Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 45

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin editions:

45.1. {1602G only{The land of}1602G only} {1601L{CALAIS and BOULOGNE.

45.2. {1606E only{This map contains the representation of that North-Western part of France over which the English ruled from the year 1347 to the year 1557. at that time the duke of Guise, lieutenant for the French king, took it by force of arms. The towns of Calais, Guines and Ardres had been furnished with able garrisons from time to time}1606E only}. Concerning the area of Boulogne this is what Robert Cúnalis says in the second book, third chapter of his De re Gallica. About Gessoriacum, a port of the Morini, I may well say with Meierus that it is now truly called Boulogne on the sea shore, from where it is only a very short trip to Dover, a harbour of England. But the dock or place for building ships (called Navale Gessoriacum, which Bilibaldus falsely claims to be Gent) I rather think to be Castellum, now named Cassel. Some call it by a different name [viz.] Petressa and Scalas, {not in 1608/1612I{commonly Scales}not in 1608/1612I}.
45.3. Moreover, by the location of Boulogne one may easily find out whether it was once Portus Iccus or not. That no doubt may remain, let us learn what follows from Strabo [viz.] that the sea between Portus Iccus and England was just 320 stadia {1606E only{or furlongs}1606E only} to the other side, which makes it in all 40 {1602G only{Italian}1602G only} miles. But later maps show between Boulogne and Dover [only] 16 {1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead{17}1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead}English miles, which are longer than Italian miles, and from Calais 18. From this it becomes clear that from Boulogne to Dover is only a very short crossing. For this reason Portus Gessoriacus the port and Navale Gessoriacum the dock are not one and the same. Who thinks that this dock seems to have stood where Calais now stands will not be contradicted by me. So far for this author {1602G has instead{Strabo}1602G instead}{1606E instead{Cúnalis}1606E instead}.
45.4. This very place of Boulogne is described by Arnoldus Ferronius (who extends the {not in 1608/1612I{French}not in 1608/1612I} history of Paulus ∆milius up till his own time) in the following manner. There is (he says) High Boulogne and Low Boulogne. Low Boulogne was unwalled before the arrival of the English. There stands the church of St. Nicholas and a cloister of the Franciscans. The English sea beats upon [the coast of] this town. Near this friary, which is not far from the sea, there is a very commodious place to pass to England. It is distant from the higher Boulogne about 100 strides or somewhat more. But High Boulogne is surrounded by very strong walls, with deep moats around them. All this region is full of the kind of sand which those that dwell on the coast call hot sand. For this reason they think that the name of Boulogne was derived from the French word that refers to this kind of sand, in spite of the fact that we know it from Ammianus Marcellinus to be an ancient name. So much from Ferronius. Concerning these matters [also] read Divśus.

Note that the text below has been printed in smaller font in 1601L, and 1603L only than was used for the Calais text above.


45.6. This region which was of old inhabited by the Veromandui, [while] still retaining its old name, is now called Vermandois. From here spring the rivers Somme and Schelde. In former times here stood the city called Augusta Veromanduorum, now razed [to the ground] except for a monastery which [still] remains (as Robert Cúnalis reports). This city was once the see of a bishop, but under its bishop Medardus it was moved from there to Noyon, as Carolus Bouillus reports. In spite of this the place has retained its ancient name, and is called Vermand-abbey.
45.7. Therefore those seem to be in error who think the town of St. Quintin, as it is now called, to have been Augusta Veromanduorum {1602G instead{the capital of the Veromandui}1602G instead}. Concerning the people of this region, read Peter Divśus' book of the antiquities of Gallia Belgica}1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}{1608/1612I only{or Germania Inferior and other neighbouring regions}1608/1612I only which ends here}.

The vernacular text version derives from the 1598 French edition and the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch edition and is given below:

45.8. 1598F{The land of CALAIS and BOULOGNE.

45.9. This map contains the description of that part of France along the coast where the English ruled on the continent until the year 1557, at which time the duke of Guise took it [back] by force of weapons in the name of the king of France. The towns of Calais, Guines and Ardres were furnished by the English continually with strong garrisons. And Calais used to be the staple for wool which since then was transferred to Brugge, where it still is. From here one was used to cross the sea to England which is nowhere closer to the continent, for the distance by sea between Calais and the closest harbour in England, named Dover, is only thirty English miles, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{or seven French miles}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. This place used to be called Iccius Port according to various [writers]; and some held the opinion that this must have been the city of Boulogne, because it is at the same distance from Dover as Calais is, but they must have meant Gessoriacus Portus, as Rhenanus proves on the basis of an old manuscript map.
45.10. There is High Boulogne and Low Boulogne, as you can see here. High Boulogne is surrounded by very strong walls, with deep moats around the walls. Low Boulogne is at a distance from there of one Italian mile, descending towards the sea, and it was a mere village before it was besieged by the English in 1544. There stands the church of St. Nicholas and a cloister of the Franciscans. Not far from here on the sea coast, there is an ancient monument, a very high stone tower, which the inhabitants claim to have been built by Iulius Cśsar. The French call it le Tour d'Ordre, and the English the Old Man.


45.12. The inhabitants of this region used to call themselves Veromandui. Its main town is St. Quintin, located on the river Somme. In the year 1557 it was captured by force by king Philip, beating the French thoroughly, but once peace had been agreed on, it was returned to them, together with Han and Ch‚telet which had also been taken at that time. This city of St. Quintin was once called Augusta Veromanduorum as reported by Iacobus Marchantius, now no longer in existence as Augusta, except for a monastery which [still] remains, as Robert Cúnalis reports. Here you see the source of two famous rivers, the Somme and the Schelde, which originate not far from each other}1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

Bibliographical sources

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