Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 96

Text, one version only, translated from the 1573Latin 1st Add/1573 Latin(A), 1573 Latin(B), 1573 Dutch 1st Add/1573 Dutch, 1573 German 1st Add/1573 German, 1574 French 1 Add/1574 French, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition):

96.1. {1573L1Add/1573L(A){Thüringen, {1606E only{or Duringen}1606E only}.

96.2. This province was once a kingdom. Now it is graced with the title of landgraviate. It is located between the two rivers, namely the Saale and the Werra. On the North it is bounded by that great wood which is called Sylva Hercinia {1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Schwarzwald}1573G, 1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, and is [also] called Hartz by them. On the South it has the forest of Thüringen, as they call it. The length of this country, which is equal to its breadth, is about twelve German miles. In this small area (as I remember my good friend Hugo Brinckhorst, an Englishman [and] citizen of Erford telling me) there are 12 duchies, and as many abbeys (which they call Gefürstete Abtyen), 144 cities with as many market towns (Mercktflecken), 2000 parishes and 150 castles.
96.3. It is a very fertile country, and of wheat and such corn it yields more than any other country of Germany whatsoever. For which reason Georg Agricola did not hesitate to call it the fertile Sumen [Breast] Germaniæ [of Germany], {1606E only{the Sweet bread of Germany}1606E only}. They grow each year plenty of woad here {not in 1573D1Add/1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1606E{nowadays called Weedt}not in 1573D1Add/1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1606E} which from here is transported to other countries to the great profit of its inhabitants. It is a plant much used by dyers of wool, {1606E only{to provide a more perfect and durable colour to wool or woollen cloth}1606E only}.
96.4. Some think that once the Sorabi [Sorben] lived here. Reinerus Reyneckius in his book which he wrote about the Origins of Meissen thinks these Tyringetæ {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{to be the same as Tyringotæ}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, {1606E only{that is, The Goths of Thüringen,}1606E only} and therefore their city Gotha, he is certain, took its name [from that]. {1595L; not in 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{Zacharias Rivander has in the Dutch language published a specific treatise containing a description of this country}1595L; not in 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G}.
96.5. The metropolitan or chief city of this province is Erfurt which is considered to be the greatest city of all of Germany. The crystal[-clear] and nimble stream Gera runs almost along every street of this city, as I saw there {1606E only{to my great delight, {1598/1610/1613D only{and to the comfort of its inhabitants}1598/1610/1613D & 1606E only}. In it there is an excellent monastery of friar Benedictines, dedicated to S[aint] Petrus, located on a hill. Here is also a stately church, built by Bonifacius, bishop of Mainz, and dedicated to our lady Mary, the blessed virgin. The church has a bell {Latin editions only{now commonly called the church chime}Latin editions only} famous all over Germany for its huge size {1606E only{and massive weight}1606E only}.

96.6. Meissen.

96.7. This country is described by Giovanni Garzo of Bologna, {1606E only{an Italian,}1606E only} as follows. This province, he says, is situated on the river Elbe. Near neighbours to this country are on the East side the Vindali {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Bavarians}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, on the South the Bohemians, on the North the Saxons, and Libonotria {1606E only{or the Eudoses}1606E only} on the West. It is contained within the rivers Saale and Moldau. Beyond the river Saale dwell the Thüringers. In it are many rich and wealthy cities, and various strong castles.
96.8. Here lived the Calucones and the Danduti once, as Ptolemæus testifies. But Libonotria was taken by the Herthanæ, Eudosi, Varini and Suardones, all of which were later called the Sorben. The country is very fertile for all kinds of grain, so that it is able, in view of this great abundance, to provide for almost all the neighbouring countries which are near. Not only does it yield great quantities of wheat, but also of wine, honey and cattle. So far from this Garzo.
96.9. The main city of this province is Meissen from which the whole country took its name. The river Elbe runs close by the walls of this city. Here is an excellent and strong castle. Dresden, where the prince ordinarily keeps court, is a city also situated on both sides of this river Elbe, an excellent bridge allowing you to cross it from one part of the city to the other. Torgau also lies at the same river, where an excellent kind of beer is brewed, and it is therefore named Torgau beer after the name of this town.
96.10. Also Leipzig, {1606E only{situated on the river Pleisse}1606E only}, the greatest and wealthiest market town in all these parts. To this place the merchants flock from all quarters, far and near, to the market that is held here thrice every year. Here is also an excellent university, transferred, as Münster says, from Prague in Bohemia around the year of our Lord 1408 (1573D1Add/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D have instead{1508}1573D1Add/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D instead}. This town is excellently built and has many fair houses, but especially the guild hall, {1606E only{where the eldermen usually meet}1606E only}, recently repaired at great costs and expenses, gorgeous above all others. The people are very neat, courteous and humane.
96.11. Besides these there are various other pretty towns [such] as Zeitz, Schreckenberg, {1606E only{Naumburg}1606E only} and Freiberg, a rich town because of the gold mines near to it. {1573L1Add/1573L(A){Here once lived the Hermanduri, as Münster as well as other good authors tell us}1573L1Add/1573L}. Its origins, famous deeds, settlements or colonies and great rulings of this nation have a short while ago been published by {1595L; not in 1598/1610/1613D, 1598F & 1602G{Georg Fabritius of Chemnitz in the Latin language, [and]}1595L; not in 1598/1610/1613D, 1598F & 1602G} by Reynerus Reyneckius {not in 1606E{of Steinheim}not in 1606E}{1595L; not in 1598/1610/1613D & 1598F & 1602G which end here {and more elaborately by Petrus Albinus Nivemontius}1595L, not in 1602G} {not in 1608/1612I{in the German language}1573L1Add/1573L(A), 1573L(B), 1573D1Add/1573D, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G end here; not in 1608/1612I}. {1592L{About Lausitz, a province also covered by this map, we have spoken before at the map of Saxony}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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