Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 34

Text, scholarly version, translated and merged from the 1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L and 1606E editions:


34.2. The entire track of land from the river Rhine to the ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean sea, and the mountain range Appennine as far as Ancona, is by the ancient Romans called by one general name, Gallia. For Westwards it includes the Pyrenee ridge by which it is separated from Spain; North it borders on the French and British ocean; East there is the river Rhine and the mountain range Alps, almost as far from the the ocean, as the Pyrenee ridge extends from the inner sea to outer sea. {not in 1580/1589G{South it has a peninsular coast by part of the Mediterranean sea over at Provence [Narbonne]}not in 1580/1589G}. It was called Gallia in recognition of the people's white colour, because the mountains and heaven's rigour exclude the heat of the sun from this part. That is the reason that their white bodies do not tan. Hence the Greeks call the Gauls {1606E{or ancient inhabitants of France}1606E} Galatas due to their milk-white colour. For [in Greek lettering] Gala is for them what for us means milk, on the basis of which the Romans have called them Galli. {1571L{Most of the writers agree with this derivation, yet there are some that scorn it, preferring to suppose that they are called after rain, which in Hebrew is Galah, and in the old British language Glau, as if to say: A most ancient nation, [much] rained upon, and drenched in the deluge {1606E instead{the flood of Noah}1606E instead} itself}1571L}.
34.3. This region of theirs was in old times divided into Gallia Cisalpina, {1606E only{which from our perspective lies beyond the Alpes}1606E only} being that part of Italy which is now called Lombardy, and in Transalpina which is in fact included within the following five bounds, namely the river Rhine, the ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean sea, and the Alps. This Gallia Transalpina is by Cæsar in his Commentaries divided into three parts: Belgica, Celtica and Aquitanica. Belgica is surrounded by the ocean and the rivers Rhine, Marne and Seine. They mostly speak Dutch [here], and they are presently called the Low Countries. Celtica or Lyon is enclosed by the rivers Garonne, Marne, Seine and Rhône. It is now called France, because the Celtæ were subdued by the Franks from Germany so that finally they were called West Franks, from which the province itself derives its name. Aquitanica, {not in 1575L and later{so called because of its twisting streams}{not in 1573L(B){called Loire}not in 1573L(B), 1575L and later}, was earlier called Aremorica and extends from the river Garonne to the ocean and to the Pyrenee mountains. To the North and the West it is bounded by that part of the ocean which is called the Bay of Aquitane. Westwards it has Spain, North Lyon {1606E instead{Celtica or France proper}1606E instead}, and South the country of Narbonne [Provence]. Its inhabitants differ both in stature and language from the remainder of France and it is now called Gascoigne.
34.4. These are the ancient borders of the Gauls. However, the country of the French, which today bears the title of a kingdom and is commonly called the kingdom of France, has not such a large size. To the North it is so much smaller as is cut off by an imaginary line from Strassbourg on the Rhine to the harbour of {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1606E{Iccium, nowadays}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1606E} Calais, and it covers all the land which is contained within this line, the ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean and the Alps.
34.5. {1574L{Postellus in his book on the whole world lists the specific provinces of this kingdom in the following manner. In the East it has {not in 1580/1589G, 1588S & 1602S{Provence}not in 1580/1589G, 1588S & 1602S}, Savoie, Switzerland, Bresse, Bourgogne, Lorraigne, Champagne, Henault, Cleve and Flanders. In its North Picardie, Normandy and Bretaigne {1580/1589G has instead{England}1580/1589G instead}. From the West backwards Bretaigne {1580/1589G has instead{England}1580/1589G instead}, Angiers, Poitou, Xantoigne and Vascoigne. And from the South backwards Vascoigne, Bearne, Roussilon, Dauphine {1588S & 1602S have instead{the two Savoyes}1588S & 1602S instead}, Vellay, Forest, Auvergne, Limoges, Perigort and Angoulême. From Poitou backwards lie the provinces of Bourges, Bourbon, Beaujolais, Lyon, and backwards from Bourgogne Franche Comté, Auxerre, Nivernois, Berry, Tours, and above Angiers Vendôme, le Beaune, Gastinois, Valois beyond Sens, and not far off le Perche, Druise and le Mans near {1588S & 1602S only{cape}1588S & 1602S only} Bretaigne {1580/1589G has instead{England}1580/1589G instead}.
34.6. This is how these provinces are presently named. But although Postellus includes Savoy, Switzerland, Lorraigne, Henault, Cleve and Flanders among the provinces of France, yet they are now not under the government of this kingdom, for all of them have their own princes, not subject to the crown of France.
34.7. Concerning the French king, Villanovanus reports two remarkable things: first, that in the church of Rheims there is a vessel full of oil that never decays, sent from heaven to anoint the kings of France at their coronation. Secondly, that these kings heal the disease struma or scrofula {1606E only{called in English the queens evil}1606E only} [goitre] by only touching the affected spot}1574L}.
34.8. The whole of France is described in a large volume by Robert Cœnalis. Read also concerning the same matter Gilbert Cognatus Nozorenus, Iohannes Marius, {1592L{and Chassanæus in his twelfth book De gloria mundi [about the glory of the world]}1592L}. Postellus in his book Of the whole world, Aimon at the beginning of his history of the Franks, Sebastian Munster, {1579L(B), 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E only{Belleforest{not in 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E {in French translation}not in 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E}, and André Thevet}1579L(B), 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E only} and other describers of the world.
34.9. {1592L{ Discussing this region also, as well as the disposition of its inhabitants, you may learn much from the second book of Laonicus Chalcocondylas of Athens}1592L}. Of the ancient writers Cæsar surpasses everything. {1592L{Diodorus Siculus in his 5th book,}1592L} {1573L(B){and Ammianus Marcellinus {1574L{in his fifteenth book}1574L} have many notable things concerning this region}1573L(B)}. {1571L{Likewise, Claudius Champier of Lyon wrote in French a treatise about the first appearance of the main towns in all of France. Symphorianus, his father, discusses the rivers and the miracles of waters and fountains in France}1571L}. The city of Paris, {1580/1589G only{its main city}1580/1589G only} is described in verse by Eustathius à Knobelsdorf,}1570L & 1571L end here} {1573L(AB){and the city of Lyon by Champier}1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E end here}.

Next the vernacular text version, merged from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598 Dutch edition:

34.10. {1571/1573D{France.

34.11. France is in Latin called Gallia, but under that name it was much larger than France is nowadays, for what was once called Gallia was all that is found between the Pyrenee mountains, the French and English sea, the river Rhine, the Italian mountain range, and the Mediterranean, as also all of Lombardy, which was called Gallia Cisalpina. But now France includes only what is under the jurisdiction of the king of France, that is, all the land between {not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{the Rhine at}not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F} Strasbourg upwards, to the Italian mountains or the Alps and along this mountain range to the sea, and along the Pyrenee mountains to the other sea, and along all its coasts to Calais, and from there the border is a line drawn back to Strassbourg.
34.12. But we draw this line without any prejudice, and only roughly, because this land is not clearly separated from our own lands, which belong to the house of Burgundy. Also Savoye lies at this side of the mountains which belongs to the king of Piemont, as also part of Lorraine and Switzerland &c., but because this is only a small part, compared to the whole, it therefore does not seem to be of much importance.
34.13. To describe this France in some more detail, we list the following parts all belonging and resorting under the crown of France: Provence, Dauphine, Bresse, Bourgogne, Champagne, Picardie, Normandy, Bretagne, Angiers, Poitou, Santoigne, Gascoigne, &c. These are the outlying districts all around. Inside these, you find: France, Beaune, Gastinois, Nivernois, Bourbonois, Forest, Languedoc, Auvergne, Limoges, Touraine &c.
34.14. All these regions belong to the crown of France, (as they are), and together constitute the best kingdom of Christianity. It is a very pleasant and fertile land, with navigable rivers, such as the Seine, Loire, Garonne, Sâone and Rhône, traversed by rivers and ornated with many large and splendid cities.
34.15. Its inhabitants are by nature frivolous and light-hearted, but somewhat prone to quarrel, so that they may easily turn to court on an insignificant matter (which a Dutchman would hardly do for a more grave matter). As a result, there are more lawyers and solicitors (as Villanova writes) than in ten Germanies or Spains. This is also why there are so many high courts of justice which they call parliaments, such as in Paris, Rouen, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Grenoble &c., to the decisions of which there is no further appeal.
34.16. There are two miraculous things in this kingdom. One is the holy oil, with which all kings are anointed during their coronation in Reims, and which, (as histories relate), has come from heaven under the reign of their first Christian king Clovis, and which does not diminish. The other is that kings, by only the touch of their hand, heal an illness which they call Escruelles, which is a scrofulous tumour at the side of the neck}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F. 1587F, 1598F & 1598D end here}.

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