Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 73

Text, one version only, translated from the 1587 French, 1588 Spanish & 1592 Latin edition)

73.1. {1587F{ARTOYS {1588S instead{ARTESIA, ARTOIS}1588S instead}{1592L instead{ARTOIS}1592L instead}.

73.2. That the inhabitants of Artois were not the least important people of Gallia Belgica is stated by Iulius Cæsar himself. They are and [always] have been a belligerent nation, who have to the present day retained their ancient name. The main city {1588S{in Latin called Atrebatum}1588S} was formerly also the metropolitan [city] of Flanders. Now it is in French called Arras, after which the adjacent region and the entire province is called Artois, as if you would say Arratois and omit the second syllable. More recently they call it by the new {1588S{Latin}1588S} name of Artesia.
73.3. The whole region {1592L{was by St. Louis, the French King}1592L}, adorned with the title of a countship. {1592L{And its first count was Robert, a brother of the king just mentioned, as Vignier writes}1592L}. It is very large, extending [as it does] from the frontiers of Cambrai, Picardie, Henault and Flanders, all the way to the [Atlantic] Ocean.
73.4. In former times it was subject to the crown of France, but now, as a result of the peace made between emperor Charles the Fifth and François the first, French king, in 1529, it is now a fully independent state by itself. It has two renowned cities, namely Arras and {1592L{the sanctuary of}1592L} St. Omer. [Further] important towns are Aire, Hesdin, Lens, Bethune, Bapaume, {1592L{the sanctuary of}1592L} St. Paul, Lillers and Perne, all of which are subject to the catholic king. The cities of Boulogne, Calais, Guise and Ardres (which are also located within the borders of this county) belong to the French king, for Thérouanne {1592L has instead{Morinum}1592L instead} has now been destroyed.
73.5. It also has various fortresses and strongholds, next to an incredible number of noblemen's castles, which they use as places for dwelling. It contained since a long time two famous bishoprics, namely Arras and Thérouanne {1592L has instead{Morinensis}1592L instead}. But since Thérouanne {1592L has instead{Morinum}1592L instead} was utterly destroyed in the year 1553, its jurisdiction was distributed over three episcopal sees, namely St. Omer and Ieper for one half, and Boulogne for the remainder.
73.6. [Of] bailiwicks or Hundreds, being the principal members or parts of the whole county it has nine, namely those of Arras, of St. Omer, Thérouanne {1592L has instead{Morinum}1592L instead}, Ayre, Hesdin, Lens, Bapaume, Avesnes, Bredenard and Aubigny. Under the bailiwicks of Arras are comprised Boulogne, the sanctuary of St. Paul, Perne, Bethune and Lillers, but Calais, Guise and Ardres by ancient right belong to St. Omer. Similarly the count of Artois had other, inferior counts as his vassals, namely the count of Boulogne, of St. Paul, of Arcques, of Blangy, of Fauquembergues and of Signy. Now it has also been augmented with the princedom of Espinee and the marquisate of Renty.
73.7. But how Boulogne first exempted itself from the jurisdiction of Artois is clear from historical accounts. Because, after a certain count of Boulogne was convicted for treason against the French king, the king used that occasion to seize this countship, and ever since it has denied obedience to Artois. For which reason the count of Artois, having lost half of his right, immediately appropriated for himself homage or fealty over the countship of St. Paul, (which previously was subjected to the count of Boulogne), repeating over and over that he would not [suffer to] be deprived of both his homage and under-homage.
73.8. As a result the princes on both sides have practised the custom that Boulogne no more acknowledges Artois, than St. Paul acknowledges Boulogne. However, in the later peace treaty of 1559 opinions were at variance, and since the matter was therefore referred to commissioners, it remains as yet undecided, with the catholic king still holding possession.
73.9. It is commonly assumed that Calais (being the harbour on the continent closest to England) was by Cæsar called Portus Iccius, where he {1588S{from the Low Countries}1588S} sailed to England. But if we consider the matter more thoroughly, we shall find out that it was another harbour, namely the town of Saint Omer, which used to be a harbour with a very large inlet from the ocean. Even the high dikes which almost surround this city, next to many other monuments and relics from antiquity, plainly show that and provide such convincing evidence that no one needs to further confirm it, that the adjacent area was in former times covered by the sea, the truth of which is still, to this very day, confirmed as well by common and continuous reports.
73.10. Sithieu, the ancient name of this city (for everyone knows that the name of St. Omer is only a very recent one) points in the same direction, as if it were derived from Sinus {1592L{or port}1592L} Iccius. Also that the harbour mentioned was in the province of the Thérouanne {1588S & 1592L have instead{Morini}1588S & 1592L instead}, by Vergilius and Lucanus called Extremos hominum, the people who live farthest away. And that this is most true is something the attentive reader can easily conclude from many parts of Cæsar where he describes his departure to and return from England.
73.11. Nor is the distance of thirty miles or thereabout which he says the island is located from the main land an objection to my conviction. For the violence of the sea (especially in so narrow a place) may easily extend this distance, or diminish it. Nor does the distance of the sea from the main [island] to the continent vary much. Let it suffice that this much has been said concerning Portus Iccius. We leave the verdict to others.
73.12. In addition, this province had various monasteries {1592L has instead{three bishoprics, to wit Arras, St. Omer and Boulogne}1592L instead}, among which] twenty-one abbeys for men {1587F & 1588S instead{28 abbeys}1587F & 1588S instead}{not in 1592L{of which the best known are St. Vaast of Arras, St. Bertin of St. Omer, St. Sauveur of Anchin, and of Mount St. Eloy}not in 1592L}. {1592L{and seven nunneries next to many convents}1592L}. It also has many rivers, the main ones being the Lys, Scarpe, Aa, Canche and Authy, next to others that are navigable.
73.13. Great is the number of villages and hamlets throughout this province. The soil is most fertile and abounds with all kinds of corn, and especially wheat. For which reason some in the ancient French tongue write that it was called Atrech, that is to say The land of bread. It is not without woods and groves, especially towards the South and West.
73.14. Hieronymus and other authors confirm that in his time it rained wool in this province. This region, as well as others adjacent to it, has been most remarkably described by Guicciardini}1587F, 1588S & 1592L end here}.

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