Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 135

Text, scholarly version only, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin an 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition.

135.1. {1608/1612I{Description of the duchy of Urbino {1609/1612/1641S instead{The duchy of Urbino}1609/1612/1641S instead}.

135.2. The authority of Urbino {not in 1609/1612L{}situated in the middle of Italy}not in 1609/1612L} comprises parts of three provinces, namely Umbria, Flaminia {1609/1612/1641S instead{Romagna}1609/1612/1641S instead} and Marca {1609/1612L has instead{PicŠnus}1609/1612L instead}{1609/1612/1641S additionally{de Ancona}1609/1612/1641S additionally}, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{as it were the navel and centre of Italy}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, a province of its own, and significant because of the importance of the duchy since 1443 {1609/1612/1641S instead{1473}1609/1612/1641S instead}. On the East side lies Marca {1609/1612L instead{Picenum}1609/1612L instead}, on the West it has Romagna {1609/1612L instead{Flaminia}1609/1612L instead}, in the North the Hadriatic sea and in the South the Apennine mountain range. Its length is over 70 miles, its width around 50. There are excellent rivers here, namely the Isaurus, Metauro, Cesano and Hevola {1609/1612L has instead{Mysa}1609/1612L instead}.
135.3. It contains seven cities, ancient and ornated with sufficient, rich bishoprics, and also many noble smaller cities, so many that there are more than 400 that are walled, and numerous other ones as well, under the title of marquisate or duchy, with noblemen who receive benevolence from their rulers according to feudal law. The names of the cities are Urbino, San Leo, Pesaro, Cagli, Eugubium, Fossombrone and Senigalla. Among these the most excellent ones are Urbino, Eugubium and Pesaro because of their size, number of inhabitants, reputation and wealth.
135.4. The city of Urbino, as well as the duchy and archbishopric [of that name] are ornated by their importance; it is an ancient and noble city, once tributary to the Romans. Here is a metropolitan church, a very important one, erected in splendid architecture, and with noble and numerous clergy. There is a council of scholars, provided with many privileges, among which the capacity for appointing scholars and knights is not the least important one. Here is the duke's palace, built by duke Fredericus, the army commander, in his time outstanding because of his great magnimity. Among its treasures it counts a library with many ancient books and manuscripts in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, collected from all over the world, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{at high costs and with great efforts}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, by the same duke Fredericus.
135.5. The country is mountainous, but lovely and fertile, and it brings forth men capable of waging war and conducting commerce, well versed in the various sciences, particularly architecture and painting, although this does not only apply to the city itself {not in 1609/1612/1641S{either because of the temperate and pleasant climate, or because of the talents and devotion of its inhabitants, or because of the care and benevolence of its rulers}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, but also to the entire duchy, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{so that it is not inferior to any other region in all of Italy}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
135.6. Pesaro is situated in the plain at the coast of the Adriatic sea. It is an old and important city, once a Roman settlement, fortified with walls, moats and ramparts. It also has a strong castle, a harbour capable of handling many vessels and merchandise, an extended and great ducal palace containing a considerable arsenal and a splendid library with many books covering all branches of science. Throughout the ages it always has had noble and courageous citizens, many of them noted for their knowledge of martial arts and other disciplines.
135.7. Its fields distinguish themselves from the plain and the hills in the sense that in pleasantness, fertility and abundance of produce it is equal to any other region. It has additional castles belonging to its rulers, five or six in number, repelling the summer heat and relieving the cares of the mind through the excellence of their location, the wholesome air, and very suitable because of their elegance and greatness. Senigalla is situated on the same coast, also an old city and formerly a Roman settlement, important because of its bishop's see, one of the richest of all of Italy. Its walls are very strong, its castle well fortified, and beautiful, as is its adequate and suitable harbour. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{The surrounding fields, containing many noble hamlets under the jurisdiction of the vicariate, are fertile and abundant}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
135.8. Eugubium has therefore never been inferior to any other city in the region because of its size, nobility, age, number of citizens, affluence, splendidness and courage, particularly in wartime, and it has been flourishing throughout the ages because of these qualities. It has the famous bishops See of the Holy Ubaldus, once highly esteemed for his excellence in performing the bishop's tasks, whose holy remains are preserved there in high respect and great reverence. There is also a vast royal palace here, an ancient theatre, and a mausoleum, next to other signs and monuments testifying of its age and dignity.
135.9. Fossombrone and Cagli are fine cities because of the lovely scenery, wholesome air, size of its population and because of their reputation in martial arts and humanities, both of considerable age, as is shown by many ancient inscriptions, and there is the splendid bridge of Cagli, restored by the Romans. In Fossombrone a splendid ducal palace has been built {not in 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{by duke Fredericus}not in 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}. Here are lovely gardens and a park with wild animals, surrounded by a long wall; a similar park can be found near the well known city of Castel Durante, where the same duke Fredericus built a splendid royal palace as well.
135.10. {[1608/1612I in smaller font from here onwards]{The city of the Holy Leo lies on top of the Ferentino mountain. It has a strong castle and is famous because it is considered invincible because of the indomitable steepness of the mountain, and also because of its arable fields on the flat top, fertile and watered throughout the year, capable of feeding the number of people needed to defend it. This is the capital of the Ferentino mountain range which contains thirty-six walled cities, such as Castel Durante which is the capital of the province of Massa Trabaria. This Urbinian wealth has characterised the noble and ancient family of Feretria, but its size was smaller than it is now, for the Roborean family has meanwhile by intermarriage and adoption been mixed with that of Feretria,}1609/1612/1641S ends here}{and has been elevated and increased in significance because of its two popes, many princes and army commanders}1608/1612I & 1609/1612L end here}.

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