Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 084

Text, translated from 1570L, 1571L, 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G and 1581F. First we present the 1570 Latin edition which has been translated by Z. von Martels, University of Groningen. Further editions incorporated in the text below: 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, & 1580/1589 German.

84.1. {1570L{Denmark.

84.2. Take the following description of Denmark from Saxus Grammaticus. Because it is separated into different parts by the waves of the sea, Denmark possesses few stretches of solid land. It is divided by continuous, intermittent waves conforming to the changing oblique line of the receeding sea. Of these parts, looking at its size or its beginnings, IVTLAND takes priority in the Kingdom of Denmark. Being in the first position, Jutland is most extended in its location, reaching all the way to the borders of Germany.
84.3. It is separated from its embrace by the river Eydor, and it extends by broadening towards the North to the coast of the Nordic sea. In Jutland there is an inlet which is called Lymicus and which is so teeming with fish that it seems to yield as much food for the inhabitants as all the fields of the whole country together. Frisia the Lesser also borders on this country. From Jutlands extension towards the low plains, and declining fields, it turns around an inlet. Because of the benefits of the ocean surrounding it, this land yields a great store of corn. It is debated whether the force of the coming and receeding tides yields danger or profit for the inhabitants. For when through the force of a storm the coastal lakes, which tend to accommodate the waves of the sea, have overflowed their boundaries, such a enormous flood of water tends to inundate the country that it sometimes not only spoils the produce of the land, but also drowns its inhabitants and their belongings.
84.4. Next to Jutland, there is turning towards the East the island of Fiona, which is separated from the mainland by narrow sea straights. Like Fiona looks towards Iutia in the West, it sees Sialandia in the East, which deserves praise because of its remarkable abundance of things, useful for mans life. Being the most pleasant part of all areas of this region, it is considered to be the centre of Denmark, being equidistant from its utmost borders. The interruption of the intervening sea separates its Eastern part from the West of Scania, a sea, which yearly tends to fill the nets of the fishermen with the most abundant catch imaginable.
84.5. For it is true that the entire bay tends to be filled with such multitudes of fish, that it is sometimes hardly possible to release a stranded boat when rowing with the greatest exertions. And this fish is not caught by artifice, but simply by hand. But Hallandia and Blekingia which extend from the land of Scania like two branches extend from the trunk of a tree, are connected to Gothia and Norway by the extension of a long curved line, and various intervening inlets. So far for Saxo Grammaticus. See also Albertus Crantzius and Sebastian Münster {not in 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G{who also provides a description by Petrus Artopœus of Pomerania of which you can see the border on this map}not in 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G}.
84.6. {1573L{The Norwegian Kingdom and}1573L} the island of Gothia are subject to the King of Sweden {1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G have instead{Denmark}1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G instead}. {not in 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G{It resorts under the Bishop of Lincopensis}not in 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L & 1580/1589G}. {1573L{The Danes also rule (if we may believe Marcus Iordanus {1573L only{in his Map of Denmark}1573L only}) over the islands of Greenland, Iceland, Hetland, Feroa and the Orcades. But the Orcades are <in fact> a Dukedom under the King of Scotland, as we observed earlier. According to Olaus the isle of Gotland belongs to the Kingdom of Sweden}1573L}.
Its land {1573L has instead{The Isle of Gotland}1573L instead} is suitable for {1573L{agriculture}1573L}, cattle, horses, and cows. There is also much hunting and fishing. It is rich in marble, and all kinds of necessities for man. On this island is Visby, a prominent city, and most celebrated among the merchant cities of Europe. There are still marble ruins, testifying about its glorious past. It is still renowned today because of an Abbey for Benedictans, in which you find a library with some 2000 authors and old codices. These things come from Olaus Magnus and Iacobus Zieglerus}1570L}.

<Since the text in the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French & 1581 French editions differ considerably from the text given above, I present a separate translation below>.

84.7. {1571/1573D{Denmark
84.8. The Kingdom of Denmark has been split by the sea into many parts. For on its West side it has that part of Germany which has the shape of a fist pointing Northwards into the Sea, and which is now called Juytland. And in the East it has a piece of the Nordic Countries where you find the Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, and this is called Sconen and Hallandt. Between these borders on the mainland in the Sea now called Belt (and once Codanus sinus) there are fifteen Islands, as Cranzius reports, and these Islands are Zeelandt, Fuynen, Lalant, Falster, Langelandt, Femeren, Bornholm etc. These two parts on the side together with these fifteen islands form the Kingdom of Denmark.
84.9. Each of these parts we will shortly describe. Juytland (called Cimbrica Chersonesus by Ptolemæus and Cartris by Plinius) is surrounded by the sea except where it is attached to Holsteyn, separated from it by the river Eyder, and comprises Schleswyck and the Strandt-Friesen <= Beach Frisians> (as they are called). This Juytlandt extends as far as a six day journey. It has many excellent cities such as Arnhusen, Ripen, Wyborch, Sebui, all of them Bishoprics, further Rincopen, Tunderen, Horsens etc. Sconen is the best part, and the richest. It has the sea on two sides, and on the other side it is separated from Godt-land by woods and a mountain range. Here is much trade in herring. The bishopric of Londen lies here, and other cities such as Elsenborch on the Sont, right opposite to Zeelandt, where the sea called Sont is at its narrowest, and where all ships have to pay toll.
84.10. Zeelandt is the best Island and the most pleasant one, where also the King keeps court, namely in Coppenhagen (or to say it properly Coopmans-hauen <= Merchants harbour>). Here is also Roscilde, a Bishopric, where the Kings of Denmark are buried. Then there is Fuynen, with the Bishopric Odense, etc., and more small islands just mentioned, which you can see on the Map.
84.11. Norway also belongs to this Kingdom of Denmark, as also (as noted by Marcus Iordanus on his map of Denmark, printed in Coppenhagen) the Islands Gotland, Groenlandt, Yslandt, Feroe, Hetlandt and the Orcades. Yet I think that nowadays the Orcades resort under the Crown of Scotland, and have the title of Duchy, although they do not speak Scottish there but Gothic. It may be that they used to belong to Denmark, and therefore have neither a King nor a Title.
84.12. On this Map you also see the Isle of Gotlandt, which now is under the rule of the King of Sweden, whereas it used to be under the Crown of Denmark. This is a fertile Island, which has many horses and oxen. There are many pastures and there is much fishing, and splendid mines for Marble. There is a city called Visbui, once an outstanding and famous Merchant city, where one can still see large and costly but dilapidated buildings made of Marble, showing what it used to look like}1571/1573D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

Bibliographical sources

For questions/comments concerning this page, please e-mail
The software that generates this website is available for sale. For more information, contact Thomer M. Gil.
This page has been generated on Mon Jan 16 21:35:03 2006.