Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 048

Text, translated from the 1570L, 1571L, 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G & 1581F edition; first, we give the texts from the 1570L, 1571L, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, and 1580/1589G editions:

48.1. {1570L{Gallia Narbonensis and its coasts.

48.2. The more famous places of this region are described by William Paradinus with these words: it has been reported by the ancient writers that Arelate was a settlement of the Sextans. This city on the river Rhône is entirely surrounded by swamps where ferocious bovines roam. That it used to be an important market town becomes clear from the following remark of Strabo: Narbo, he says, is located at the largest mouth of the river Ataxis and at the Lake of Narbo. But on the Rhône there is a city, not a small market town, called Arelate.
48.3. Close to Arelate there are hot springs, at which Sextius built a city named after him, as the same Strabo informs us, called Aquas Sextias. The intention for founding this city was that it would form a center of Roman government. As Mr. Hieronymus writes, the Cymbrians were slaughtered there by Marius. Arausia, nowadays Orange, used to be famous because of the power of the Cabilonenses. We have seen there for ourselves the ruins of an enormous amphitheatre and of a wall, erected from square stones, a marvellous feat of work, hardly having its equal anywhere in Gallia. At the gate to Lyon there is a triumphal arch with a relief with cavalry which we inspected for a long time with great pleasure. In Nîmes too we visited the ancient amphitheatre (called Arena <= sand>) and saw a wonderful tunnel which crossed under the river Rhône, going underneath its banks, leading to a distant place.
48.4. There is also the basilica of Plotina, built by Emperor Hadrianus as Spartianus and other sources testify. So far for Paradinus. Ioannes Poldo Albenas has described this city very accurately, evoking images of antiquity; he has also researched most diligently the neighbouring places and their ancient names. See also Strabo, book 4. See also the poet Gunther Ligurinus. The source of this map has been drawn for us in manuscript by our good friend Mr. Carolus Clusius.

48.4a. {no longer in 1579{The Earldom of Burgundy.

48.4b. Burgundy consists of two parts, one being called Lower Burgundy, which is called a Royal Residence. It used to be named a Duchy, once the seat of the Hedui; the other is called Higher Burgundy, (as Marlianus says) and is now known as a Duchy. It was once possessed by the Sequani. This is what our map shows. Although some say that it is not very fertile, yet it yields all kinds of food, such as corn for very low prices, and also wine and olive oil, and the same is true for meat and all other things which are needed for sustenance are plentiful, such that it seems like a second Italy in terms of its location, the mildness of the air and wholesomeness.
48.4c. The tall stature and physical beauty of these people is known to everyone. And they are no less famous for their virtue. Its metropolis is Bisontium. But specific descriptions of its cities can be found in Cognatus Nozeremus. See also Paradinus, as well as Robertus Cœnalis}1570L}.
{1573L, 1579L and later, but not in French editions{SABAVDIA}1573L, 1579L and later, but not in French editions}.
48.4d. {1573L in small font, 1574L & 1575L, in cursive script{Sabaudia, which is also shown on this map, is a region on this side of the Alps, whose ruler, also called the Duke of Sabaudia, also rules over Pedemontana, (as they call it). Its Metropolis is Chamberino (once called Ciuaro, if we are to believe Cœnalis), in which a Senate resides which they call their Parliament. It is thought that this region derives its name from the Sebusiani, or from others who came from the Sabatis.
48.4e. Bouillus adduces another origin for this name. He says that this region was once much smaller, (situated as it is amidst the Alps), and because of the low number of its inhabitants, it was totally occupied by crooks, who either killed the original inhabitants, or robbed them. When the nobility obtained this area from the Emperor under the title of a Duchy, they united their efforts with those of the original inhabitants and removed the crooks by force, and secured a safe passage for travellers.
48.4f. Hence, they called their road the Safe one, (which previously was the Bad one, or vulgarly Maulvoie) or commonly Sauluoie, which in Latin is Sabaudia. So far for Carolus Bouillus. If it is a fable rather than true history, the proof remains with the author}1573L ends here}. {1574L{Sapaudiae is certainly the word, even if it is not called like that in the Liber Notitiarum, for the regions of Gallia Narbonensis}1574L}.
48.4g. {1579L{But allow me to add here also the description form the history by Paradinus as he has published it, which is the following: The region now called in Latin Sabaudia (vulgarly Sauoie) was by the ancients called Allobrogum. It covers the entire area once occupied by the Sabbati, Ingauni, Intimeli, Hiconi, Tricori, Voconti, Leponti, Latobrigi, Medualli, Centrones, Catigores, Veragri, Nantuati, Salassi, Tharantasi, & Seduni. Nowadays these regions have different names, and as the indigenous people now call them, include the regions of Savoia, Comitatus Geneuensis, the Marchionate of Susa, Comitatus Morienna, the Dominion of Tharantaise, Brengeois, Foucigny, Chablais, Val de Oste, Païs de Vaul, de Geis, and some others.
48.4h. The Duchy of Sabaudia rules over the Pedemontana region, ornated with the title of Principatus, and also the region of Bressanensis, including the Comitatus of Varaz, Montreueil, Pont de Vaulx, Bagey &c. On the basis of ancient monuments it is clear that this entire region was once a Kingdom: in the times of Hannibal, who was made the arbiter by Broncus and his father concerning this region, he was able to solve the quarrels here, and he restored the rule of it to the original owner, who had been expelled by a younger person, as Livius tells us in book 21.
48.4i. Betultum (or, as others read it, Bituitum) their was captured by Quintus Fabius Maximus, as L. Florus writes. King Cottius (after which this part of the Alps is called Cottia) is remembered by various authors in the time of Emperor Augustus}1579L}.

Since the 1571/1573 Dutch edition, the 1572/1573 German edition, the 1572/1574 French & the 1581 French contain a different text, they are presented here in merged form:

48.5. {1571/1573D{Languedoc and Provence.

48.6. This Map only shows the Sea coast of the Land of Languedoc and Provence. Languedoc is called as it is because where the other French say ouy for yes, these people say oc. Thus Languedoc simply means The Language of oc. <note that according to this reasoning, it should mean The language of yes or OK>. The main cities on this map are {not in 1572/1574F & 1581F{Lyon, a very Ancient City, pleasantly located on the junction of two rivers, the Saône and the Rhône. It is a large merchant city.}not in 1572/1574F & 1581F} Marsilien <is> an old harbour, built by the Greek a long time ago. Arles on the Rhône was once a big merchant city, as Strabo writes.
48.7. Avignon, built at the same River, is a large and rich city, for some time the see of the Popes. Nîmes is an old city with many ancient monuments, such as the Amphitheatres or Coliseums and Temples, about which Ian Poldo has written an entire book, pleasant to read for those who love ancient structures. In Orange there is also an Amphitheatre, and other antiquities, such as Triumphal Arcs and the like.
48.8. Montpelliers has a well known University, renowned for its Medicine and Law all over Europe. Then there are Narbonne and other cities, as the Reader will see on this map. Out of friendship, we obtained this small map from Carolus Clusius, Doctor in Medicine, who designed it on the spot.

48.9. {not in 1581F{Bourgongien and}not in 1581F} Sauoyen.

48.10. {not in 1581F{Bourgongne consists of two parts, the one is High-Bourgognen, the other is Lower-Bourgognen, a Dukedom. High-bourgognen is an Earldom, which is depicted on this Map. Its capital is Besançon, an old City, with an Archbishopric and a University. The inhabitants of this Country are known to everyone because of their great courage, pious behaviour and fidelity to their king, as proved at peace and war}not in 1581F}.
48.11. The Dukedom of Sauoyen seems to be French because it is located on this side of the high mountain range, but it has its own Lord, who is also Lord of the Region of Piemont. Its main city is Chamberry. Here they preserve and exhibit a worthy relic, namely the shroud of Lord Jesus Christ with which he was put into his grave, which we saw in the year 1560 in Vercelli, Piemont (to which it was transferred because of the war waged between the King of France and the Duke of Sauoyen) in deep devotion, still showing the shape of his body with spots of blood. There are more other cities, such as Tarantaise, Moustiers, Monbelial etc}1571/1573D}.
48.12. (1581F only{To Savoye also belongs the Principality of Piedmont and the land of Bressau in which you find the Earldoms of Varaz, Montreuil, Pont de Vaulx, Bagey etc. Charles de Bouillon writes that once this Province of Savoye, being entirely situated in the mountains, was only inhabited by robbers and criminals, who made the passage here very difficult and dangerous, for which reason it was called Malvoye <= the bad road>. But afterwards a certain gentleman obtained it from the Emperor under the title of a Duchy. And he removed these evil criminals and made it safe for travellers, and called it Saufvoye <= the safe road>. This same country was in the times of Hannibal a Kingdom, as you may read in Titus Livius and in I. Flores}1581F only} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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