Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 79

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598/1610/1613D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S editions:

79.1. {1570L(A){HOLLAND.

79.2. Thus Erasmus of Rotterdam, a Dutchman, describes Holland, his native country in his own words {1598/1610/1613D only{from Latin, translated into Dutch according to ability}1598/1610/1613D only}: Most learned people, he says, agree on this, and with great certainty, that the estuary of the Rhine, before it reaches the main sea, which Tacitus mentions in his 20th book, is the same as what we now call Holland. It is my country which I always highly recommend and honour, and to which indeed I owe my life. And I would {1598/1610/1613D, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{to God}1598/1610/1613D, 1606E & 1608/1612I only} that it was within my power to do it as much credit as it has bestowed honour and goodness onto me, {1606E only{for which I am bound to praise the Lord}1606E only}.
79.3. To the extent that Martialis accuses this country of rusticitas, {1606E only{that is of clownish simplicity,}1606E only} and to the extent that Lucanus calls this country trucis, {1580/1589G, 1588S, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{cruel}1580/1589G, 1588S, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} {1606E only{rough and uncivil,}1606E only} I must say that it means nothing to me, or otherwise I think that both remarks must be interpreted as a recommendation. For what country is there, that has not been rude and uncivil in former times? When was there a time when the Romans deserved a higher recommendation than that, having in that time no other understanding of arts or crafts than those of farming and war making?
79.4. If the things they said at the time about the Dutch were still true now, let someone then see for himself now. What greater praise can be attributed to Holland, my native country, than that it detests those pranks made by Martialis, which he himself calls nequitias, {1602G & 1606E only{jokes}1602G & 1606E only}? And I would to God that all Christians had such an attitude as these Dutchmen have, that they either did not have the pestilent conceit of that poet, or at least that they would not take delight in such arrogance.
79.5. If it pleases anyone to call this clownishness, we will bear such a slanderous reproach, because we have this attitude in common with the good Lacedæmonians, with the old Sabine people, and the worthy Catoes, that are all so highly recommended. And Lucanus, I think, called the Dutch truces, {1602G & 1606E only{rough,}1602G & 1606E only} in no other sense than Vergilius calls the Romans acer, stout and hardy.
79.6. For looking at their daily way of life, as long as anyone respects their homely and plain manners, there is no nation more prone to be civil, courteous and humane, or one in which you will find less cruelty, bad temper or recklessness; they are good-natured, plain, devoid of all treachery, and not inclined to notorious vices: only, they give in a little too much to pleasure, especially when banqueting: the reason for this I judge to be the wonderful plenty of all kinds of things that provoke them to do so; and partly is it due to all the foreign commodities brought to them. For it not only possesses the mouths of two good rivers, the Maas and the Rhine, but also because the coast is continually washed by the main sea; partly also because of the natural fertility of the country, which everywhere obtains water from many great and navigable rivers, teeming with fish, and because it has an abundance of meadows and lush pastures.
79.7. Moreover, the fens and woods provide an infinite store of fowl; therefore it is always affirmed that there is no country in the world which on such a small piece of ground contains so many cities and towns, not very large or extended, but splendidly organised and governed. In terms of cleanliness and good house-keeping, the Dutch take the prize among all nations in the judgement of merchants who have travelled over the greater part of the world.
79.8. Nowhere does one find more people with some decent education. The reason why many of them do not reach the stage of exquisite learning, especially of the ancients, is their permissive and indulgent life style, and they regard the purity of good manners as more virtuous and honest than great learning. For it cannot be denied that they are clever, for which many arguments can be provided, although I cannot give them, limited as I am in this respect, more than in anything else. So far Erasmus in his book Chiliades {1608/1612I has instead{Proverbs}1608/1612I instead}.
79.9. {1573L(AB){This country of Holland is almost fully enclosed by the sea {1580/1589G, 1588S, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{like an island}1580/1589G, 1588S, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}, {not in 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{and consists of seven as if it were peninsulas}not in 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}, enclosed by the river Maas as well as the river Rhine. It is not very large, in length no more than 60 Dutch miles in circumference. Yet, it comprises 29 {1580/1589G, 1592L & 1598/1610/1613D have instead{30}1580/1589G, 1592L & 1598/1610/1613D instead}{1608/1612I has instead{19}1608/1612I instead} walled cities, which are these: DORDRECHT, made into an island about 150 years ago due to a great deluge and flooding by the sea. Four rivers have their course here. It is a mighty city, inhabited by very wealthy citizens, and beautified by many graceful {not in 1598/1610/1613D{public and private}not in 1598/1610/1613D} buildings.
79.10. Here they have a large market for merchants. It holds staples, as they are commonly called, of Rhine wine, corn, timber and other merchandise, which are shipped down the Maas and Rhine to be sold here. HAARLEM; this is the widest city of Holland, quite pleasantly situated. Just outside the city walls there is a nice forest, where people go in their free time, to get away for pleasure and recreation, after their work and exacting business. This town is famous for its pieces of cloth, of which certainly more than ten to twelve thousand are made each year. Its citizens and inhabitants have persuaded themselves that it was here that the art of printing was first invented and practised.
79.11. DELFIVM is so called after Delft which in their language means ditch. Here the townspeople also practice cloth making. Moreover, in this city they make good beer, which is transported in great quantities to Zeeland. This town in the year 1536 {1598/1610/1613D instead{1563}1598/1610/1613D instead} suffered great losses because of a fire, which destroyed the greater part of the city. LEIDEN lies upon the Rhine, not far from where it used to end in the sea, now {1606E only{as you may see}1606E only} stopped and filled with sand. It is considered to be the oldest city of this province. Some think that it received its name from a Roman legion that hibernated here. Certain remnants of antiquity can be seen here to this very day.
79.12. GOUDA lies upon the river [Hollandse] Ijssel, where it joins the river Gouda or Gouwe, which gave the city its name. It is very populous. AMSTERDAM, splendidly built on the inlet 't IJ, is the most populated market city of them all. In almost every street, as in Venice, you can go from one place to another by boat as well as by foot, to go about your business. Every day, lots of ships arrive and anchor, coming from Norway, Livonia {1606E instead{Russia}1606E instead} and other Northern countries, but also from Spain, {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{France}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, England etc., so that sometimes you can see as many as two hundred or three hundred sails of merchant ships (or hulks as they call them) riding at anchor here.
79.13. For trade, this city is commonly considered to yield to none except Antwerp. ENKHUIZEN is situated upon that sea that is normally called in their language Zuiderzee, famous, also in foreign countries for its building of large ships. HOORN is also situated upon that bay. Here they hold a fair in May where they sell such infinite quantities of butter and cheese that it is wonderful to see.
79.14. ALKMAAR exceeds all others in this province for butter and cheese (1575L{excelling in this respect above all other cities}1575L}. PURMEREND is famous for its castle or palace of Count Egmont. EDAM also deserves to be remembered among the rest for its ship building and good cheese. Moreover, MONNICKENDAM, WEESP, NAARDEN and WOERDEN may not be forgotten. Near OUDEWATER grows a lot of hemp [Latin texts have: cannabis], so that they make almost all the nets, and ropes here which the Dutch {not in 1598/1610/1613D{and the Zeelanders}not in 1598/1610/1613D} use for fishing.
79.15. SCHOONHOVEN means fair orchards. Here is good salmon in stock, {not in 1588S{as we said about wine at Dordrecht}not in 1588S}. Next we come to IJSSELSTEIN, and VIANEN. Then LEERDAM, ASPEREN and HEUKELUM, three little cities in a circle upon the river Linge {1598/1610/1613 has (incorrectly instead{the river Lek}1598/1610/1613D instead}, no more than 500 strides from one another. GORINCHEM and WERKENDAM are situated on the bank of the river Waal, opposite each other. Gorinchem has an excellent and beautiful castle. This town is justly called a storehouse of all kinds of provisions. A daily market is kept here to provide all that is necessary for man's sustenance, which is transported by ship from here to other countries, especially to Antwerp.
79.16. Lastly, there are HEUSDEN, ROTTERDAM, SCHIEDAM and the two BERGEN, one known by the name of St. Geertruiden, the other by the number seven, I mean Zevenbergen and Geertruidenberg, for that is what they are called. There are other towns which were formerly walled, but that no longer have them, either because of war or other misfortunes. Yet, they still enjoy their former liberties and freedom. Of this sort are Medemblik, Beverwijk, Muiden, Nieuwpoort, Vlaardingen and 's-Gravenzande.
79.17. Moreover, there are more than 400 villages in this province, amongst which 's-Gravenhage (which they call Count's Hague) is far better than the rest. This town is thought by Guicciardini to surpass all others in Europe in terms of size, wealth, beauty and pleasant location. For it has over two thousand buildings, of which the prince's palace, built like a castle and fortified with a wall and a moat, where the privy courts of justice are held, is one. Close to it is a dark and lush park, which is a joy for the ear and the eye because of the singing birds and cajoling deer. {1592L, not in 1598/1610/1613D, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{I might better call it Cosmopolis, a citylike town,}1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} and [I] am bold enough to compare it with Ctesiphon, a place in Assyria, situated upon the river Tigris, praised by all ancient writers.
79.18. Of that place, Strabo writes that this town is equal to a city in size and impact, and was the place where the Parthian kings liked to stay in winter, rather than in the city of Seleucia}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
79.19. Under the jurisdiction of Holland reside certain islands, such as Voorn, (with the towns Geervliet and den Briel), Goerede or Goeree (with a town of the same name), Sommelsdijk, Texel and various others.
79.20. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{The diocese of Utrecht, governed since some time by a bishop, in which there are five {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{four}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} cities, has subjected itself to the jurisdiction of Holland in the time of Charles the fifth, the Emperor {1606E only{of Rome}1606E only}. This part of the country is to such an extent enclosed by the sea and divided in lots and parcels by rivers, lakes, creeks and moats that}not in 1598/1610/1613} there is no city or village that cannot be reached by water as well as by waggon. Nor is there any place in the entire province from where one cannot easily reach the sea within three hours}1598/1610/1613D ends here}.
79.21. Chrysostomus Neapolitanus has described this Olland, (for that is how he writes it), in an eloquent letter addressed to Count Nugarolo. Consult also the History of Holland, compiled by Gerard Geldenhauer and {1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{{and by Cornelius Aurelius. See also}1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} Peter Divæus {1584L, not in 1602G{but particularly the Dutch History by Hadrianus Junius}1584L, not in 1602G}. For the amazing abundance of this country, read Ludovico Guicciardini. Of the ruins of the Roman stronghold and weapon storehouse, {1571L{which the people call The British Castle}1571L} (which is on the shore of the Germanic ocean near a village called Katwijk aan Zee, not far from the city of Leiden), and of the inscriptions in marble that can be found there, we have not long ago made a representation {1606E has instead{treatise}1606E instead} devoted specifically to that subject [Ortelius produced a view of these ruins called Arx Britannica prior to publishing his Theatrum, but he never wrote a treatise about it, as far as I know].
79.22. About the province of Utrecht, {1573L(AB){which is now under the command of Holland}1573L(AB)}, and shown on this map as well, see the history of Lambert Hortensius of Montfoort}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F editions:

79.23. {1571/1573D{Holland.
79.24. This country used to be know under the name of Batavia, and it is almost like an island, surrounded as it is by the sea or rivers. Moreover, on its inside it is by nature full of lakes or ponds, full of natural rivers, and on top of that they have everywhere dug so many moats and dikes next to them, that there is hardly any village or city or one can either travel by cart or by ship from one to the other. It is so small that there is no place (even in the very heart of this region) from where you cannot reach the sea within three hours.
79.25. Yet, in this region there are twenty-nine walled cities (not counting those whose walls have now decayed as a result of wars or other accidents, but which still retain their city privileges), and more than four hundred villages, as Guicciardini writes. Among these villages there is one, called s'Gravenhage, where the council of Holland resides, which may be the best village of Europe, for it only lacks a wall around it to be a proper city. But the inhabitants do not mind this, preferring to be the best among the villages, rather than an average one among the cities.
79.26. One does not think that anywhere in the world there is a country as small as this one with as many cities. Or such a poor country possessing such wealth (as it has by nature only an abundance of fish because of the multitude of waters and of meat because of its many green meadows). For it has of its own no wine, no corn, nor wood, and yet provides all these Netherlands with wines, corn and wood which are imported from Germany and the Eastland [Baltic] (because of the easy access to the sea and the commodious harbours it has). It has no wool, nor linen, and yet it produces wool and linen which it imports from Spain, Scotland and Eastland, so much, that there is hardly any place in Europe where one does not know or cannot mention Dutch linen. It is exported all the way to the Indies. But of those things which it has by nature, there is a miraculous and therefore unbelievable abundance.
79.27. For is it not a miracle that such a small country as we have just explained yields so much cheese and butter that it can feed the entire Netherlands with them? Where do you find a city in Spain, Italy, France or Germany where they do not know Dutch cheese? And to give you evidence that this is true, I will relate a story (which can be found in Guicciardini) but I do not know whether your astonishment will increase or decrease: there is a village in this land called Assendelft, at a distance of two miles from Haarlem, and one mile from Beverwijk which keeps four thousand cows. These give daily, averaging over winter days and summer days, at least eight thousand pots of milk.
79.28. There are four other villages in the neighbourhood which, together with Assendelft just mentioned, together as five villages produce yearly (as became evident in a bet attended by master Jan Benninck, a council member) more milk than Dordrecht has Rhine wine, although it is the wine staple of all these countries. This history (I think) is more miraculous than anything said before, but this having been said, it is no wonder that this country yields so much cheese and butter, considering the abundance of milk from which these are made.
79.29. The inhabitants are clever and industrious people who mostly live by trade, in which the women (a strange thing to say) have the greatest aptitude and are most occupied. Traditionally, these Batavi have always been appreciated by the Roman Catholic emperors, both because of their faithful services in the wars against their enemies, as also for being good bodyguards. We read about one who was in the service of Adrianus the emperor, called Soranus, who in full harness swam across the Danube, and was such a good archer that he shot an arrow, and shot another arrow which struck the first one to pieces before it landed. They were not coarse in the past (although this is what they are sometimes called), and neither are they coarse now, (as appears from Erasmus and other people living this day).
79.30. On this map you also see the seigniory of Utrecht, to which four walled cities belong, [namely] Wijk bij Duurstede, Rhenen, Amersfoort and Montfoort. This seigniory has for nine hundred years been governed by its own bishops of Utrecht, until the year 1528. Then this seigniory (as a result of a treaty made by Emperor Charles V and the bishop) has become under the rule of the counts of Holland. The bishop has only retained the spiritual jurisdiction there}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}.

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