 1606E} Strigetia, fl.
153.68. Ompay, DIE OMP fl.
153.69. Haczagh, vel Hathsaag, or rather the valley Sarmitia, where there was once the city of Sarmisgethusa &c}1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Now follows the vernacular text translated from the 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch edition:

153.69a. {1581F{Sevenborgen or Transsylvania.
153.70. Sevenborgen, so called by the Saxons, (as Rithmeyer writes), because they are supposed to have built seven bulwarks there, is surrounded by a high and wild mountain range, like a city is surrounded by a wall, so that it is hard to get out or in, except through some straights, like where rivers leave the country, as in this case the river Alt [Oltul], which has the strong bulwark Rotthurn high above it, guarding passage. Similarly, the strong bulwark Bros guards the passage of the river Marisch [Maros]. The principal cities in this region are Hermannstadt, Cronstadt, Schlespurg [Segesuar] , Medwisch [Megies], Nosn [not on map], Clausenburg [Kolosuar], Millembach [Zaszebes], Weyssenburg [Balgrad], as their German names are, for otherwise, (there being more than one language in this land), they have each of them also specific names in the Hungarian language.
153.71. Its capital city is Cibinium, in German Hermannstadt, a big and strong city, with many marshes around it, which make it invincible. The second best city is Cronstadt. This city too, as regards the road for coming in and going out is guarded by a strong bulwark called Turtsfest. There is reasonable trade in merchandise with the Greeks there. A two days journey from here lies the city of Tervis [not on map] in the Walachy [area], a good merchant city, but under the Turks.
153.72. This land of Sevenburgen is full of people, mostly having come from Saxony, which still shows in their language, because they still speak the Saxon language, and they do not say was and das, but wat and dat. Also note that this country with its German language lies in the middle of regions with different languages, such as Hungarian and Windisch [Slavonic], just like Bohemia with its Windisch language is entirely surrounded by German, although in this Sevenburgen Hungarian is spoken in some places, and most of the geographical names such as of mountains, waters, have a Hungarian as well as a German form.
153.73. It is a very fertile country, full of gold mines and in some rivers you also find specks of gold, even pieces as heavy as one and a half pound, as Bonfinius writes. People also mine much silver, copper, and iron, and also salt. Much wine grows here too, red and white, but not of so good as Hungarian wine. It is also very fertile in cattle and corn. They also have good wild horses, very fast when running, with manes hanging all the way to the ground. There are also wild oxen here, with long hair, called aurochses.
153.74. In this Sevenburgen there is also a special region, on the North side, called Zeckellandt, with inhabitants excellent in war. Here there are no noblemen or farmers, but all equally capable for everything, and they are not subjected by anyone, like the Swiss. They have three cities called stools, which are Kysdy, Orbay and Scepsy. Here they gather when they have their yearly meeting. These do not speak German, but Hungarian}1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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