Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 128

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin, and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish:

128.1. {1570L(AC){The region {1606E instead{dukedom}1606E instead}{1608/1612I instead{principality}1608/1612I instead} of PIEMONT.

128.2. That province which used to be called Taurinorum regio is now called Pedemontana or Piemont, and it is situated at the feet of the mountains, since it is at the root of the Alps which separate France and Savoye from Italy, {1606E only{and so [it] is as one would say the province at the foot of the hills}1606E only}. The borders of this country are like this: on the East the river Po, on the South the Alps of Liguria, on the West the Alps of France [and] on the North the banks of the river Duria. It has many excellent fields full of pleasant and fruitful hills which yield corn and other sorts of grain, excellent wine and quantities of the noblest fruits. It is well provided with noble cities, towns and villages.
128.3. Under the government of the Lombards it was called the dukedom of Taurine {1606E only{(so named after the city of Turin)}1606E only}. By them it was first reduced to [the rank of] a province under the jurisdiction of a duke. The government of the Lombards having come to an end, it was subjected to the kings of Italy {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{France}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, who were always chosen by the emperors. After that it was governed by various petty kings and long after that, it was considered as part of the jurisdiction of the princes, counts and dukes of Savoye until 1536, when Franciscus the first, king of France, took a great part of it.
128.4. And now it has again been restored to the dukes of Savoye. The chief city of this province is Turin, located at the mouth of the river Dora, where it empties into the Po. This city is called Augusta Taurinorum by Ptolemæus, Plinius and Tacitus. That this city in old times was a very famous one becomes very clear [from the fact] that it was a Roman settlement. It lies at the foot of the mountains, has the form of a square and has four gates.
128.5. It is very famous for the rich position of its citizens, and is adorned with many excellent buildings, amongst which the cathedral church is [the] most beautiful [one]. It has a university for all kinds of learning, and is very well provided with all sorts of provisions and victuals. The country has a very good and fertile soil, especially towards the East and South and has valleys rich with veins of iron.
128.6. Paulus Diaconus says that Turin was the seat of the Lombards, to whom it was subject until Desiderius their king was defeated and captured by Charles the Great. And then it was brought under the subjection of the kings of Italy, emperors, counts, marquises of Montisferrati, and rulers of Savoye, to whom at this moment it is obedient. Near the head of the river Po towards Ripellum {1606E only{(or C. de Revell)}1606E only} and Paina there are quarries of most excellent marble.
128.7. On the North side of the spring of the river Po extends a certain pleasant valley called the valley of the Po, or (as the inhabitants call it) the valley of Lucerna after the town of Lucerne which is in it. It extends in length for thirty miles, and is not more than four miles wide. At the entrance at the East end is Mambrinum, at the end towards the West is a very high stone cross. The people of this place are commonly called the Christians but in some of their manners and customs they scarcely follow the strict rules of Christianity.
128.8. No, they observe the most ungodly and wicked rites, among which not the least one is this, that once a month they observe one day in which, when all meet in a church {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{house}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, after a service has been made by their filthy and filthy preacher, at night, after the candles have been extinguished, they fall without any reason into their beastly promiscuous debaucheries.
This we have taken from Leander, where you may read many other such things if you like. Dominicus Niger has also written about this country}1570L(AC) end here}.
128.9. {1579L(A){Paradinus in his description of Savoye writes that the dukedom of Piemont contains within its borders next to excellent cities, great and populous (five in number), more than fifty towns, well fortified and beautiful, and also two hundred boroughs, walled and fenced with fortresses and castles. And that it has counts, marquises, barons and other sorts of nobility, all subject to the duke of Savoye}1579L(A)}.
128.10. {1570L(B)You see also on this map the image of Montisferrate {1580/1589G & 1602G only{or mount Iron}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, which is now under the dominion of the dukes of Mantua, {1573L(AB){about which Blondus writes like this: At the river Tanaro the famous border of Montferrate begins, the boundaries of which are the river Po on this side, and mount Apennine on that side, the river Tanaro from its spring to its mouth where it empties into the river Po, and on its upper side the hills next to Moncalerio where Piemont begins. The province of Ferrate [Ferrara] is almost totally subject to the marquises, the most noble house of Italy, descended from the emperors of Constantinople, who have held this area [in their possession] for the last 150 {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{1050}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} years. So far Blondus}1573L(AB)}. {1570L(B){Merula too has in his sixth book of the history of viscounts written something about this country}1570L(B), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French & 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

128.11. {1571/1573D{Piemont.

128.12. Piemont forms part of Lombardy, and lies close to the Italian mountain range (once called the Alps), from which it derives its name, for Piemont in Italian means nothing else than at the foot of the mountains. It is a very fertile and splendid region, all over watered by rivers, and covered with excellent cities, with Turin as its capital, a very ancient city, once called Augusta Taurinorum. It lies at the river Po, once called Padus or Eridanus.
128.13. There is a university, and outside the city there are iron mines. Vercelli is a lovely town, lying at the river Sesia, where there is a big market twice a year. Ivrea borders on the large mountain range. Here used to be (according to Plinius) gold mines. This city lies at the mouth of the valley once called Vallis Prætoria (now called Val d'Osta [Ottavo]), instead of Augusta Prætoria which is its old name, after emperor Augustus, who used to strike garrison here.
128.14. Outside this city there is an ancient triumphal arch, but without any inscription. We will refrain from describing other cities here, all situated in very fertile and pleasant areas. Once this country was in the possession of the Lombards, until their king Desiderius was captured by Charles the Great, emperor of Rome, and came under the rule of the emperor, who appointed governors and rulers. After that it was in the possession of the marchgraves of Monferrat, until it came under the rule of the dukes of Savoy, which still keep it to this day.
128.15. This land of Monferrat is also depicted on this map, which now belongs to the dukes of Mantua. Its capital is Casal St. Vas, where the marchgraves used to keep court.
On this map we have also included the area once called Liguria, but now Riviera di Genua because it has come under the rule of the Genoese.
128.16. This land extends along the sea, between the river Var on its West side and the river Macra on its East side. The mountain range Apenninus encloses it on the North side. This land is of a stony nature, because it is so closely surrounded by the mountains and the sea, which is why it is not as fertile as other parts of Italy. As a result, there is about this city of Genoa a saying in Italy, namely that it has a sea without fish, mountains without trees, men without fidelity, and women without shame.
128.17. The capital here is Genoa, the largest merchant city of the entire mediterranean sea. This city used to rule over a very extensive area, and established its rule as far as the end of Europe to the river Tanais. The big merchant city of Caffa situated in Taurica Chersonesus belonged to them, as did the city of Pera opposite Constantinople. The islands of Cyprus, Lesbos and Chios were also under their rule. They still possess all of Liguria and the isle of Corsica.
128.18. It is an independent republic, like Venice. The inhabitants of this city are excellent and wealthy merchants, who will trade in almost all the corners of the world, dealing in merchandise, through which they have acquired in our times a great reputation, and no less wealth}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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