Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 25

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and the 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

25.1. {1570L(A){SPAIN.

25.2. Spain, according to Strabo, resembles an ox-hide spread upon the ground. It is surrounded by the sea on all sides, except where it is separated from France by the Pyrenee mountains. In the East it has the Pyrenee mountains just mentioned, which from the temple of Venus, or the promontory stretched out near Illiberis (now Colibre) run further to the British Ocean. And this is the very narrowest part of Spain. When I travel through Cantabria {1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Biscay}1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} (says Vaseus) I remember that from the hill of St. Adrian, if my sight does not deceive me, I saw both seas, namely the ocean near at hand, and as far distant as I could just discern, the foamy white waves of the Mediterranean sea. [To the] North it is bound by the Cantabrian {1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Biscayan}1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} sea, [to the] West by the Western sea, and [to the] South by the Strait of Gibraltar and part of the Balearic {1606E instead{Mediterranean}1606E instead} sea {1608/1612I only{where you find the isle of Maiorca and others around it}1608/1612I only}.
25.3. Spain is divided into three provinces {1608/1612I only{according to the ancients}1608/1612I only}: Bętica, Lusitania and Tarraconensis. Bętica in the North is enclosed by the river Ana, {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead{now called Guadiana}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead}; West by that part of the Atlantic Ocean which is between the mouth of the river Ana {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Guadiana}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and the strait of Gibraltar; South there is Mare Balearicum, extending {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{from Maiorca and Minorca and}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} from the strait just mentioned to the promontory {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S {of Charidamus}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, now commonly called Cabo de Gata; and Eastwards, it is bound by an [imaginary] line drawn from the promontory just mentioned via the town of Castulone {1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Cassona the Old}1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} to the river Ana {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Guadiana}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead}.
25.4. It is called Bętica after the famous river Bętis which cuts the whole province into two. This river, originating from the forest called Saltus Tygensis, {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{plains of Alcatraz}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}{1608/1612I instead{Tigese near the mountains of Alcarez}1608/1612I instead} runs into the Atlantic ocean, and is now called by its Arab name Guadalquibir, which means the great river. More recently this province was called Vandalicia by its Vandal inhabitants, and presently by the same name, corrupted to Andaluzia.
25.5. {1606E only{[in right margin:] Lusitania contains Algarve and the greater part of Portugal}1606E only}.
25.6. Lusitania is bound on the North by the river Duero [Douro], from its very mouth to the bridge over at Septimancas {1608/1612I only{a city in Castilia}1608/1612I only}. West, it borders on that part of the Atlantic ocean {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{also called Golfo de la yeguas}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} which you find between the outlets of the rivers Ana {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Guadiana}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and Durius [Douro]. South by the province of Bętica {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Andaluzia}1606E & 1608/1612I only} and East it meets Tarraconensis, {1606E only{now called Castilia &c.}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, and a line drawn from ancient Oretania {1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Calatraua}1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} to the {1571L{bridge of the}1571L} region of Septimancas. Lusitania received its name from Lusus, the son of Libero Patre {1580/1589G instead{the god of wine, Bacchus}1580/1589G instead} {1606E & 1608/1612I instead{Bacchus}1606E & 1608/1612I instead} and Lysa, his companion, {not in 1606E{with Lusus as a bacchante}not in 1606E} {1580/1589G & 1602G only{in their ecstatic running to and fro to consacrate the feast of Bacchus}1580/1589G & 1602G only}{1608/1612I instead{who with Lusus took care of Bacchus' interests}1608/1612I instead}. As a result, it is sometimes called Lusitania after Lusus, at other times Lysitania after Lysa.
25.7. The remainder of Spain belongs to the {1580/1589G & 1602G only{third}1580/1589G & 1602G only} province called Tarraconensis after the city of Tarracona which is the main city of that province, a city, (says Strabo) most notably suitable for princes on their travels to retire, and here the emperors kept their chief jurisdiction. This province contains the kingdoms of Murcia, Valencia, and Arragon with Catalonia, also Castilia Vieja [old], the kingdom of Navarra, the part of Portugal between the two rivers {1606E only{Duero and Minho}1606E only}, the kingdom of Galicia, Asturia and all of Cantabria {1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Biscay}1588S, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead}. See also for this Vaseus' Chronicle of Spain, who gives additional information.
25.8. Read also Marinęus Siculus, Marius Aretius, Damianus ą Goes, Franciscus Taraffa, {1573L{the bishop of Gerundo}1573L}, {1574L{Annius Viterbiensis}1574L}, and {1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{in Spanish}1595L, not in 1602G, 1602S, 1609/1612/1641S} {1573L{Florian del Campo,}1573L} {1579L{and after him Ambrosio Morales}1579L} and all those other writers about Spain that Vaseus mentions in the fourth chapter of his Chronicle. {1573L{Stephan Garibayus in his Chronicle of Spain, book twenty, describes the kingdom of Navarra}1573L}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Ioannes Mariana also published a volume {1602S, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S only{in Latin}1602S, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S only} concerning Spanish matters not long ago}1595L, not in 1602G}. Among the ancient writers you must look in Cęsar, Strabo and the rest, who Damianus ą Goes mentions in his book called Hispania. {1592L, not in 1602G{ Also the Panegyric speech of Latinus Pacatus, and Claudianus' De Laude Serenę [about serene praise]}1592L, not in 1602G}.
25.9. {1595L, not in 1602G{To these you may add the fifth {1606E instead{first}1606E instead} book of Laonicus}1595L, not in 1602G}. There is also extant a little Travellers Compendium written in Spanish by Alonso de Meneses, containing almost all of the regular roads in Spain, in which the distances between places are also noted}1570L(ABC) & 1571L end here}.
25.10. {1579L{Three memorable things (as Navagierus writes), are traditionally spoken of [in connection with] Spain. The first is a bridge over which water runs (whereas it runs underneath all other bridges), namely the water duct at Segovia. The second is a city surrounded by fire, that is to say Madrid, because the town walls are made of flintstone. And the third is a bridge, on which daily ten thousand head of cattle are fed, meaning the river Guadiana which hides itself under the ground for a distance of seven {1608/1612I has instead{six}1608/1612I instead} miles, after which it comes out into the open again. {1592L, not in 1602G{It must be conceded that this last remark has rather sprung from people's uninformed opinions than that it is based on the truth, as I have been informed by Mr. Georgius of Austria, governor of Harlebeck, an eye witness most worthy to be believed, [he] being a man familiar with all kinds of histories, and a wonderful researcher and singular admirer of nature}1592L, not in 1602G}.
25.11. {1573L{The islands belonging to Spain which the ancient writers mention, at the Celtic promontory {1606E only{or Cape Finisterre}1606E only} are the Cassiterides, which now are not to be found in the ocean. Also the Insulę Deorum [islands of the Gods], otherwise called Cicę, and now the isles of Bayona; then {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{the isle of}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} Londobris, also named Erythia by others, and now Barlinguas. Then there is {1580/1589G & 1602G only{the isle of}1580/1589G & 1602G only} Gades, in old times dedicated to Hercules, now commonly called Caliz {1608/1612I only{and Cadiz}1608/1612I only}. These are all in the ocean. In the Mediterranean sea you have Ophiusa, now called Formentera. Here are also the two Gymnesię or Baleares islands, at this time called by different names, one being Maiorca, the other Minorca. The coast of Minorca is all around composed of huge mountains, but at the entrance of the harbour the feet of these mountains level out into plains until they approach each other to such a small distance that ships can only enter the harbour when there is a very gentle wind. The harbour is called Mahon, and it is a most beautiful and commodious place, because it stretches out for almost four miles in length, with many inlets, all of which providing a safe harbour for the ships. From there rises a perpetual ridge of mountains from which the inhabitants cut down plenty of wood. At the utmost part of it, on the mountain top, a city has been built.
25.12. In contrast to this, the larger island, {not in 1606E{Maiorca}not in 1606E}, has a plain shore, and very high and barren mountains in the middle. There is a city with the very same name as the island, very large and beautifully built. They use the laws of the Tarraconians {1606E instead{Castilians}1606E instead} and resemble them much in language and manners. This description of the Balearic islands {1606E only{Maiorca & Minorca}1606E only} we have borrowed from N. Villagagnon's description of the expedition to Algeria. {1595L, not in 1602G{Whoever wants to know more about these isles, and the disposition of their inhabitants is advised to read the sixth and seventh book of the life of Iacobus T., King of Arragon, by Bernard[in]us Gomez}1595L, not in 1602G}.
25.13. {1573L{That Philip, king of Spain, possesses the largest empire of the world, we have demonstrated in our Theatre [Theatrum Orbis Terrarum] printed in high German}1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Texts of the vernacular version as occurring in the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions. Note the discussion on king Philip of Spain, who appointed Ortelius as his majesties geographer, and donated 1000 gold ducates and a golden chain on top of that to Ortelius in 1574 after having received a complimentary copy of Ortelius' Theatrum. Philip, who twice sacked Ortelius' home city Antwerp, (in 1576 and 1585) and who even emprisoned Ortelius on the charge of heresy for a short time, is approached with geographical courtesy in this text, but accusations of flattery are denied. The text also puts the notion of world powers into perspective.

25.14. {1571/1573D{Spain.

25.15. Spain is fully surrounded by the sea, except where it is attached to France, and is separated from that country by the Pyrenee mountain range. It includes (together with Portugal, which is a part of Spain but a kingdom of its own) fourteen kingdoms, (as Damianus Goes reports) which are the following: old and new Castilia, Leon, Arragon, Catalonia, Navarra, Asturia, Granada, Valencia, Toledo, Galicia, Murcia, Cordoba, Portugal and Algarbe. Its yearly income amounts to fifty times 100,000 ducats. It has 21 dukes, 21 margraves, 62 counts, 7 viscounts, without counting barons and other nobility, of whom there are many. It has 8 archbishoprics and 48 bishoprics.
25.16. These archbishoprics and bishoprics have a yearly income of four times 142,000 {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F have instead{442,000}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead}{1598/1610/1613D have instead{42,000}1598/1610/1613D instead} ducats. This is clear evidence, without saying more about it, of its great fecundity and affluence. Whoever wants to know the specific names of these lords and bishops, each with their specific income, should turn to Damianus Goes just mentioned.
25.17. Next to their silver mines, this Spain has great amounts of wine, olive oil, figs, raisins and other fruits. It feeds excellent horses, and has good iron in Biscay, highly praised. That the river Tagus (now called Tayo by its inhabitants) yields gold, has been recorded by the ancients, but nowadays little fishing after it is being done there, (I think). The main merchant city is Sevilla, from which its merchandise is transported to our Antwerp, and from here to all of Europe, consisting of all the riches and goods which come from the New World (that is, America).
25.18. But since we are dealing with Spain here, I am reminded of the fact that I have dedicated my Latin Theatrum to Philip, the king of Spain and our formidable ruler, calling him the lord or monarch of the largest empire in the world that ever there was, or is, which has caused many readers to wonder (as a possible result of their limited knowledge about old histories or the location of countries), whether formerly the Roman empire (because of its illustrious name) was perhaps at its time much larger and more extended [than Philips' empire], or that nowadays the Turk (with its horrible tyranny) possesses much more land [than Philip does].
25.19. Or he may think that perhaps some other heathen king, such as prester John, or else the Great Cam has a larger empire. They may also think that what I have said [about Philip] stems from blind devotion, or flattery, or too benevolent an attitude which I attribute towards our majesty and upper ruler. Inasfar as my remarks are true, I will prove it here with as few words as I can.
25.20. That in old times the Roman Empire among all the empires or kingdoms was the largest and the most extended one, is something which anyone will easily believe, I think. Scholars will believe it as a result of their reading of the histories as they have been recorded, and the uneducated will believe it because their ears have been filled with the big names and reputation of that empire on account of its illustrious characteristics.
25.21. That the realm of the king of Spain is larger than the Holy Catholic one, or larger than other realms as they are today, is proved as follows: the Roman empire (to describe it roughly {1587F & 1598F only{or in few words}1587F & 1598F only}), was formerly comprised between the Spanish sea in the West, Scotland, the rivers Rhine and Danube in the North, the Caspian sea and the river Tigris in the East, and the mountain range Atlas, and Egypt in the South.
25.22. To understand this better, one may have a look at the map which we have drawn up and published this year [Ortelius here refers here to his two-sheet map of the Roman Empire, separately published in 1571, of which few copies survive]. The part of the world just described covers about 25 degrees of latitude between North and South, and about 70 degrees of longitude, as the geographers call it [between East and West]. Let us now examine what king Philip presently possesses. As we all know, he possesses America or the New Indies, as it is also called, as far as it has been explored, (except as regards Brazil, which belongs to the king of Portugal, and for New Found-land, which pertains to the French).
25.23. This America has been explored from the Strait of Magellan in the South to the part which they have called New Spain [Mexico], which extends to 40 degrees North, whereas the Strait of Magellan is about 53 or 54 degrees South [of the equator], altogether amounting to 93 degrees. Its length is from [the mouth of] Rio de Las Amasones in the East and the region of Quiuira [Alaska] in the West, amounting to more than 100 degrees of total length.
25.24. If you look at the map, and inspect the regions encompassed within this area, and then compare it with the Holy Catholic empire {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F have instead{the monarchy of the Romans}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F instead} and then still believe that we are wrong, (although we think that there is even more land [belonging to Philip]), also consisting, as it does, of Spain, the Netherlands, the kingdom of Naples (comprising half of Italy) and the duchy of Milan, {1598F only{and finally the kingdom of Portugal and the East Indies, all of these being under the rule of our Catholic king Philip}1598F only} then we hope you will concede that we are right. Whether the realm of Prester John, the great Turk, or any other is bigger, you can find out easily {1572/1573G, not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{and be reminded of it}1572/1573G, not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F} from this Theatre of ours}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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