Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 125

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

125.1. {1570L(AC){The duchy of MILAN.

125.2. Leander in his description of Italy (after a long discourse on the government of this duchy) tells as follows about Milan, its main city: the city of Milan, he says, is so conveniently located that next to the great amounts of fruits which the ground of its own territory yields it also obtains from Gallia Cisalpina {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{or from Lombardy}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}, all [kinds of] things, for pleasure and delight as well as for profit and necessity in man's life, may easily be brought in here. It is so vast that it may well be compared to the greatest cities in all of Europe.
125.3. It has very large and extensive suburbs by which it is greatly enlarged, many of them so huge in population that they may contend in size with other large cities of Italy. In spite of this they suffered great losses recently, because of deadly wars and continuous troubles between Charles the Fifth and the French and Venetians. By those they were almost overthrown and destroyed through fire and sword, although now, by great diligence and energy of the citizens, it has again been rebuilt.
125.4. Wide and deep ditches, full of water, surround both the city and its suburbs. Through these, on every side, such great amounts of provisions are yearly brought to it by boat, that there is nothing here that cannot be bought for a reasonable price. It is truly very admirable, I think, to note the great abundance and plentifulness of things necessary for the use of man. There are so many craftsmen here of so many different trades, and so many come together here, that it is wonderful and can hardly be told.
125.5. As a result, a common expression was formulated: He who wants to repair all of Italy must first pull down Milan, that is to say, that by these means out of their quarters the swarms of craftsmen might be dispersed to all quarters of Italy. The city has very stately and beautiful buildings, [and] especially that gorgeous and sumptuous edifice which they call The house or Dom, erected with such infinite attention and such wonderful craftsmanship that there are only very few churches in the whole world that may be compared to it, whether with respect to its huge greatness and ingenious architecture, or the price of its marble, and the rare modelling of it, for not only is every place inside and outside beautifully covered and trimmed with snow-white marble, but that marble is also covered with wonderful imagery, and sculpted exceedingly cunningly.
125.6. Besides this, [there are] very many famous churches and chapels, especially the Grace church, and the Preacher's church, situated opposite the very strong castle of Porta Iovia [Lodovica] which has a hemisphere [ceiling] made by Ludovicus Sfortia, {1606E only{the duke of Milan}1606E only}. Underneath it, he lies buried with his wife according to his wish, enclosed in a tomb of the best marble. Adjoined to this church is the stately abbey of the friars Predicant, with an excellent library and a very fair chamber or hall, adorned with the story of the [last] supper of Christ and his apostles, an admirable piece of work, performed by the hand of Leonardo da Vinci, a Florentine sufficiently equipped with the great skills of an ingenious craftsman [now called a wreck in Baedeker's Northern Italy of 1879].
125.7. There are very many gorgeous houses of private citizens to be seen everywhere within the city. The castle of Porta Iovia is the strongest and best contrived fortification in all of Europe, which could so far never be taken by surprise and conquered by anyone. Besides these, there are very many excellent buildings in Milan which I here must pass over for brevity's sake. So far for Leander, who elegantly describes the rest of the settlements and places of the territories of this city. See also Volaterranus in his Geography, {1570L(B), not in 1571L{Georgius Merula, Bernard Arlun,}1570L(B), not in 1571L} and Bonaventura Castillion, who has written a detailed treatise on the Insubres {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Milanese}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, their ancient settlements and antiquities.
125.8. Moreover, Bernardinus Corius has written about the history of Milan in the Italian tongue}1570L(AC) end here}. {1573L(A){Laonicus Chalcondylas also says something about the fortunate state of this city, and among other things he excellently describes the fable of the dragon which afflicted this city in the time of the Mariangeli, from which the arms and nomenclature of this city were devised, as is very likely}1573L(A)}. {1595L, not in 1602G{But it will not be amiss to add to these the opinion of Procopius, who writes that this city surpasses the city of Rome in greatness, multitude of citizens and other great blessings of fortune}1595L, not in 1602G}.
125.9. {1570L(B){Liguria, which is also fully shown on this map, is bounded by the rivers Var and Macra, the Apennine mountains and the Ligurian sea {1606E only{(a branch of the Mediterranean sea)}1606E only} now commonly called Leonino. This they now call Riviera di Genoa, after Genua, its chief city. Long since, this city has enlarged its dominion to [include] the river Tanaro, for it had Theodosia (now called Caffa) under its subjection, and also the isles of {1608/1612I only{Famagusta on}1608/1612I only} Cyprus, Lesbos and Chios, {not in 1602G{with Pera, a city of Thrace}not in 1602G}.
125.10. Nowadays it commands all of Liguria and the island of Corsica. It is a famous market town, whose most valiant and stout citizens have by merchandise and trading with almost all parts of the world acquired an honourable reputation, as well as great riches. Augustinus Iustinianus, bishop of Nebbio, has most thoroughly compiled in the mother tongue the history of Genua,}1570L(B), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L & 1575L end here} {1579L(A){which very recently Petrus Bizarrus {1592L, not in 1602G{and Hubertus Foglietta}1592L, not in 1602G} have done as well in the Latin tongue}1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L & 1602G end here}. {1601L{Moreover, Franciscus Petrarchus has written something about this city in his sacred journal, [and so has] Laonicus in his fifth book}1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Text, vernacular version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

125.11. {1571/1573D{The duchy of Milan.

125.12. This duchy is considered to be the best one of all of Europe like Flanders is its best dukedom, as we discussed at that place. It is a glorious and fertile land, (as is all of Lombardy, of which this is a part), and its main city is Milan, from which this duchy derives its name. This city has become very famous and well known because of the wars which have been fought there in our time between emperor Charles the fifth and Franciscus the first of that name, king of France, and also because of the castle there, which among the strong ones in Europe has a name of great repute.
125.13. This city is regarded as one of the largest of Europe, and is bound to be one of the strongest ones as well, once its walls and bulwarks have been perfected all around, which we saw to be under construction in the year 1559. Considering how large this city is, and how full of people, it is surprising that food is cheap, but this may be due to the fertility of the region in which it is located, and due to the many rivers and brooks running from the mountains, emptying into the big river Po, as a result of which all things useful for the sustenance of man, or desired for amusement or pleasure, are produced in abundance and for a low price.
125.14. Such multitudes of works of art and handicraft are found here, that it is hard to believe. Therefore, there is a saying in Italian: Who wants to improve Italy, must damage Milan, meaning that their artists and craftsmen, if expelled from this city, would spread all over Italy. There are many splendid and excellent buildings here, of which the main one is the church called Dom, in which art and splendor seem to compete. I have often said that this building seems to be a thing of splendor, since it is on the outside all over so abundantly covered with marble sculptures and all kinds of ornaments and carvings, that it seems not to have been made by sculptors and masons, but by gold- {1571/1573D & 1598/1610/1613 instead{silver-}1571/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D instead} smiths.
125.15. It would take too long to describe all its other churches and noblemens houses. But whoever wants to see the house of a private citizen, should go to Milan and ask for the house that Thomas Marini of Genoa has ordered to build there, (I think it has been finished now), and once you have seen the outside and inside of it, you will be convinced that it would not be possible to find something similar anywhere in terms of splendor. I think anyone who has visited cities and countries will agree with me in this verdict.
125.16. Other cities situated in this duchy are firstly Pavia, famous for its university, and for the battle that took place there which has immortalised its name, which occurred in the year 1525, in which François the First, king of France, was captured. Then there are also Crema, Lodi once called Laus Pompeia, Como, very pleasantly situated as we will explain at the appropriate place, and various others}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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