Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 096

Text (translated from the 1573 Dutch 1st Add/1573 Dutch, 1573 Latin, 1573 German 1st Add/1573 German, 1574 French 1 Add/1574 French, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

96.1. {1573D1Add/1573D{THVRINGIA, {1606E only{Or DVRINGEN}1606E only}.

96.2. This Province was once a Kingdom. Now it is only graced with the title of LANDGRAVIATE. It is located between the two rivers Sala and Werra. On the North it is bounded by that great wood which the Historians call Sylva Hercinia {1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Schwarzwald}1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, and is <also> called Hartz by them. On the South it has the vast forest of Thuringia, {1573D, 1573G & 1598D only{also called Duringer Waldt}1573D, 1573G & 1598D only}. The length of this country, which is equal to its breadth, is about twelve German miles. In this small area (as I remember my good friend Hugo Brinckhorst, an Englishman <and> citizen of Erford telling me) there are 12 COUNTIES or Earldoms, and as many ABBEYS (which they call Gefürstete Abtyen), 144 CITIES with as many MARKET TOWNS (Mercktflecken), 2000 PARISHES and 150 CASTLES.
96.3. It is a very fertile country, and of wheat and such corn it yields more than any other country of Germany whatsoever. For which reason Georgius Agricola did not hesitate to call it the fertile Sumen <= Breast> Germaniæ <of Germany>, {1606E only{the Sweet bread of Germany}1606E only}. They grow each year plenty of woad here {not in 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S{nowadays called Weedt}not in 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S} {1602G & 1606E only{(Isatis}1602G only} <is> what the Romans call it)}1606E only} which from here is transported to other countries to the great profit and commodity of its inhabitants. It is an herb or plant much used by Dyers, {1606E only{to provide a more perfect and durable colour to wool or woollen cloth}1606E only}.
96.4. Some think that once the SORABI lived here. Reinerus Reyneckius in his book which he wrote about the Origins of Myssen thinks these Tyringetæ to be the same as Tyringotæ, {1606E only{that is, The Goths of Thuringia,}1606E only} and therefore their city Gotha, he is certain, took its name <from that>. {1595L; not in 1598D & 1602G{Zacharias Rivander has in the Dutch language published a specific treatise containing a description of this country}1595L; not in 1598D & 1602G}.
96.5. The Metropolitan or chief city of this province is Erfurt which is considered to be the greatest city of all of Germany. The crystal<-clear> and nimble stream Gera runs almost along every street of this city, {not in 1574F1Add/1574F{as I there saw to my great delight, and to the comfort of its inhabitants}not in 1574F1Add/1574F}. In it there is an excellent Monastery of Friar Benedictines, dedicated to S<aint> Petrus {1580/1589G, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612L only{located on a hill}1580/1589G, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612L only}. Here is also a stately church, built by Boniface, bishop of Mentz, and dedicated to our Lady Mary, the blessed Virgin. The church has a bell {not in 1602G, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S{now by the uneducated called the church chime}not in 1602G, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S} famous all over Germany for its huge size {1595L only{and massive weight}1595L only}.

96.6. MISNIA.

96.7. This country is described by Ioannes Garzo of Bononia, {1606E only{an Italian,}1606E only} as follows. This province, he says, is situated on the river Elbe. Near neighbours to this country are on the East side the Vindali {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Bavarians}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, on the South the Bohemi, on the North the Saxons, and the Libonotria {1606E only{or the Eudoses}1606E only} on the West. It is contained within the rivers Sala and Muldaw. Beyond the river Sala dwell the Thüringers. In it are many rich and wealthy cities, and various strong castles.
96.8. Here lived the Calucones and the Danduti once, as Ptolemæus testifies. But Libonotria was taken by the Herthani, Eudosi, Varini and Suardones, all of which were later called the Serabi. The country is very fertile for all kinds of grain, so that it is able, in view of this great abundance, to provide for almost all the neighbouring countries which are near. Not only does it yield great quantities of wheat, but also of wine, honey and cattle. So far from this Garzo.
96.9. The main city of this province is Misnia from which the whole country took its name. The river Albis runs close by the walls of this city. Here is an excellent and strong castle. Dresden, where the Prince ordinarily keeps court, is a city also situated on both sides of this river Elbe, an excellent bridge allowing you to cross it from one part of the city to the other. Torga also lies at the same river, where an excellent kind of beer is brewed, and it is therefore named Torga beer after the name of this town.
96.10. Also Leipzig, {1595L; not in 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L{situated on the river Pleisse}1595L; not in 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L}, the greatest and wealthiest market town in all these parts. To this place the Merchants flock from all quarters, far and near, to the Market that is held here thrice every year. Here is also an excellent University, transferred, as Münster says, from Prague in Bohemia around the year of our Lord 1408 (1573D & 1598D have instead{1508}1573D & 1598D instead}. This town is excellently built and has many fair houses, but especially the Guild hall, {1595L, not in 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L{where the Eldermen usually meet}1595L, not in 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L}, recently repaired at great costs and expenses, gorgeous above all others. The people are very neat, clean, courteous and humane.
96.11. Besides these there are various other pretty towns <such> as Zeitz, Schreckenberg, {1606E only{Naumburg}1606E only} and Freiberg, a rich town because of the Gold mine near to it. {1573L1Add & 1573L, but not in 1598D{Here once lived the Hermanduri, as Münster as well as other good authors tell us}1573L1Add & 1573L, not in 1598D}. Its Origins, Famous deeds, Settlements or colonies and great Rulings of this nation have a short while ago been published by {1595L; not in 1598D, 1598F & 1602G{Georgius Chemnicensis in the Latin language, <and>}1595L; not in 1598D, 1598F & 1602G} by Reynerus Reyneckius {1573L1Add, 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{of Steinheim}1573L1Add., 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only}{1595L; not in 1598D & 1598F which end here, nor in 1602G & 1608/1612I{and more elaborately by Petrus Albinus Nivemontius}1595L, not in 1602G} in the German language}1573D, 1573L1Add., 1573L, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G end here; not in 1608/1612I}. {1592L; not in 1598D{About LUSATIA, a province also covered by this Map, we have spoken before at the Map of Saxony}1592L; not in 1598D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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