Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 109

Text, scholarly version, translated from 1570L(ABC) & 1571L:

109.1. {1570L(AC){Bavaria.

109.2. Bavaria is named (by adding a letter) after the Avares, the remainder of the Huns, who after having been expelled by the Norici settled in this country. It is also called Boiara after the Boii, people from Gallia Cisalpina who once dwelled here. It used to belong to the Norici and is watered by the Danube, a remarkable river which originates in Suevia.
109.3. No province in Germany is adorned by more numerous numerous and elegant cities [than this one]. Salzburg, which, as is generally believed, was once called Iuvavia, is the capital of this region. This area, before it was reduced to a province, was ruled by its own king until the days of emperor Arnulphus, as some authors write. After that, it was ruled by dukes, which is still the case.
109.4. This area does not have any fields for agriculture, except in the Southern part. It is rich in woods and mountains. It feeds its hogs with acorns and fir cones, which grow in such abundance that it feeds the rest of Europe with pork, like Hungary does with beef. Its people usually dress in yellow. They prefer gaiters to leather boots as shoes. The area is not deserted nowadays, as it was in the time of Strabo, but is well inhabited and it has many proud cities and very noble fortifications; we do not know what in all of Europe can equal them in splendour.
109.5. There is an abundance of corn around Regensburg and Landshut, but it has wine in only a few places, growing in the wild. But noble wines are imported from the Elzass and Franconia, and from [the area around] the rivers Eschel and Neckar. In turn, it exports salt, which is produced here in great quantities. The city of Munich, situated at the river Isar, is the most famous of all the principalities of Germany, and this is where the princes of Bavaria reside in our times. They feed their lions there, and their lionesses regularly have cubs.
109.6. A certain Marcus, who was a disciple of Saint Paul, converted this area to Christianity. The first bishop of Bavaria resided in Lorch, as may be concluded from an old document. Lorch was then a splendid and mighty city, located where the river Inn empties into the Danube [now Innsbruck]. But the Bavarian princes have transferred the bishop's see to the city of Passau, and Charles the Great moved it again from Passau to Salzburg, where it still is now.
109.7. These matters can be found in Sebastian Münster, and more in Pius II. But let anyone who wants to know all that can be desired by way of description turn to the Annals of the Boii, written by the very diligent historian Johan Aventinus}1570L(ABC) & 1571L end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch and 1572/1574F editions:

109.8. {1571/1573D{Bavaria-land.

109.9. Except for wine, this land has everything that man needs. This is a result of its location, because it lies next to a mountain range which separates Germany from Italy. These mountains are full of silver, copper, iron and salt mines. It is also woody, and therefore so full of pigs, or swine, that it provides a large part of Germany with them. It has many beautiful rivers which issue from these mountains, all emtpying into the Danube (which traverses this country) and similarly has many lakes, which abound with fish.
109.10. In between these waters, there are many extended fields and therefore much corn, particularly around Regensburg and Passau. But because of the cold wind from the North, which blows from the North against these elevated mountains, and therefore returns to afflict this country for the second time, (so to say,) it is not capable to produce wine, but there is enough of that from surrounding areas, which is exported to this area because they do not need it for themselves.
109.11. There is no area in Germany with so many well-built cities (for according to Philip Appianus who made a map of this area) it has 34 cities, 46 merckflecken or liberties, 72 monasteries, and additionally villages, castles and mansions. Among the cities Munich is the most important one, where dukes have their courts. You can always see lions here, producing their cubs. This is supposed to be the most beautiful city of Germany. Then come Regensburg, Freising, and the bisdom of Aichstetten.
109.12. Then there are Salzburg, Passau, Landshut, Hochstadt &c. In the North this dukedom borders on Franconia and Bohemia, in the South on the Alps, in the East on Austria and in the West on Suavia, and in the middle it is divided by the river Danube. This country has by Saint Lucius (of royal English descent) been converted to Christianity, and further fortified in this by Saint Rupertus who founded the bishopric of Salzburg}1571/1573D & 1572/1574F end here}.

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