Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 232

Text, translated from the 1595 Latin, 1597 German Add. 5, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish and Latin & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but with Latin text] editions:

232.1. {1595L5Add{DAPHNE {1606E & 1608/1612I only{or the pleasant}1606E & 1608/1612I only} suburb of Antiochia {1606E only{in Syria}1606E only}.

232.2. DAPHNE of Antiochia in Syria, [located] on the river Orontes, that famous and pleasant suburb, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which Ammianus calls Amœnum & ambitiosum}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{a delectable and gorgeous place}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, is about forty furlongs {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I only{or five miles}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I only} distant from the city. It is in circumference 80 furlongs (or, which amounts to the same, ten miles) as Strabo writes, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{who moreover says that it is a pretty village within a huge dark grove, watered by various excellent brooks and running waters}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. But [let us] take this more elaborate description of it from Zozomenus: it is a place, he says, throughout covered and shadowed by many cypress trees and those of infinite height, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Philostratus reports]}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} yet here and there covered with various other sorts of excellent trees. Because of the thickness of their bows and dense leaves, which by no means allow the sun beams to reach the ground, it is so closely covered by shadow that it is almost like a roof.
232.3. Under the trees, the earth brings forth, according to the seasons of the year, all sorts of most pleasant and sweet smelling flowers, one after the other. Similarly, it is a place, [renowned] both for the abundance and freshness of its waters {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Strabo calls them running waters, Philostrates still or standing waters}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} as also with respect to the temperature of the air and kind seasons of the year; lastly in regard of the cool blasts and gales of the winds that normally blow here {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(bringing forth, as Callistus adds, a sweet and pleasant, whistling noise)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, most delectable and fit and commodious for all manner of pleasure and recreation.
232.4. Here is also a spring which is supposed to get its water from Castalius, {1606E only{a spring near Parnassus in Greece}1606E only}, for which reason some people have attributed to it the virtue and power of prediction, and they truly persuade themselves that it was of a force and nature equal to that at Delphos. The vulgar and common sort of people to this add the following fable, namely, that the daughter of Lædonis, a river in Arcadia, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(Ovidius says Peneus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} fled hence from her lover, and here was transformed into a tree. Yet, Apollo, not quieted in his mind, but crowning himself with the boughs of that tree which took his particular delight, embracing the tree and [cherishing] the ground where it stood, preferring it above all other places in the world, honoured and graced it more than ever any other.
232.5. {1601L, not in 1602G{Guilielmus Tyrius, in the tenth chapter of his fourth book, makes mention of a fountain or spring called Daphnis which, he says, is by devices and pipes led so cunningly to various places, that it affords great plenty of water at certain times}1601L, not in 1602G}. The location and the nature of the place, the arguments and contents of the fabulous story which dealt with love and wantonness, often imprinted in the minds of corrupt and ill-disposed young men (making use of the occasion) [no less than] twice as great a desire of a wanton life as they had by nature before. For they, repeating those matters mentioned in those fables, as it were in defence and excuse of their follies, where the more inflamed and stimulated to it [lasciviousness]. So that, casting off all shame and honesty, they are in these lascivious acts of theirs carried away in such heat and with such violence, that they are in no way able to control themselves, nor [can they] abide to see here any modest man in their company.
232.6. The nature of this place being of this [reputation], it was held to be a vile thing and disgrace for any honest and civil man to be seen there. For if any man from the surrounding area was by chance seen here without a girl friend, he was considered as a simpleton or madman, a person of no upbringing or good manners, not fit for any gentleman's company. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{So far Sozomen}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
232.7. {1601L, not in 1602G{The place was easy to defend, enclosed [as it was] with a strong wall or rampart, as appears from the 27th book by Trogus Pompeius, who writes that Beronice, taking herself to this place for refuge, was besieged by Seleucus, but could by no means be taken [by him]. Also, it is mentioned {1601, not in 1602G & 1606E{in the Liber Notitiarum that is was protected and reinforced by Constantine's legions of Daphne}1601L, not in 1602G & 1606E} and the engineers of Daphne (Ballistarij Daphnenses)}1601L, not in 1602G}. Moreover, it was also graced, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Metaphrastes writes in his life of Artemis}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, with many excellent buildings, houses and baths. In it there was a chapel of very gorgeous and costly workmanship, in which stood the fine statue or image of Apollo Daphneus, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{or of the Daphnean God, as Iulianus the emperor calls it, equalling, as Ammianus says, the greatness of the statue of Iupiter Olympius.
232.8. Here was also a temple and sanctuary of Diana, as Strabo states. Similarly, here Germanicus Cæsar kept his court, as Tacitus has recorded}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. And here, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{later, according to Suidas}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, Constantinus the Great built a palace where he erected the statue of Helena his mother {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(Augustale he calls it, which is, that I may note it by the way, according to Quintilianus in the second chapter of his eighth book {1606E only{of his Institutions}1606E only}, is the Tabernaculum Ducis}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the pavillion of the general}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
232.9. The same Constantinus also caused this place to be named CONSTANTINIANA DAPHNE after himself, {not in 1606E{as demonstrated by a copper coin of mine which has the emperors face on one side, and on the other Victoriola {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Constantinia Daphne}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}, with the description just mentioned}not in 1606E}. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Callistus and Gregoras report that a certain Mamianus in the time of Zeno the emperor built the place called ANTIFORVM}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. {1601L, not in 1602G{Here was also the church of Saint Euphemia {not in 1606E{says Sophronius}1601L, not in 1606E}, where St. Thomas the abbot was buried. Also, the church of St. Michæl, which, as Procopius in his second book on the history of Persia writes, was burnt down by Cosroes}1601L, not in 1602G}. That this was a pleasant place, next to those things already mentioned here, is plainly demonstrated in other histories. For Eutropius has left recorded that Cneus Pompeius, being delighted with the pleasantness of the place, and its abundance of water, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{gave to the Daphnians a certain plot of land so that they could further extend it}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
232.10. Iulius Capitolinus writes that Verus, that voluptuous emperor, usually spent the summer in Daphne, and the rest of the year in Antiochia. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Lampridius says that Alexander Severus executed some of the tribunes of his legions or companies because through their negligence they had suffered various soldiers {to {1606E only{riot and}1606E only} take their pleasure too much in Daphne. In Volcatius I read about Avidius Cassius that he ordered a proclamation that everyone should go back to where he came from, and he put bills on every wall [saying] that if any man would be found in Daphne carrying arms (cinctus) he would return from there disarmed (discinctus)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. {1601L, not in 1602G{(For Servius at that passage in Vergilius, [viz.] Discinctus Mulciber Afros explains the word Distinctus, id est, militia inhabilis) {1606E & 1608/1612I only{disarmed, that is, unfit to fight}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
232.11. Nevertheless, it was as if the gentiles held the trustworthiness of those oracles in no less reverence and esteem [than the natives did], {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which [oracles], as Suidas reports, were uttered and given forth in a cool and soft blast, whispered forth by the waters there}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. For they say that Hadrianus, who afterwards was emperor, before the time that he was called to any public office, dipped a cypress leaf in a fountain, [put it into his mouth] and sucked in, together with the water, a certain faculty of predicting events to come.
232.12. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Iulianus in his Misopogonos writes that he had so many times and often gone to this oracle that he could not possible remember how often}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. In this time also, Zozomenus, Theodoretus and Saint Chrysostomus write that this oracle ceased to give any answer at all {1597G5Add & 1602G only{at the time of emperor Iulianus}1597G5Add & 1602G only}. For Gallus, the brother of this Iulianus, being elected Cæsar by his father Constantius, determined because he professed to the Christian belief to cleanse and purge this place of that heathen superstition, and he did that by the following means: he commanded that the coffin of Saint Babyla, that dependable martyr, and of others who in the persecution by emperor Numerianus {1624LParergon/1641S has instead{Decius}1624LParergon/1641S instead} suffered martyrdom with him, be brought from Antiochia to that place. The mere presence [of these coffins], as Gallus had truly predicted, [was the cause] that the devil instantly became wholly dumb.
232.13. But the Iulianus mentioned before, intending to make war with the Persians, as was his custom, came in great devotion to Daphne. After having killed {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{many oxen and other cattle}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} for sacrifice, he demanded from the oracle what the outcome of this war of his was going to be. The answer was given to him by the idol {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{the devil}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} was, that because of the proximity of the dead bodies (meaning Babyla and the rest, although they were not named) it was no longer able ever after to answer anything about things to come.
232.14. Iulianus, having difficulty to accept this, commanded the Christians to carry away the coffin of Babyla from there to somewhere else, [a command] which was straightaway performed accordingly. Not long after that (the very next night one author says) the chapel happened to catch fire, which consumed the roof and burnt the statue to ashes. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{This was the end of this Apollo of Daphne, as also of this temple}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
232.15. Saint Chrysostomus writes that in his time there stood one remaining column, firm and sound, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which neither any violent tempest of wind and weather, nor any trembling earthquake had ever shaken or overthrown}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Therefore he supposed that there was the expectation that it would be amended and repaired {1606E only{by some succeeding emperor or other}1606E only}. {1601L, not in 1602G{And although Procopius states that this temple was rebuilt by Iustinianus the emperor, yet}1601L, not in 1602G} Cedrenus (who lived much later than Saint Chrysostomus) says that in his time no stick or stone was left of it.
232.16. This is also confirmed as the truth by my good friend Mr. Ioachimus Axonius Gravianus, a man {1597G5Add & 1602G only{from the city of Grave}1597G5Add & 1602G only} very famous and honourable for the various distant travels undertaken and performed by him, and especially for his skill in various strange languages, and an eye witness of the same place. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{For he, being interrogated by me about the present situation of the place, answered plainly that besides some trees, there is nothing left to be seen of [this temple] at all}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
232.17. But about the fire and the burning down of the temple the reports from the various authors differ. Saint Chrysostomus says that it was done by the devil. Many affirm it to have been set afire by thunder and lightning from heaven. The heathens usually attributed this act to the Christians. Iulianus the emperor {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in his Misopogonos}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} writes that it was defaced by the negligence of the watchmen, and the desperate rashness of some wicked and base fellows. But the {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G{church keepers and}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} priests, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Theodoretus testifies}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, when they were whipped for their negligence, said plainly that the fire did not begin at the ground or bottom, but at the top, and as a consequence in all likelihood did come from heaven.
232.18. And the common country people who lived not far off confirmed that they saw lightning fall from heaven upon that place. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{But about this let us hear Ammianus Marcellinus who in his 22nd book has these words about it:}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} Iulianus was jealous of the Christians, prompted [as they were], in his opinion, by envy and malice. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{But rumour had it, although only summarily reported and not easy to believe, that this chapel was set on fire on the following occasion. Asclepiades the philosopher, coming to see Iulianus the emperor, straying in this area, was accustomed to carry with him wherever he went a silver image of the heavenly goddess (Dea cœlestis) which he placed at the feet of this idol. And having lit torches and wax candles, as was the custom, [he] went away.
232.19. Whereupon at midnight, when there was nobody there to give a helping hand, the sparks, flying up, got hold of the old, rotten timber, and the fire having been started and increasing because of the dryness of its fuel, flared up and caught hold of whatever it might reach, yes, it reached higher than ever and burnt it [the temple] cleanly to the ground}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
232.20. In spite of this, we read in Nicephorus and Callistus that this place from that time [onwards] was not altogether forsaken and deserted, but continued for a long time to be frequented, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and that games, plays and shows were usually held and kept there.
232.21. Æthicus {1601L{(or rather Iulius Orator)}1601L} reckons this Daphne (yet falsely and untruly he calls it Daphe, not Daphne) among the most excellent and famous towns of the East sea. Metaphrastes also, in his life of St. Artemius makes it a city. Claudianus, {1606E only{the Christian poet}1606E only}, calls it Apollineum nemus, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Apollo's grove}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Dionysius [calls it] Sacra Tempe, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{holy Tempe}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. And his old interpretor [calls it] Optima Tempe, {1606E & 1608/1612 only{excellent Tempe}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
232.22. On ancient coins, as we said before, it were called Constantiniana Daphne, {1606E instead{Constantines Tempe}1606E instead}. {1601L{In the journal published by Peter Pithœus [it is called] Palatium Daphne}1601L}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the palace of Daphne}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. But why should I not here insert these verses by Petronius Arbiter written about this matter?
{not in 1608/1612I{Nobilis æstivas platanus diffuderat vmbras, |
Et baccis redimita Daphne, tremulaque Cupressus, |
Et circumtonsæ trepidanti vertice pinus. |
Has inter ludebat aquis errantibus amnis |
spumeus, & querulo vexabat rore capillos. |
Dignus amore locus}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I}. {1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is] In summer time the broad leaved plane has cast its shade about. Brave Daphne crowned it was with bays, sweet cypress proud and stout. And here and there the taller pines with rounded tops looked out. Amidst these ran a foaming brook with wandering stream so fast, that all their lower boughs beneath, with water were splashed. This pleasant place who can't but love?}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
232.23. So much for the name, location and nature of the place. Now there are some things remaining [that are] somewhat pertinent to this subject which I thought good to add to what we discussed. Saint Hieronymus, Eusebius in his Chronicle, and Sextus Rufus write that Pompeius the Great, returning from Persia, consecrated this grove, and joined an excellent large forest to it. Ammianus attributes the building of the temple to Antiochus Epiphanes. Zozomenus {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and Callistus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} [attribute it] to Seleucus. Theodoretus says that the image or statue of Apollo was made of wood within, but on the outside guilded all over.
232.24. This is also confirmed by Metaphrastes to be true in the place cited before, where he gives an elaborate description of it. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Cedrenus states that this statue was the workmanship of Bryxides, or Bryaxides as I prefer to read it, together with {1601L not in 1602G{Vitruvius}1601L, not in 1602G}, Clemens Alexandrinus, Columella, and Plinius, who writes that he was one of the four who carved the Mausoleum, that is, the tomb of Mausolus}not in 1597G & 1602G}, {1606E only{king of Caria, made by his wife Artemisia}1606E only}. It was prohibited by proclamation that any cypress tree should be taken from there or cut down, and whoever would fell any, was to be grievously punished through a law made by Theodosius {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{the emperor}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only}. These cypress trees were preserved here, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Philostratus writes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, in memory of Cyparissus, a young man from Assyria who [was] turned into a tree.
232.25. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Suidas records that}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} this place was the native soil of Theon the philosopher {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and stoic, who wrote a defence for Socrates. I also remember that I have read in some trustworthy author whose name I have forgotten that}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} one of the Sybillas was born here. Ammianus tells about a monster born here, horrible to see {1606E instead{as he himself saw with his own eyes, and heard others tell about with his ears}1606E instead}, namely of a child having two mouths, two [sets of] teeth, a beard, four eyes, and two very short or small ears.
232.26. In Strabo I find recorded a story by Nicolaus Damascensis [saying] that from Porus, a king of India, certain ambassadors came to Augustus Cæsar. Procopius {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in the second book of his Persian stories}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} writes that Cosroes, the king of Persia made sacrifices here to the nymphs. With how much pomp and company Antiochus Epiphanes once came to this place, what shows and banquets he held here, as also did Grypus at another time, if anyone wants to see this, let him read Athenæus' fifth and tenth book, and I am sure he will greatly wonder.
232.27. About this Daphne, I would {1606E only{to God}1606E only} [wish to see] that work by Protagorides which he wrote about Daphnian plays, feasts and assemblies {1601L, not in 1602G{which Athenæus refers to in his fourth book}1601L, not in 1602G}. [I also wish that] the oration written by Libianus the sophist, whom Iulianus refers to in his epistles, and highly recommends, was still extant}1597G5Add & 1602G end here}. {1601L{Agathias in the introduction to his history says that he wrote the history of Daphne in hexameter {1608/1612I instead{heroic}1608/1612I instead}verse}1601L}. I said before, based on Tacitus, that Germanicus Cæsar kept his court in this forest, in whom, at this day in the 2nd book of his Annals, we read these words:
232.28. His, that is Germanicus' tomb was at Antiochia, where his corpse was burnt. He held his court at Epidaphne, in which place he ended his days. Here for Epidaphne I read Daphne, or at Daphne. For Epidaphne as a place name I find no mention in any history except in Plinius, in the 21st chapter of his fifth book, where you can find these words: Antiochia libera, Epidaphnes cognominata as if it were a synonym or equivalent to Antiochia, yet [the manuscript] being as corruptly and falsely written as the other [manuscript], it ought to be thus amended: Antiochia libera apud Daphnen, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Antiochia near Daphne is free}1606E & 1608/1612I only}{not in 1606E{in Greek script{epiDaphne}not in 1606E}. That this is true is sufficiently confirmed by Strabo, Plutarchus, Ammianus and others, as we have [also] shown more extensively in the second edition of our Geographical Treasury under the word ANTIOCHIA}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612S/L end here}.
232.28a{1624LParergon/1641S only{THE TYPOGRAPHER TO THE READER: To the old Geography a new crown has been added through the exertions of our mighty king, and after Tempe of the Thessalians and the pleasures of Daphne of Antioch, a very attractive place in Spain, which is equally famous on account of its holiness, should not be left out from this series, although the depiction of the royal monastery by this royal cartographer, together with his other geographical maps, took a long time to accomplish}1624LParergon/1641S only which end here}. [This final paragraph announces the next and last map of the Parergon, viz. the Escorial].

Since the text of the vernacular 1598/1610/1613 Dutch edition differs considerably from the one given above, its translation is presented here separately:

232.29. {1598/1610/1613D{Daphne.

232.30. Daphne is a place or suburb of Antiochia of Syria on the river Orontis, which is very pleasant and prominent. It is at a distance of 40 miles from the city and its circumference is ten thousand strides. There are many tall cypress trees here, and also various other trees, which have grown together so closely that the earth seems to be covered with a roof against the sun. Under the trees, the earth, depending on the season, produces various flowers, which emit a sweet smell. Then there are beautiful clear springs. This region is sweet, the winds sough in a lovely manner, providing pleasure and satisfaction for all.
232.31. There is also a fountain there of which the water is believed to have originated from the Castalian spring, which has the power to make prophecies with a virtue similar to that of Delphi. This is supposed to have been the result of some noble deed of Apollo, who chased the daughter of Peneus because of his love for her, but she changed into a tree. But Apollo, whose love was not quenched, crowned himself with [her] boughs and leaves, and also embraced the tree, and thus provided this place with exceptional virtues above others. Therefore this place, as well as its nature and also the fable about its lover, has pleased the hearts of youngsters greatly.
232.32. And they indulge in this pleasure ground, and therefore it is considered shameful that any virtuous man would come to it. For whatever man strolls here without his wife is considered a fool. Everyone is devoted to lust here. Apollo is worshipped here in a temple, to counteract the devil. But when the Christian religion arose, the devil kept silent, and some fire came unexpectedly, which burned the statue of the idol and his entire temple.
232.33. Chrystostomus says that in his time one column of this temple still remained, which neither the storms, nor earthquakes had been able to topple, as a warning to their offspring. But Cedrenus, who lived after Chrystostomus, says that this temple can no longer be seen. This is confirmed by Ioachimus Axonius Gravianus, who visited this place himself. He is a man, renowned because of the many travels he undertook, and because he knows many languages. He says that there is no more to be seen nowadays but some trees}1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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