Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 139

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin(ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin(AB), 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin(AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641S editions:

139.1. {1570L(ABC){The kingdom of NAPLES.

139.2. This kingdom extends between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian {1606E instead{Midland}1606E instead} seas, from the river Tronto and Fundi, {1606E only{a city located at lake Fundo}1606E only} to the firth of Messina {1606E only{(the Romans call it fretum Mamertinum or Messanę, the Italians el faro di Meßina)}1606E only} [and] contains nine most rich and excellent countries of Italy, namely these: A part of Latium {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{called Campańa de Roma}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Campania felix {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Land of Labour}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Lucania {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{also called Basilicata}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Calabria}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, Magna Gręcia {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Apulia}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Salentini {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or land of Otronto}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Apulia Peucetij {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or land of the Bari}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}, Apulia Dauni {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Puglia piana}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} and Aprutium {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Abruzzo}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}. The elegant city of Naples which gave its name to the whole kingdom, situated between the sea shore and the foot of most pleasant mountains, has a temperate and wholesome climate, with most sweet fields in it, and therefore, in our present age, princes and noblemen come to it as much as ever before.
139.3. For almost all the nobility of this whole kingdom spend most of the year in this city, and almost all of them have here most beautiful and stately houses, so that the busy throng of princes, dukes, marquises, counts, knights, doctors, barons and noblemen is here so great that there are few cities in the world, in my judgment, which in this respect can compare to Naples. The city is very large and wide in its circumference, gorgeously built and located, as I said, between the sea and the good, pleasant hills, strongly walled and fortified, especially that part which was done recently at the command of Charles the fifth.
139.4. Its buildings, both churches and houses of private citizens, are most beautiful and stately, with various castles and towers [which are] almost invincible. But among the rest the house of the duke of Gravina and [that of] the prince of Salerno are the best. The streets of the city are very fair and straight. There are four courts which they call seats, [namely] Capuana, Nida, Montana and St. Georgio, where the princes, dukes, marquises and other nobility meet to deliberate weighty matters and public affairs.
139.5. The strong castles are these: Castello novo, which Alphonsus the first founded and entrenched under very high charges and expenses, so that now it may be regarded as the most defensible fortification in all of Europe. Next to this is Castello Capuano which is now used as a meeting place for the state to [enter into] consultations concerning matters of the kingdom and the city. Then there is Castellum Ovi, [fortress of the egg] a little outside the city, standing upon a rock (the ancients called it Meagrum), surrounded by the sea. Next to these, there is Castellum Santemerense, [situated] upon a cliff, overlooking the walls of the city, recently strongly fortified by Charles the fifth.
139.6. Outside the walls, on the South side of the city, there is a block house in the sea, a work of wonderful art and cunning workmanship, built for the defence and safety of the harbour [which is] continually full of ships from almost all quarters of the world. Here is also a university where all kinds of liberal arts and sciences are taught and professed, to which many students gather from all places of the kingdom. {1595L, but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{So far Ubertus Folietta in his treatise which he wrote under the title Brumanum}1595L, but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}.
139.7. Outside the walls of this most stately city there are most pleasant sweet fields, yielding all kinds of necessary things, not only for the maintenance of man and beast, but also such as serve for human pleasure and delight. Especially with all kinds of corn and grain, and of rich and strong wine [there is] such an abundance that whoever has not seen the great quantities of both corn and wine that one acre yields, can hardly be made to believe it.
139.8. The hills and mountains in this place are very fertile and full of the most excellent fruits. And some of them, enclosing the lowly plains like a theatre, afford plenty of deer and game to the nobility. Moreover there are around Naples most pleasant and fine orchards, planted with medicinal plants and similar fruit trees, everywhere resounding with a most sweet sound of brooks and streams running to and fro. Everywhere the most fragrant and odorous smells present themselves to your senses, such is the abundance of myrtle, laurel, gelsemine, rosemary, rose-trees &c. in every corner.
139.9. In short, the beauty, delectability and elegance of all places around is such that it almost exceeds the capacity of man's wit. No man need wonder why in former times as well as now the noblemen much enjoyed to live here. This we have taken from Leander, where you may read about many other things [as well]. [Leander] has described the whole kingdom, this city and its liberties very diligently, so that indeed it is not necessary to refer the reader to any other author {1592L but not in 1602G{except for Scipio Mazella (who in a separate and specific treatise with extraordinary pains and diligence has published in the Italian tongue a description of this kingdom)1592L but not in 1602G}.
139.10. {1573L(AB){There is also in print a little booklet, written by Alexander Andreas, about the war between Philip, king of Spain and Paul the fourth, pope of Rome, from which those readers who are not satisfied with this discussion of ours may here and there pick out something concerning this kingdom worth noting, and not trivial. The book has been published in the Italian tongue by Hieronymo Ruscello}1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L end here}. {1579L(A){Giovanni Baptista Caraffa, {1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{Pontanus}1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G} and Pandulfus Collenutius have written histories and chronicles of the kingdom of Naples in which at various places they speak much about the situation of this country. Gabriel Barrius has very meticulously described Calabria, his native country}1579L(A), 1580/1589G & 1602G end here}, as Sanfelicius has done [for] his Campania}1579L(B), 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}. {1570L(ABC) & 1571L only{Antonius Galatęus has very learnedly described his native Iapygia peninsula (nowadays called Apulia)}1570L(ABC), 1571L end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

139.11. {1571/1573D{The land {French editions instead{kingdom}French editions instead} of Napels.

139.12. Formerly this last part of Italy was called Magna Gręcia. Some also now call it Sicily, when they say king of both Sicilies, meaning the island of Sicily and this part of Italy opposite Sicily. But this stems from ignorance, because the good writers have never called any part of [mainland] Italy by that name. Thus, its proper name nowadays must be the kingdom of Naples, after the main and most important city of the kingdom.
139.13. This kingdom consists of that part of Italy which begins Eastwards at the river Tronto (once called Truentum), then along the Gulf of Venice, then Southwards to the straights of Messina, then along the Mediterranean coast to the river Baldino, (once called Axufenus). Thus, this kingdom includes the following regions: Abruzzo, Puglia, the land of Bari, the land of Otronto, Calabria, Basilicata, the land of Lavoro [Lauro], and part of Campagna de Roma, all very opulent and pleasant lands. The area described is almost half of Italy, and if we include the duchy of Milan (which is also situated in Italy), it is half of Italy or more. Thus, the king of Spain rules over half of Italy.
139.14. The city of Naples, which gives its name to this kingdom, is because of its location a very commodious city, situated at the foot of the mountains at the sea shore. It has a pleasant climate and fertile fields, so that in this time, as well as in the past, it is the abode of kings and rulers. For all the noblemen of this kingdom stay in this city for the larger part of the year, and have their sumptuous palaces here. And it is also so full of kings, dukes, counts, barons, knights and noblemen, that you will only find few cities in the world which will match this one in terms of resident nobility.
139.15. It is a large city, and very strong, particularly after the construction of the new stronghold recently built by Charles the Fifth, our emperor. It has a great multitude of wonderful churches and temples, invincible castles, and gorgeous noblemens houses, among which the main ones are those of the duke of Gravina and of the king of Salerno. There are four council halls (called seggi [or seats]), namely of Capua, Nido, Montagna and St. Georgius, where the lords and noblemen meet, to deliberate about matters concerning the city. The city has beautiful straight streets.
139.16. The strong castles are Castello Novo, (the new castle), which Alphonsus the first has provided with such imposing bulwarks that it may well be compared to the strongest castles of Europe. Then the castle of Capua, which is now a town hall. Then castle Ovo, a city by itself, located on a rock and surrounded by the sea. Finally the castle of St. Eremo on top of a mountain at the edge of the city, made invincible by Charles the fifth, as mentioned before.
139.17. Outside towards the sea is the Molo {not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{or pier}not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}, artfully built of stone on the bottom of the sea, to protect the harbour which is always filled with ships which come there from all parts of the world. In this city there is also a university, with many students from this country. Outside this triumphant city there are pleasant and pretty fields, not only yielding produce to fulfill the needs of people and cattle, but also very useful for pleasure and recreation. The fields are full of corn and splendid vineyards, yielding all kinds of produce, as well as venison, to the great pleasure of the nobility.
139.18. All around there are gardens and fountains. Nowhere is there a lack of fragrant herbs. Thus, all around, the sight, smell and taste of the people are served by nature giving recreation and pleasure. In summary, this seems to be paradise on earth. No wonder that always, in former as well as present times, people have loved to live here}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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