Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 105

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S and 1595L edition):

105.1. {1570L(AC){AUSTRIA.

105.2. GEORG RITHMAYER in his Abridgement of the situation of the world describes Austria under the name of Pannonia the higher in these words: Pannonia the higher, (he says), lies towards the East, bordering on the river Leitha. Ptolemĉus declares the river Ràba as its Eastern border. On the West it is bounded by the river Enns, and by Noricum [Bavaria]. Some set its limit on that side at the mountain Cĉtius {1580/1589G has instead{Kahlenberg}1580/1589G instead}; on the North [it is bounded] by the river Thaya and Moravia for that is how far it extends now. On the South side it is confined by Steyr mountains.
105.3. The soil is good and fertile for all kinds of corn, and can be manured {1588S only{(white earth which serves to fertilise the fields}1588S only} and tilled without difficulty. In that part which is beyond the Danube, named Marchfeld, where a long time ago the Chetauri and the Parmecampi lived, the farmer ploughs his land easily with a lean horse. Manure, without which the land in Bayern is lean and barren, is something of which the farmers of Austria do not know the meaning of. They produce such good saffron that none may be compared to it in quality. It produces wine which is fairly wholesome and agreeable. {1595L{Althamerus, on the authority of Cornelius Tacitus' Germania writes that it produces plenty of ginger on a mountain near the town of Hamburg in the middle of Austria or Pannonia}1595L}.
105.4. It has many ancient and famous cities, those of most importance being Steyr, Vadenhoff, Melk, Castel, anciently called Claudonium, Krems, Cetro, a castle now called Zeiselmauer, Saint Hippolytus, [and] the two Neuburgs, one surnamed after the abbey, the other after corn. Petronell is a village now, but formerly a great city, as its foundations, ruins and heaps of stones and rubbish testify. Then the new city of Bruck on the bank of the river Leitha and Hamburg, but the most famous of all is Vienna, once called Flaviana, and [also] Juliobona, renowned for its university and school. No [place] has brought forth better and greater mathematicians {1580/1589G instead{free arts}1580/1589G instead}. The city is surrounded by vineyards. The houses of its citizens are stately and beautiful, so that they are fit to provide entertainment for princes, and are built with large and open windows to let the air in and out. And therefore they are never afflicted and offended by stale and bad air, and every private house has either its own specific courtyard or backside. Here gather many [people from] foreign nations from all countries. Here is great plenty of all kinds of provision necessary for the maintenance of man's life.
105.5. The rivers of Austria are [the] Donau [Danube], once the utmost border of the region, but now running through the middle of it, Enns, Traun, Erlauf which at Zell {1595L{(or Zelltal}1595L}, famous for its church of the virgin Mary) issues from a most pleasant lake, [then] the Drau, Ypsie, Melk, March and Thaya which separates Moravia from Austria. {not in 1588S{[Then] the river Kamp, rich with fish}not in 1588S}, {1580/1589G & 1588S have instead{This country has a good reputation concerning fish, particularly the}1580/1589G & 1588S instead}, the river Leitha and Schwechat, in which there are crabs of a most pleasant taste. So far for Rithmayer.
105.6. About the origins and etymology of the name of this country, Lazius reports as follows in his Commentaries on Vienna. The name of Austria (he says) was recently invented, about four hundred years ago, after the blasts of the South wind [Latin: auster], which wind often blows in this country, {not in 1580/1589G & 1588S(which I can believe)}not in 1580/1589G & 1588S}. Or else after the similitude with the German name (which I think to be more likely) which the kings of the Franks used for the Eastern border of their kingdoms, OSTENRICH [realm of the East], like they called the Western part WESTENRICH [realm of the West].
105.7. Long ago, this region was first governed by marquises, then by dukes, and finally by archdukes, to whom it is now subjected. More about this in the Commentaries of Lazius just mentioned. The ancient coat of arms of this country consisted of five golden larks in a field of azure, but Lupold the marquis, the fifth of that name, because of an accident that happened to him, was permitted by the emperor to alter his coat arms to display a field of red with a cross bar in silver, because in the siege and assault on Ptolemaidos he was entirely covered with blood, except his [silver] girdle only. You may read more about this in Münster and Cuspinianus. A description of Austria can be found in Bonfinius at the end of his fourth book, fourth decade, of his history of Hungary. Pius the second in his description of Europe refers to a history he has written about this country, which so far we never had a chance to see. The same author has in his Epistles very well described Vienna, the chief city of this province}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S end here}.

Next the vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French & 1587 French editions:

105.8. {1571/1573D{Austria

105.9. PIUS the second, Pope of Rome, says in his book on Europe that he has written a separate book about this country of Austria, but we have never seen it, nor spoken to anyone who has. Otherwise, we might have taken recourse to that work to provide a dignified description about this country, but that is something we cannot do, yet, we will according to our capacities relate briefly what we do know.
105.10. This country used to be comprised under the name Pannonia Superior and Noricum. In the South it borders on the land of Steyr-mark, in the West on Bavaria, it has Moravia to its North, and its Eastern border to Hungary. It is thus the utmost German region towards the East, for which reason it used to be a Mark- or Borderland-duchy, (for Mark in German means as much as borderline post) because it was the utmost Mark. Later, it was appointed a duchy and later an archduchy, whose dukes have now for almost two-hundred years been subject to the Roman Catholic kings and emperors, so that the electors seem to have become hereditary for this nobility of Austria. This archduchy comprises Tirol, Steyermark, Kernten and Cilien as well.
105.11. It is an exceedingly fertile country for all that humans need, and produces so much that it also provides for adjacent areas. It yields much salt and saffron, and such an abundance of wine, that the inhabitants may not stock or drink beer without a permit. As a result there is the saying: No country is like Austria. It has no mines for gold or silver, but these are not indispensible for human nature, although desire to possess it cannot be erased.
105.12. The river Danube crosses this country, which river provides much fish for this land. Here in this river Danube they catch a kind of fish called Hausen {1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F only{that is: houses}1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F only} because of their large size, which makes them seem like small houses. These are fishes without any bones and very fat and bacon-like, and hard to digest by those who have a weak stomach. Aventinus writes that the ancients in Latin used to call them siluros, and Bellonius writes in his book about fish that in Flemish they are called bollink, which (having tasted both) cannot be correct in my view, because they differ too much in taste, size and character, our bollink {1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F only{or merleu}1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F only} have bones like other fish do, and hardly growing larger than one and a half [hand]spans.
105.13. The cities of this country are Linz, Wels, Krems, Pochlarn, Tulln, Steyr, Neustad and some others, but especially the capital Vienna, situated upon the river Danube, of great renown because of its resistance against the Turks in 1526. Since this time, (at the expense of the entire Roman Catholic Empire) it has been fortified so strongly with walls, bulwarks, strongholds and moats that (as we think) it is now the strongest city of all German countries.
105.14. It is a city full of people of all kinds of trades and merchandise, and abundant in whatever humans need. It is also well provided with gorgeous houses and churches, among which St. Stephan is the main church, with an admirably high and beautiful Steeple, which they started building in 1340, and which was finished in the year 1400, thus taking 60 years to be built, and its height (as Cuspinianus writes) is 480 feet [in fact 136 meter]. He says that the one of Strassburg is 18 feet {1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F have instead{16}1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F instead}higher. But Münster says that the steeple of Strassbourg is 574 feet high, which would make it exceed the steeple of Vienna by 94 feet. The steeple of Antwerp has a height, measured from the lowest supporting stone to the highest concluding stone, of 451 feet and a half, on which you find the cross with a weathercock of 15 feet. But whether the feet of these different cities have the same measure when compared with each other or not, and how much they may differ, is something we cannot say}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F end here}.

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