Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 80

Text, scholarly text version, translated from 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB) 1574 Latin and 1575 Latin editions:

80.1. {1570L(ABC){Frisia.
80.2. According to the ancients, the Frisians are those who inhabited the coasts of Northern Germany. They were one people, with one set of habits, extending their habitation over a large distance along the shores of Germania. For starting in the West from Holland it reaches Eastwards via Gelre, the mouth of the river Ijssel deriving from the river Rhine, and the dioceses of Utrecht, Münster and Bremen all the way to the river Elbe. Then it turns along the coast of Holstein to Jutland belonging to the Cimbrian peninsula, sometimes traversed by swamps (which Tacitus calls large lakes), sometimes having curves of the sea coast.
80.3. In the extremities of Frisia the river Eems empties into the ocean at Emden. The river Iadera, mentioned by Ptolemĉus, vulgarly called Iada, licks the Frisian area. After this river the surrounding area is called Budiagen. The river Vidrus [Vecht, according to Ortelius' Thesaurus], which runs between Busactores (now Westphalia) and the Frisians, emptying into the sea between the mouths of the Rhine and the Ems is called the Black Water.
80.4. The area of the Frisians now no longer extends as far as it used to. They are divided by the river Eems into West Frisia and East Frisia. West Frisia, according to Jacob van Deventer, might be considered the real Frisia, retaining and exercising the most ancient rights, and anyway it was always the most significant part. It reaches from the river Ijssel or the most extreme mouth of the Rhine to the river Ems, including Eastgo, Westergo, Zevenwouden [Seven Forests], and the famous city of Groningen and the area surrounding it.
80.5. It has an abundance of cattle and pastures, and is more developed than any other area in terms of settlements and buildings. It touches Overijssel, Drente and Twente. All these flourish under the hereditary rule of the dukes of Burgundy. {1574L & 1575L only{This country has thirteen cities, namely Groningen, famous as the place of birth of Rodolphus Agricola, further Dam, Leeuwarden with a castle and with the supreme court or curia of the whole region, commonly called the chancery, then Dokkum, the home of the famous mathematician Gemma Frisius, then Franeker, a place of retreat for the nobility, then Bolsward, Sneek from which Joachim Hopper comes, Ijlst, Sloten, Harlingen at the German bay which they call Zuiderzee. It has a harbour and is defended from hostile attacks by a strong castle. Then Workum and Hindelopen on the same coast, and Staveren, once a mighty city, but now by the overflowing of the sea much damaged, and no longer flourishing. Next to these cities, there are another 490 villages, some of them endowed with privileges and other remunerations}1574L & 1575L only}. Although the Eastern part accepted the counts of Holland as their rulers, albeit with difficulty, they now enjoy a count of their own.
80.6. Peter Olivarius states in his comments on Mela when he speaks of West Frisia that he has never seen such a small area with so many churches. Many, he says, accounted for this multitude of churches as follows. They told about the strife which used to occur among the noblemen of this region concerning the place they could occupy in these churches. For all wanted to sit on the most prominent seat and when this strife grew worse in the course of time, those who could decided to establish a church in their own village. And in this way each nobleman was able to have the most prominent seat in the church he established; hence so many churches. Those are the things he tells, and more.
80.7. See also Saxonia by Albertus Crantzius. But who wants to further improve his knowledge of this area is advised to read the description of Lower Germania by Ludovico Guicciardini}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L & 1575L end here.}

Second scholarly text version, translated from the 1579L (AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S editions:

80.8. {1579L(A){FRIESLAND.
It is very clear from the records of ancient writers that the Frisians, a most ancient nation, lived since a long time along the sea coast, near the mouth of the river Rhine, where they also live at this day. For Ptolemĉus puts them above the Busactores {1606E only{(or Busacteri, the people of that province which is now called Westfalia, as some think)}1606E only} {1580/1589G & 1602G only{or beyond where the city of Zwolle is situated}1580/1589G & 1602G only} between the rivers Vidrus {1606E only{(they call it Regge)}1606E only} and Amasius, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{now called Eems}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Tacitus, who reports that they had a good reputation among the Germans, and that they lived along the coast on both sides of the Rhine, divides them according to their power and greatness of command into Maiores and Minores, [that is] the Greater and the Lesser.
80.9. Moreover, he states that they dwell around certain huge lakes, navigated by {1606E instead{capable of holding}1606E instead} the Roman fleet. The same author mentions certain Frisios Transrhenanos, Frisians dwelling beyond the Rhine, who he said objected to the avarice of the Romans, rather than to their rule. Julius Capitolinus in his life of Clodius Albinus the Emperor says that these transrhenan Frieslanders were oppressed and overthrown by Clodius.
80.10. Plinius mentions certain islands of the Frisians in the river Rhine, and the Frisiabones, a kind of people between Helium and Flevum, two mouths of the Rhine {1580/1589G & 1606E only{where it empties itself into the main sea}1580/1589G & 1606E only}.{1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{He mentions other Frisiabones in Gallia but this seems to be irrelevant}1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}.
80.11. It is clear, therefore, that the Frisij in ancient times did not cross the river Eems. But at this day, they have spread further Eastward, almost as far as the river Weser, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the old geographers called it Visurgis}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. That these were also sometimes designated by the name of Chauci {1606E only{(or Cauchi, for different authors write it differently)}1606E only} is beyond any doubt. And next to these, even further, all the way to Denmark, within the confines of the little province of Dietmarsh live a people commonly known by the name of Strand-Friezen, that is, Frisians who live along the coasts or beaches.
80.12. These were perhaps the people Ptolemĉus calls Sigulones. Saxo Grammaticus and Albertus Crantzius call this Frisiam Eydorensem (after the river on which it borders) and Frisiam Minorem, the Lesser Friesland, both of them making it a branch sprung from the ancient Frisians. {1592L, not in 1602G; in 1609/1612/1641S after §80.22 {Cornelius Kempius in his description of Friesland divides the whole country into seven Zeelands, that is, marine shires as you may call them.
80.13. The first is West of the river Flevus {1606E only{or Ijssel,}1606E only} and is now called Waterland. Then Westergoe, as one would say The West-land. The third [is] Oostergoe, that is, The East-land. These three, he says, are commonly known and contained under the name of WEST FRIESLAND. The fourth is around the river Ijssel, where the cities Deventer, Zwolle, Hasselt, Steenwijk and Vollenhove are located. The fifth contains the city of Groningen. The sixth part they call East-Friesland. The seventh extends from the river Weser to the area beyond the Elbe, and even to the little river Eyder.
80.14. Otherwise, this country of the Frisians is commonly divided into three parts, East Friesland, West Friesland and Middle Friesland, which by some is called Groningen}1592L, not in 1602G; in 1609/1612/1641S after §80.22}.
80.15. Ptolemĉus mentions three towns of the Frisians, [namely] Manarmanis, Phleum and Siatutanda. Flevum Castellum in Tacitus I think is the same as Phleum in Ptolemĉus. The same Tacitus also mentions Cruptoricis stipendarij villa, {1602G & 1606E only{the manor of Cruptorix, the stipendary}1602G & 1606E only}. Similarly, the forest of Baduhenna, where he laments loudly that 900 Romans had their throat cut, and where another 400 {1606E has instead{supply of}1606E instead} men, after they became suspicious of treason, killed one another. The same author writes that at this time the pillars of Hercules still remained here.
80.16. The brave courageous mind of this nation, and the high opinion of their own valour becomes manifest in the history of Verritus and Malorix, two of their princes. For these (as Tacitus reports), went to Rome. And finding Nero the emperor busy with other matters, among other things usually shown to barbarous people [like them], they went into Pompeius' theatre, so that they could admire its greatness. While they sat there idly on their benches (not altogether carried away by the sight of history they had never seen before), they questioned the differences in ranks, [such as] what and who was a knight, where the senators sat, and they observed some people sitting in the senator's room in a strange attire.
80.17. They asked who they were, and after they heard that that honour was given to the ambassadors of those nations which for valour and friendship with the Romans surpassed others, they cried out in a loud voice: THERE ARE NO PEOPLE IN THE WORLD THAT FOR TRUSTWORTHINESS AND FIDELITY GO BEFORE THE FRISIANS. And after that they left their places and seated themselves in the senator's room. And this was taken in good spirit by those who saw it, as a token of their ancient spirit and earnest expression of virtue. Nero made both of them freemen of the city of Rome.
80.18. Plinius writes {1606E only{in the third chapter of the fifth book of his natural history}1606E only} that among the Frisians there grows an herb which they call Britannica {1580/1589G & 1602G only{or herb from England}1580/1589G & 1602G only} which has long black leaves and a black root. The juice of this herb is pressed out of its root. The flowers are properly named Vibones. If it is gathered before any thunder is heard, and eaten, it will truly protect a man against danger [from it]. This herb is not only a good medicine for the nerves and diseases of the mouth {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{body}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, but is also [effective] against throat disease and against snake bites. Whether this herb is known [to exist] for certain today, and by what name, I desire to be informed by our learned herbarists.
80.19. Whether the inhabitants of this province are indigenous or whether they took their origin and name from the Phrygians of Asia, as some would have it, or from others in other places (for Strabo also acknowledges certain Phrygi in Illyria {1608/1612I only{or Schlavonia and Dalmatia, and the surrounding area to mount Cimera}1608/1612I only}, above the Ceraunian hills) I leave to the learned to find out}}. {1592L, not in 1602G; 1609/1612/1641S has this text after §17{The idle fables of those men I cannot but laugh at, who think that these Frisians came into this country from Fresia, a province of India}1592L, not in 1602G}.
80.20. {1601L, not in 1602G & 1608/1612I {If I would take delight in fables, I would rather with Hannibald derive the name of these people from their king Frisus, the son of Clodio}1601L; 1609/1612/1641S after § 17; not in 1602G & 1608/1612I}. The writers in the middle ages, especially the French, call them, as I have noticed, Frisones, a name framed from the French word Frisons, by which name the French today call these people. To this day they retain their ancient name. For they are commonly, in their own language among themselves, called Friezen, by which name they are also known throughout Germany.
80.21. They were converted to Christianity by St. Bonifacius, archbishop of Metz, at the time when Zacharias was Pope of Rome. There is a strange story about Rabod, duke of Friesland, who, when he was about to be baptised and adopted into the flock of Christ, demanded to what place his grandfathers and great-grandfathers had gone before him. And when he heard that they had all together with evil spirits gone to damnation {1606E instead{hell}1606E instead}, he went back saying that he would rather be with his ancestors. Whether our word Rabow, which in our mother tongue means rogue or wicked fellow, is derived from this Rabod, I cannot say}1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, & 1602G end here}.
80.22. {1592L{Suffridus Petrus Frisius has written in a general manner about the Frisians in a specific treatise}1592L & 1595L end here}. {1601L{Cornelius Kempius and others have done the same. But Vbbo Emmius Gretensis {1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{the Frisian}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} has done it in the most learned manner}1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German and 1572/1574 French, editions:

80.23 {1572/1574F only{THE COUNTRY OF}1572/1574F only} {1571/1573D{FRIESLAND.

80.24. Friesland (as various authors report) was once a kingdom, extending along the sea coast from the [mouth of] the Rhine to Denmark. But nowadays the area bearing this name does not extend that far any more, because it is [now] bounded by the sea called Zuiderzee in the West and the river Jade in the East.
80.25. And now nobody any longer considers as belonging to Friesland the Northern part of Holland called Waterland, where one finds the following cities: Hoorn, Alkmaar, Medemblik etc. That these no longer belong [to Friesland] is clear, considering that they belong to the countship of Holland, but also because they are separated from it naturally by the sea mentioned, namely the Zuiderzee.
80.26. It may well be that this part once belonged to Friesland and was joined to it, because, as they think, the sea mentioned called Zuiderzee has not always been between the two, but has been caused to develop there as a result of a certain storm, separating in this manner one area from the other.
80.27. Thus, this country of Friesland is located, as we noted, on the West and the North along the sea coast, and towards the South and the East is bounded by the lands of Overijssel, Westfalen, the country of Oldenburg, and Butjager-land, being split by the river called Eems .The part facing the East is called East Friesland which has as its capital the city of Emden, which was once under the jurisdiction of the counts of Holland, (though not wholeheartedly) but now they are governed by its own count called the count of East Friesland.
80.28. The Western part, bordering on the Zuiderzee mentioned above, is called West Friesland, and is divided into four regions, namely Westergoe, Oostergoe, Zevenwolde and Groningen. to the extent that Groningen is also an independent part by itself. Under the government of this Friesland also belong the areas of Over-Ijssel, Drente and Twente.
80.29. This West Friesland is well populated and has always been inhabited by rich farmers. There are no famous rivers, but many man-made canals to go from one place to another and for guiding the water from the fields in wintertime. For this country is very watery and wet, so that in winter you cannot go anywhere, especially towards the sea, except by water. For the rest, this is a very suitable country for cattle, of which you will here find the fattest and largest of all of Europe, which they sell and transport in large numbers all through the year outside their country.
80.30. This country has thirteen cities, namely Groningen, Dam, Leeuwarden, Dokkum, Franeker, Bolsward, Sloten, Harlingen, Workum, Sneek, Ijlst, Hindelopen & Staveren, which are all surrounded by walls or ditches and graced with privileges; and another 490 villages. About which Petrus Olivarius writes in his Commentaries on Mela that he has never seen a country which has so many parish churches on such a small area.
80.31. And he has heard that the reason for there being so many is that once there was contention between the nobility of this country as regards their seat in church in the sense that everyone wanted to be the best and most honourable one, therefore deserving to sit at the most elevated place in church.
80.32. And after this contention had been proceeding for a long time, those who could decided each to build their own church in their respective parish, and built their church to sit in the best place. Thus it came about that they have so many churches there}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F end here}.

Second vernacular text version, translated from the texts of the 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French & 1598/1610/1613 editions. The 1598 French text follows parts of the 1598/1610/1613D text, but sometimes in a different order. The middle part of the 1598F text is entirely different from the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch text.

80.33. {1581F{Friesland.
80.34. That the Frisians are a very ancient people, living at the mouth of the Rhine near the ocean, where they still live today, is very clear from the ancient writers. For Ptolemĉus describes those [Frisians] who live above the Busactores, between the river Eems and the Vidrum {1598/1610/1613D{also called Swarte-water [black water]}1598/1610/1613D}. Tacitus, who attributes to them a prominent reputation among the Dutch and near the sea where the Rhine empties into it, divides the Frisians into the Greater and the Lesser, according to their power and living place, saying that their area covers the great lakes on which the Romans have navigated.
80.35. The same writer also mentions some Frisians on the other side of the Rhine, who were more oppressed by Roman avarice than by their rule. Julius Capitolinus reports that these Frisians on the other side of the Rhine were defeated by Clodius Albinus, the Emperor. Plinius even refers to islands in the Rhine belonging to the Frisians, and also to some tribes called Frisiabones in France {not in 1598F{who live between the rivers Helius and Flevus, which are branches of the Rhine emptying into the sea}not in 1598F} who do not fit here .
80.36. Moreover, it becomes evident that in ancient times the Frisians have not lived across the river Eems. But now their region extends further to the East up to the river Visurgis or Weser, but in ancient times it is certain that the Chauci lived there. Further towards Denmark in the land of Thietmarsen there are some called Beach Frisians {not in 1598/1610/1613D{or maritime Frisians. These are maybe the same that Ptolemĉus calls Sigulones. This is the country that Saxo Grammaticus calls Frisia Eydorensis after the name of a nearby river, also called Frisia the Lesser by Albert Cranzius, who makes it the ancestry or source of the Frisians. Ptolemĉus mentions three cities of the Frisians, namely Manarmanis, Phleum & Siatutanda, and Tacitus mentions a castle called Fleuum (maybe the same as the Phleum just mentioned), home of the soldier Cruptorice. He also talks about a forest named Baduhenne where 900 Romans are said to have been defeated, and another group of 400 who accused one another of treason killed each other. The same author testifies that they reached the pillars of Hercules}not in 1598/1610/1613D}{1598/1610/1613D only{Cornelius Kempius in his book on Friesland divides their entire area into seven water-lands.
80.37. The first is West of the river Vlie, part of Water-Land, the second is Westergoe, the third Oostergoe. And these three are according to him called West-Frisians. The fourth lies near the river Ijsel, where you have the cities of Deventer, Zwolle, Hasselt, Steenwijk and Vollenhove. The fifth comprises Groningerland. The sixth area is called East-Frisia. The seventh is the area from the river Weser, across the river Elbe all the way to the river Eyder.
80.38. Alternatively, this region of the Frisians is divided into three parts, namely East Frisia, West Frisia, and Middle Frisia, which is the Groningerlandt}1598/1610/1613D only}.
The magnanimity of these people, their courage and their selfconfidence has been recorded {1598/1610/1613D only{by Tacitus in his History about the 14th Malorigisan Kings}1598/1610/1613D only}{1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{concerning Verritus & Malorige}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}. When these Frisians were in Rome, as Tacitus writes, waiting for Nero who was busy with other things, concerning what should be shown to these foreigners, they went to the theatre of Pompeius, to admire its size.
80.39. They wondered about the hierarchy of who sat where, how the seats were divided, who was a knight, where the council were sitting etc. And they also noted that there were some among the council members in outlandish clothes, and the Frisians asked who these were, and they received as an answer that it was done to honour these envoys of foreign nations who above others extraorinarily courageous and faithful to the Roman Empire.
80.40. Then the Frisians exclaimed and answered that no people can be considered to be better in courage and faithfulness that the Dutch. Then they went and sat down among the council members, which was taken in a good spirit as being a result of their reliability. Nero appointed these two Frisian as citizens of Rome.
80.41. Plinius writes that in Friesland the herb Britannica was supposed to grow, which has long black leaves, and a black root, from which juice is pressed. They call the plant Vibones. It should be gathered before one hears any thunder, and once eaten, it makes the users totally carefree. This herb is not only good for the nerves, and effective against mouth infections, but is also excellent against snakes and other vermin. {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{I would like to hear from those who love herbs if this herb is still known today, and under what name}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}.
80.42. {1598/1610/1613D, but also in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F after § 35{The Frisians were converted to christianity by Mr. Bonifacius, Archbishop of Metz, under Zacharias, Pope of Rome. Among these there is a story about King Radboud who, when he was at the point of being converted and receiving the holy water, asked where all his forebears had gone after they died, and when he was told that they lived in the abode of the devil, he put his foot down and said that he would like to be with them. That the name of Rabaut, signifying Rogue, is said to have been derived from this Radboud seems to make good sense}1598/1610/1613D which ends here, but also in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F after § 35, and ending there}.
80.43.{1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{Whether the inhabitants of this land come from the people mentioned before, or that they had their origin and name from the Phryges in Asia, as various people think, or from still another tribe, for Strabo puts the Phryges in Slavonia towards mount Ceraunij, I leave to the judgment of the learned. In the more recent Latin authors, and particularly the French ones, I find that these people were called Frisones and still retain their ancient name. Among themselves they use the name Friesen, as do all Germans}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only which end here}.

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