Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 93

Text, first scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC) and 1571 Latin editions:

93.1. {1570L(ABC){Saxonia.
Saxony, which still retains its old name, is bordered on the West by the river Weser, on the North it has the Danes or Cimbres, and the Baltic sea; in the East it has the river Oder, which in the writing of the ancients included the Viadri, Prussians and Silesians; in the South it has the river Main and Bohemia, and in the East it has the river Main near the Piniferus [Fichtelberg] mountain range, which is in that area which is now called Voigtland, subject to the marquisate of Brandenburg. From there, four great rivers flow to the four principal directions of the world, a wonder to behold.
93.2. Thus, we have the Main in the West, whereas the Eger flows in the East, where it empties into the Elbe in Bohemia; There is the Saale in the North, which also empties into the Elbe. The Naab flows through Bavaria and in the West at Regensburg flows into the Danube.
The cities of Voigtland, as mentioned elsewhere, are Kulmbach, Parreyt, and Hof. The region of Saxony includes Thüringen, which has in the East the Meissers, in the West the Hessen, in the North Brunswick, and in the South Franconia, enclosed by the rivers Weser, Saale & Main. Its main city is Erfurt, (which is considered to be the largest city of Germany).
93.3. The inhabitants of Thüringen derive their origin from the Goths, hence it can be understood that the Thüringers of Gothic descent use the word Gotha for the city they founded: this region is quite pleasant for those who live here. Plenty of herbs grow here everywhere, and they have excellent wool, which they call Quada, from which they yearly make all kinds of things for themselves. Saxony itself is divided into two regions of which the one is called Marchia, which is a recent name. It is watered by the river Oder, which reaches the Elbe [and called] the Old. At its borders you find the cities of Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Stendal, Osterburg, Hamburg, and Lübeck, which is some distance away from the river Elbe. The other part is in the East [called] the New, borders on Bohemia and Silesia, with the cities Frankfurt, Berlin, Brandenburg, Stettin, and Avelburg.
Meissen is another part of this Saxony, also called the Superior part. It is located between the rivers Saale & Elbe; here once lived the Hermanduri & Sorabi, Slavonic tribes. Meissen lies at lake Mesia, at which they may have lived, or else in the city of Meissen, which I find more probable, for it received its name from this city. Its cities then are Meissen, Chemnitz on the river mentioned, Suiccavia, Leipzig with its academy, Altenburg and Mount St. Anna; this mountainous region has a lot of mines. Its rivers are the Moldau, Elbe & Saale.
93.4. Lusatia is a small kingdom, though subject to the Bohemians, yet intself tributary to Saxony. It lies between the rivers Elbe, Oder & the mountains of Bohemia. Its main city is Görlitz. The Neisse waters this city. So far for Georg Rithaymerus in his description of the world. More about these regions can be found in Pius.II. in his description of Europe {1571L{and Witichindus in his Saxony}1571L}. See also Münster. But the most learned description of all is the work on Saxony by Albert Crantzius. Meissen is also described by Johan Gerson in his booklet about Saxon matters. Of these regions we have here inserted into our work here the map drawn by Iohannes Criginger, which was published in Prague in the year 1568}1570L(ABC), 1571L end here}.

Text, second scholarly version, tranlated from the 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598/1610/1613D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S editions; note that the 1598/1610/1613Dutch editions here side with the scholarly editions, not with the vernacular ones:

Although this map bears the title of Saxony, yet it does not show all of Saxony, for true, ancient Saxony extended in former times between the river Elbe and Rhine as regards its entire length. Its breadth was restrained by the German sea and the river Eider, and the borders of Hessen and Thüringen. Brunswick was almost in the centre and middle of it. But now it is no [longer] bounded by such natural limits as rivers and mountains are, but it is confined by other princes signiories and counties. Therefore, Saxony at this day is double, and is divided into Upper and Lower [Saxony].
93.6. Upper {1606E only{or Higher}1606E only} Saxony is that part which this map represents, and it is graced with the title of a dukedom, whose duke is also one of the prince electors who have a vote in choosing the emperor. The main towns of this province are Wittenberg and Torga. {not in 1598D{About Saxony and its antiquities Albert Crantzius has written an entire volume. {1595L, not in 1602G{M[r]. Adams too in the first book of his Ecclesiastical history has something worth reading}1595L, not in 1602G}.
93.7. Hamelman too has published the histories of Saxony and Westfalen. They who want to know the situation, its bounds and famous deeds, let them read Witichindus and Sebastian Münster. {1592L, not in 1602G{Pet. Albinus Nivemontius very recently, {1595L{and [before that] David Chytræus}1595L} have written very learnedly about this province}1592L, not 1602G}.
93.8. About the marquisette of Brandenburg, Lusatia {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{(Laußnitz)}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only} and Voigtland, countries which we have also depicted on this map, take these few lines}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. The marquisette of Brandenburg, one of those provinces which in old times were inhabited by the Wandals, is divided these days into Old and New [Brandenburg]. Through the former runs the river Oder, through the latter [the] Elbe, {1606E{Albis [is what] the Romans call it}1606E}. In the old marquesate the chief city is Brandenburg, from which the whole country took its name. New Brandenburg has the city of Frankfurt, commonly called upon [the] Oder, to distinguish it from [Frankfurt] which is situated on the river Main. There is a university, and a great market is held twice a year.
93.9. At Berlin the prince keeps his court. He [who heads] the marquisette is commonly called the marquis. He is also one of the electors of the emperor. {1573L(B) only{This Brandenburg is described in a specific book by Wolfgang Iobstius}1573L(B) only}.
93.10. Voigtland is a small shire subject to the marquis. This [area] is called Advocatorum terra and also Prætoriana by Æneas Sylvius, [that is] the sollicitors or controllers land, framing a word from the etymology of the German name, for Voyt in the German tongue means solicitor or controller, so named because once the prince of this country was one of the four controllers {not in 1598/1610/1613D{of the Roman empire}not in 1598/1610/1613D. The towns of higher importance are the following, as Gaspar Bruschius lists them in Münster {1606E only{in his Cosmography}1606E only}:
93.11. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Curia Regnitiana, {1606E only{Renitz court,}1606E only} commonly}not in 1598?1610/1613D} called Hof {not in 1598/1610/1613D{(so named after the rivers which run past it, emptying into [the] Saale}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, a large city and very populous, beautified with the excellent and stately church of St. Michaëlis, a large monastery for nuns and two rich hospitals, [then] Plauen, a city with a castle, Ölsnitz with the castle Voitenberg close by. Other cities are Adorf and Weidonium {1606E only{(I think Weida),}1606E only} a fair town with certain abbeys, Milfurt and Weisskron, Gera, Schleiz and whatever there is between Hof and Zeitz {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{Schwandorf}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, located on the river Elster {1606E only{(Hallestra is what the Romans call it)}1606E only}.
93.12. Near to this is Pineberg {1580/1589G has instead{Fichtelberg}1580/1589G instead}, that famous mountain {1606E only{which is covered plentifully with stately pine-trees}1606E only}, from which four rivers spring and run, (a very strange work of nature) to four quarters of the world, namely [the] Eger, Main, Naab and Saale. {not in 1573L(B){Wolfgang Iobstius has written an interesting description on the marquesate of Brandenburg}not in 1573L(B).
93.13. Lusatia, {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{[or] Laußnitz}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only} is two-fold and divided into Ober Laußnitz and Nider Laußnitz, {1606E{[that is] Upper and Lower [Laußnitz]}1606E}. It is also a part of Saxony as Rithaymer testifies. It lies between the rivers Elbe, Oder, and the Bohemian mountains. Once it was part of Meissen and was joined to it. But the Bohemians, who laboured by all means to enlarge the bounds of their kingdom and command, finally seized it.
93.14. The people as regards manners, [living] conditions and language do not differ much from the Silesians, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{and are distinct [from them] in name and jurisdiction [only], {1606E only{governed [as it is] by various Princes}1606E only}. The name and way of calling it Lusatia is somewhat close in sound to the name of the Elysij or Lygij who certainly dwelt here once, as Joachim Cureus writes}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. Their chief cities are Görlitz, Sittaw and some others. The river Neisse runs through the middle of this country}1598/1610/1613D ends here}. {1601L, not in 1602G{Gaspar Peucer has recently in Elegiac verse described it in a specific publication}1601L, not in 1602G}. Meissen and Thüringen are described and depicted in their respective maps, which we have hereafter inserted into this Theatre of ours in their proper places.
93.15. A depiction of these countries, copied from the geographical chart of Ioannes Criginger which was printed in Prague {1606E only{in Bohemia}1606E only} in the year of Christ 1568 has been included in our work here}1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Text, vernacular version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French and 1598 French editions:

93.16. {1571/1573D{Sachsen.

93.17. Many countries were formerly comprised under the name Sachsen, [Saxony], so that it extended from the river Weser in the West to the river Oder in the East, and in the North from the sea all the way to the river Main and Bohemia in the South. But nowadays it no longer extends so far, nor does this map, which only shows that part now called Sachsen, with the areas Thüringen, Meissen, Laußnitz and Voigtland, about each of which we shall say something.
93.18. Among all the areas belonging to the title of Sachsen we have only shown here those belonging to the dukedom of Sachsen, each with its own ruler. Among these Magdeburg is a very large city, as well as Wittenberg, which is an electorate. These are the main cities, both situated on the river Elbe. Meissen, situated between the river Elbe and Saal has the cities of Meissen from which it derives its name, Chemnitz, Zwickau, Altenberg and the pleasant city of Leipzig, where they have a big market twice a year. This land is full of silver mines.
93.19. The land of Thüringen lies between Meissen, Brunswick, Hessen and Frankenland. Its capital is Erfurt, said to be the largest city of Germany, with a brook running through almost every street. Here is also the city called Gotha, about which it is thought that once the Goths lived there, and founded this city to their memory. In this area there is much trade with woad [red dye], which is used by cloth dyers and which grows here in abundance. Voigtland is a small country and belongs to the margraves. Its cities are Kulmbach, Parreyt and Hof.
93.20. In it lies Fichtelberg, about which we will report under Bavaria. Laußnitz is divided into Upper-Laußnitz and Lower-Laußnitz, and all this lies under Sachsen, yet, it belongs to the crown of Bohemia. The main city here is Görlitz. The river Spree runs along this area. The countries are all abundant as regards food, such as meat, fish and bread, which is very nice and white here. But there is not much wine growing here, or none at all. Beer is the common drink, and wine is imported from Franconia. The inhabitants are good people, usually more friendly in their manner of speech and behaviour than the Germans living further North}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}.

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