Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 58

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, and 1606E editions:

58.1. {1570L(ABC),{Lower Germany}1570L} {1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E instead{Germany on this side of the RHINE, commonly called {not in 1601L{THE NETHERLANDS}not in 1601L} or THE LOW COUNTRIES}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E instead}.
58.2. This Table [map] does not represent all of Lower Germany but only a part, namely that which Philip, Son of {not in 1606E{Emperor}not in 1606E} Charles the fifth possesses by right of inheritance. And it contains the following 17 Provinces: the Dukedoms of Brabant, Limburg, Luxemburg and Gelderland; the countships of Flanders, Artois, Henault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur, and Zutphen; the marquisate of the Holy Empire; the signiories of Friesland, Mechelen, Utrecht, Overijssel and Groningen. Regions as civil and well-manured as any, in which (according to Ludovicus Guicciardini) there are 208 cities, fortified with walls, ramps, or ditches, and more than 6300 villages with steepled churches, next to a great number of hamlets, castles and fortifications {1571L, not in 1606E{which are not included in these numbers}1571L, not in 1606E}{1580/1589G & 1602G only instead{of which there are also quite a few}1580/1589G & 1602G only instead}. And this area, beginning from the eastern part at the river Amisus, commonly called Eems, the boundary of it towards the Ocean, has these Princes bordering it: the count of East Friesland, the bishop of Münster, the duke of Cleve, the archbishops of Cologne and Trier, and then the French king along the Southwestern shore as far as the river Aa, the extreme Western border of these provinces.
58.3. The air, though it may seem over-moist, is yet most healthy, and agreeable to the constitution and digestion of the inhabitants, who are here of great longevity, especially in Kempenland, {1606E only{the most Northern}1606E only} part of Brabant {1602G{where many old people live}1602G}. It is everywhere watered with rivers, and sufficiently adorned with woods and groves, either for pastime, or hunting, or beautiful sights. Of mountains it has none, except only around Luxemburg, Namur and in Henault, where it rises in some places to [the level of] hills.
58.4. It abounds with corn and fruits of all sorts. Also with herbs for medicinal use. Here also grows {1592L only{in sandy places}1592L only} plenty of that heather plant which the inhabitants call {not in 1601L and later{Ericeta}not in 1601L and later}, {1595L{Buckwey, which the people corruptly pronounce as Bockwey, as if you would say, The beech-herb. For the seed or grain (be it in smaller form) is three-square, altogether like the nut of the beech. So it may truly be called beech-corn {not in 1606E{though not growing on a tree, but closer to the ground, so that animals can graze it}not in 1606E} or called, if you like [Greek lettering] gameifègos. Whether this corn was known in ancient times, let herbalists inquire}1595L}. But {1601L, not in 1602S{in sandy places, which the inhabitants there because of the occurrence of the Erica plant call Ericeta}1601L, not in 1602S} as is the case in Kempenland {1606E only{in the North}1606E only}of Brabant it does not grow in such abundance. This kind of Eretica heather yields such excellent food for cattle, that (as agreed on by the neighbouring countries) their meat is pleasant and delectable to a man's taste as any.
58.5. {1592L{It is this region, I suppose, that Plinius most truly describes in his 17th book, 4th chapter, where he says: What is better than the pastures of Germany? And yet, under a thin slab [of soil] you have immediately a mould of barren sand}1592L}. It breeds no creatures harmful to mankind.
58.6. All these regions are called by most foreigners (most ignorantly mistaking part for the whole) Flanders, and its inhabitants Flemings, whereas Flanders is but a part [of it] only, and but one province {1606E only{of the seventeen}1606E only}, as you may plainly see on the map. These therefore are in as serious an error as if a man, to refer to Spain, should mention Castilia, Andaluzia or any other specific province, or speaking of Italy should mention Tuscany or Calabria &c. or talking about the whole kingdom of France should mention only Normandy, {1606E only{or Bretaigne}1606E only}, &c., and so should imagine to have spoken of all of Spain, all of Italy or all of France.
58.7. Ioannes Goropius Becanus has described these regions most learnedly in his Becceselana, [as has] Petrus Divæus of Louvain, and Hubertus Thomas of Liege. Iohannes Calvetus Stella, a Spaniard, wrote in his own language a Journal of king Philip's [military] progress through all these provinces, in which you shall find many details worth reading, that shine a light on the knowledge of these countries and cities. But whoever desires to have more detailed and firm information on these places, let him peruse Ludovico Guicciardini and he will then think that he has not read about these provinces, but has seen them with his own eyes}1570L(ABC), 1571L and 1573L(AB) end here}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Recently David Chytræus in his Saxon history has also written extensively and learnedly on these matters}1595L, not in 1602G}.
58.8. {1574L{Since the inhabitants here are bilingual, and in most places speak both the French and the Dutch language equally well, and since the country for trade and negotiations is frequented by Spaniards and by strangers of other foreign nations, this has been the cause that various cities, towns and rivers have more than one name. For everyone names them after his own language with a name much differing from the proper name used by its native inhabitants. Ignorance about this multiplicity of names has caused many authors (otherwise not to be reproached) to commit intolerable errors. And among these is Dominicus Niger, who in his Geography puts down Anversa on the location of Taravanna, and Antorpia (which, in spite of this, in the edition printed by Henricus Petrus he corrupts to Antrocipia) he puts on the bank of Tabuda, thirty {1580/1589G & 1602G only{Welsh}1580/1589G & 1602G only} leagues from Taravanna, whereas everyone of us knows that Antorpia and Anversa refer to one and the same city, [namely] Antwerp.
58.9. Similarly he supposes each couple Mechelen and Malines, Leodium and Liege, Noviomagum and Nijmegen, Traiectum on the Maas and Trait (for which he wrongly writes Trecia) to be two different towns, whereas in fact they refer to one only. He grossly declares the city Raremuntium to be called Liege and somewhere else he insists on naming the same Raremuntium as Rhamon. But on the basis of his description I guess that by Raremuntium and Ramon he means nothing else than the town we call Roermond. He takes Rhenen, a city in Gelria lying on the banks of the river Rhine, because of the similarity of the names, to be quite the same as the bishopric of Reims a small area in the province of Champagne in France.
58.10. But since he is utterly unacquainted with the situation in our regions, his errors to me may seem more forgivable. Whatever the case may be, lest others studious in geography should lapse into the same errors, I thought it good to annex onto this page some of the common synonyms or different names of certain specific places.
[in two or three columns:]
58.11. ANTWERPEN in Low Dutch, in Latin Antwerpia and Andoverpia. In High German ANTORFF; hence in Latin Antorpia, the Italians call it Anuersa, the Spaniards and French Enberes and Anvers.
58.12. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We high Germans say Aach or Aachen,}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, AKEN in Dutch, in French Aix, and in Latin Aquisgranum.
58.13. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{we say Herzogen Busch, the Dutch say}1580/1589G & 1602G only}'s HERTOGENBOSCH, in French Boisleduc, and in Latin Silva ducalis, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Bolduque}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.14. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We write Löwen, the Dutch}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, LEUVEN, in Latin called Louanium, and in French Louvain, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Lovayna}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.15. Lille by its people, in High Dutch {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{we say}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}RIJSSEL, in Latin Insula, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Lila}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.16. Liege by its people, in High Dutch LUYK, {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We say Luik oder Lüttich}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, in Latin Leodium, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Liega}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.17. KEULEN so called by the inhabitants {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We say Köln}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, in French Cologne, and in Latin Colonia Agrippina, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Colonia}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.18. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We say}1580/1589G & 1602G only}DORDRECHT, by contraction, we call Dort, in Latin Dordracum, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Dordreque}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.19. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We say}1580/1589G & 1602G only}MECHELEN, in Latin Machlinia, and in French {1588S & 1602S only{and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only}Malines.
58.20. Tournay by its inhabitants {1588S & 1602S only{and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only}, {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We high Germans say Dornich}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} in High Dutch DOORNIK, and in Latin Tornacum.
58.21. Arras in French {1588S & 1602S only{and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only}, ATRECHT in Flemish, and by the learned Atrebatum.
58.22. {1602G only{what is called}1602G only}Maubeuge, in Latin they call it Malbodium.
58.23. Tienen, in French {1588S & 1602S only{and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only} Tilemont.
58.24. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We say Namurc or}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, Namur {1588S & 1602S only{in French and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only}, the Brabanders call it Namen, {1579L{in Latin Namurcum}1579L}.
58.25. {1580/1589 & 1602G only{We say}1580/1589G & 1602G only}MAASTRICHT, and by contraction Tricht, in French Trait, is by ancient Latin writers called Traiectum ad Mosam, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Mastrique}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.26. Viset, in High Dutch WESET {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We say Waset}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, (1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Vise}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.27. S. TRUIEN, in French Centron, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Cantron}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.28. Thionville in French, DIETENHOVEN in High Dutch {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We say Ditenhofen}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, and in Latin Theodonis villa, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Thionvila}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.29. TERREWANEN and TERREBORCH in Flemish, Terouenne in French, Tarvanna in ancient Latin writers, It used to be the seat of a bishop, but it now has the name only, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Terruana}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.30. GULIK, {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{we say Gülich}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, the French call it Iuliers, in Latin Iuliacum.
58.31. Mons {1580/1589G & 1602G only{we, like}1580/1589G & 1602G only} the Flemings call it BERGEN, {1580/1589G & 1602G only{those speaking Latin call it Monté}1580/1589G & 1602G only}.
58.32. GEERTSBERGEN which I hear is also called St. Adrianus, and in French Grammont.
58.33. Ioudogne, by those Brabanders that speak High Dutch {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{is by the German Flemish}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} called GELDENAKEN.
58.34. Gemblours, an abbey {1595L, not in 1602S{with a small city}1595L, not in 1602G), in Latin Gemblacum, {1588S & 1602S only{the Spanish call it Gibblom}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.35. Soigni in French, in Flemish SENNEKE
58.36. HALLE, in French Nostre Dame de Hault.
58.37. KORTRIJK, {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{We say Kortrich}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} Courtray in French {1588S & 1602S only{as well as in Spanish}1588S & 1602S only}, {1575L{Cortracum in Latin}1575L}.
58.38. COOMEN, in French Comines.
58.39. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We say the river Maas}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, the Dutch MAASE, in French is called Meuse, and in Latin {1588S & 1602S only{and Spanish}1588S & 1602S only} Mosa.
58.40. {1580/1589G & 1602G only{We say}1580/1589G & 1602G only} The river SCHELDE, in French Escault, is by Iulius Cæsar {1579L{and Plinius}1579L} called Scaldis, {1588S & 1602S only{in Spanish Scalda}1588S & 1602S only}.
58.41. The river Liege in French, is in Flemish named LEYE}1574L}. [note that as a native speaker of Flemish, when Ortelius refers to 'we' = Low Dutch = Dutch = Flemish = Brabants, and High Dutch = sometimes German, as in ANTORFF, but mostly = Dutch. Since 'we' in the German editions refers to we Germans, rather than we Flemings, the presentation of these exonyms is here rather complex].

The second text version, vernacular, translated from the texts of the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F and 1598/1610/1613D editions is presented below. Note that the first German editions of 1572/1573 fit in this popular template, but that the later editions of 1580/1589 and 1602 shift to the scholarly template:

58.42. {1571/1573D{The Netherlands.
58.43. This map does not represent all of The Netherlands but only the part which king Philip of Spain, our respectable ruler, possesses by right of inheritance. And it contains the following 17 provinces: the dukedoms of Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg, and Luxemburg; the countships of Vlaanderen, Artois, Henegouwen, Holland, {not in 1572/1573G{Zeeland}not in 1572/1573G}, Namen, and Zutphen; the marquesate of the sacred empire; the signiories of Friesland, Mechelen, Utrecht, Overijssel and Groningen, all of them well developed and with excellent buildings.
58.44. In these regions, (according to Ludowijck Guicciardin in his Italian book written about these provinces) there are 208 cities, fortified with walls, ramps, {not in 1572/1573G{and ditches}not in 1572/1573G}, and more than 6300 villages with {1572/1573G only{priests and}1572/1573G only} churches and parishes, next to a great number of hamlets, castles and fortifications {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1598F only{and mansions}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1598F only}. And this area, (from the eastern part at the river Eems to the river Aa in the West, starting from here, has these neighbours bordering it: the king of France, the {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{arch-}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only} bishops of Trier and of Cologne, the duke of Cleve, the bishop of Münster, and the count of East Friesland.
58.45. It is everywhere watered with rivers, and sufficiently adorned with woods and groves, either for pasture as is needed for this purpose, {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F o& 1598F only{pastime, or hunting,}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only} or for their beautiful sight. Of mountains it has none, except only around Luxemburg, Namur and in Henegouwen, where it rises in some places to [the level of] hills.
58.46. It abounds with corn and fruits of all sorts. Also with herbs for medicinal use. In various places, which we because of the abundance of heather call heath-ground, (the Romans call it Erica), like for instance in Kempenland, a part of Brabant, {not in 1571/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D{places which naturally have such plants}not in 1571/1573D & 1598/1610/1613D}, it does not grow there in such great abundance. But these places have been provided by nature miraculously with a gift for cattle. For this kind of heather yields such excellent and healthy pasture ground, that their meat is exceedingly tasty, such as comes from oxen, sheep, poultry, rabbits, &c., also yielding butter, milk etc., which surpasses all from elsewhere in taste. As a result, the Kempen meat and butter have a high price {1572/1573G instead{great praise}1572/1573G instead}, also for its own inhabitants.
58.47. The air, though it may seem over-moist, is yet most healthy for the inhabitants, who are here of great longevity, especially in Kempenland in Brabant, where you can find very old people.
58.48. All these regions together are called by most foreigners, as there are the Spanish, Italians and the French, (most ignorantly mistaking part for the whole) Flanders, and its inhabitants Flemings, whereas Flanders is but a part of it only, as if a man should mention Castilia, or Andalusia and thinks that he is referring to all of Spain, or intends to speak of all of Italy while just mentioning Tuscany or Lombardy. Or talking Normandy, or Gascoigne, &c., while imagining to have spoken of the whole kingdom of France, &c.
58.49. I have often wondered what the origin is of this kind of mistake [of calling all of the Low Countries Flanders], and finally I have arrived at the conclusion that it arose because of the commerce which used to be restricted to Brugge, and nowhere else in this region. Thus it was this city only that the foreign people and nations visited. And since this city is located in Flanders, therefore no other country was mentioned but Flanders. Everything came from Flanders and everything went to Flanders.
58.50. And since they heard nothing but Flanders, they have concluded that all these Lands were called Flanders. What also helped to spread this error, I think, was the fact that some counts of Flanders were once emperors of Constantinople, and also distinguished themselves in their battle {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{against the heathens}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F} to conquer the Holy Land and Jerusalem, which also has contributed to the popularity of this name [of Flanders] among foreigners}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F and 1598/1610/1613D editions end here}.

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