Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 116

Text, one version only, translated from the 1573 Latin 1st Add, 1573 Dutch 1st Add, 1573 German 1st Add, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 French 1st Add, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish editions:

116.1. {1573L1Add/1573L(A){The duchy of TIROL.

116.2. The duchy of Tirol was joined to the house of Austria in the year after Christ's birth 1360 by Rudolph, the son of duke Albert. This duchy is so rich in silver {1608/1612I has instead{gold}1608/1612I instead} mines, especially near the town of Schwaz that it may not only be preferred to a rich dukedom, but may also justly be compared to a large kingdom. For it pays yearly to the prince (as Cuspinianus reports in his history of Austria) three hundred thousand crowns of gold. Moreover, here is found absolutely the best brass, whereas elsewhere you scarcely find anything that can be worked upon and be shaped {1606E instead{will abide the [smiths] hammer}1606E instead}.
116.3. This province is situated almost within the Alps {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Swiss mountains}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, between Bavaria and Italy. The chief cities in it {1608/1612I only{located at a bridge across the river Inn}1608/1612I only} are {not in 1573D1Add, 1573G1Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G{Oenipons, now commonly called}not in 1573D1Add, 1573G1Add, 1580/1589G & 1602G} Innsbruck, where the princes court of this region is normally kept, [and] where also the council-table and parliament for this province and for Austria are kept. There also did we behold with admiration the roof of the house of the lord mayor, fully guilded with infinite costs and charges. Next to it is Bolzano the market town, and the castle of Tirol from which the whole country took its name. Then Trento, famous for the oecumenical {1573D1Add, 1574F1Add, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{general}1573D1Add, 1574F1Add, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} council held there within [the span] of our [own] memory. This is subject partly to the dukes of Austria, but also partly to the bishop of that see, and is located in [between] the confines of Germany and Italy, as a result of which all the inhabitants are bilingual.
116.4. Then Hall, in which salt is made and boiled, which from there is transported to the adjacent countries. [Then] the bishopric of Brixen {1608/1612I instead{Brescia or Brissenon}1608/1612I instead} and the town of Bruneck, with a castle which belongs to the same bishop. Then Schwaz, where every year great amounts of silver are dug from the earth, as we said before. [Then] Verona {1573G1Add/1573G only{or Dietrichs Bern}1573G1Add/1573G only} &c. But what Münster has said about it (which we do not think right to conceal) is well worth reading.
116.5. There is, he says, a hill called Nansberg, three miles from Trent, extending itself for twelve miles in length and three in breadth, in which there are three hundred and fifty parish-churches [and] thirty-two castles, besides salt and many pleasant and fragrant spices. Here all things which are necessary for the maintenance of mans life grow abundantly. But see more details about this duchy in [the work] of the same author Sebastian Münster. {1595L, not in 1602G{Ianus Pyrrhus Pincius of Mantua has learnedly and elaborately published the history of Trent in twelve {1608/1612I has instead{two}1608/1612I instead}books}1595L, not in 1602G}.


116.7. About Windismark, Istria and Gorz we must now speak, and therefore in this place pause to say something about them. About Carniola, Karst and Chaczeol (to tell the truth) I do not know what to write. Yet I shall say something in this place, so that I do not deceive the expectations of the reader, that shall not be unpleasant concerning its history, nature, as the mother of all things to those who admire the wonderful works of it {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead{the Almighty}1588S, 1602S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead}.
116.8. There is a place on this map which the inhabitants call lake Cerknica, after a little town near to it called Cerknica, Lazius says that Strabo calls it the Lake of Lugĉa, which is located in the province of Carniola. This place (for that is what I call it, not knowing whether I should more truly call it a lake, park or a field) as the same Lazius says, every year yields corn, fish and game. But here I think it is best to record the following description from Georgius Wernher a little more elaborately: It is enclosed, he says, on every side by mountains, and is in length about a mile and a half, but in breadth somewhat less. In many places it is eighteen cubits deep, and where its depth is least, it is equal to the full height of a tall man.
116.9. From the hills round about it on every side, certain small brooks flow, each in its own particular course, from the East side three [of them], from the South four. Each one of them, the further they run, the less water they contain, for the earth soaks them up continually, so that at last they are fully consumed by certain stony ditches, so framed by nature that they seem to have been made and cut out by the industry of man. Lazius thinks them to be certain signs of the sailing of the Argonauts under the earth {1573G1Add/1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G only{who together with Jason went to Colchis}1573G1Add/1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G only}. Here the waters swell so mightily that they cannot be accommodated [by the soil]. After which it happens that the ditches swell again in such a manner that not only are they incapable of receiving the water, but they also pour back what they have already received so exceedingly quickly that a nimble horseman shall hardly be able to avoid the violence of the stream.
116.10. Therefore, whatever way out the water finds, it issues forth and spreads out so widely as to form a great lake. These waters return as swiftly as they came, but not only through the ditches, but the ground everywhere seems to receive it [so easily] as if it were poured down a sieve. When the inhabitants see this happen, they block the larger passages as well as they can, and run there to fish in great groups, which is not only a pleasant pastime for them, but is also very economical and profitable. For these fishes, once salted, are carried in great quantities to the adjoining neighbouring regions. Then, the lake being dried out, comes the harvest where the soil has been sown, and it is sown again before the next flood [comes]. It is so fertile that one can mow the grass after twenty days. Who does not admire the wonderful works of sporting nature?}1573L1Add, 1573D1Add, 1573G1Add, 1573L(AB), 1574F1Add, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.
116.11. {1608/1612I only{To prevous information about this lake, Filippo Pigafetta adds to this translation of the Theatrum that he when he was in the area, he heard from Gioseffo da Rabatta, Lord of Doremberg in the duchy of Goritia, & councellor of the emperor in the duchy of Segna and Consigliero, that the waters of this lake went underground towards the North, and emptied into a wide river, which in its broadness winds between steep rocks and valleys, and ends at Vernich, and becoming navigable and quiet, receives another river of the same name and depth, and excellently clear for twelve miles circles the city of Ljubliana or Laubach, by Cornelius Tacitus and Strabo called Pamporto. That this is truly happened is proved by the fact that if the water in the river does not stop flowing in the water mills, there is no overflowing into lake Luego, but it remains dry. But if the water is stopped for use in the water mills, then it affects the water higher up. and the lagune is filled up with water accordingly.}1608/1612I only, which ends here}.

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