Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 231

Text, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish/Latin & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but with Latin text] editions:

231.1. {1590L4Add{TEMPE THESSALICA, {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only{Or The PARADISE of THESSALIA}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only}.

231.2. Being admonished in my sleep by the goddess Fessonia (whom those used to worship and pray to, who by reason of great labour or far travels were faint and weary (fessi) that after this long and tedious peregrination over the whole world, I should think of some place to rest, [a place] where exhausted students, faint and wearied by their long and tiring journeys might recreate themselves, I immediately after waking up went about it.
231.3. And surveying all the quarters of the huge globe of the world, I behold the noble TEMPE {1591G4Add & 1602G instead{Thessalia}1591G4Add & 1602G instead], famous for its sacred groves, [described] by Pomponius Mela, that renowned geographer, offers itself to my view and consideration. Those [merits] of this place have been painted in their true and lively colours with the best art of the painters pencil, and [are now] rudely described by our {1606E only{unskilled}1606E only} pen, adding it to the end of these our labours.
231.4. It is situated in ÆMONIA, as Ovidius and Athenæus testify, or [in] THESSALIA which is all the same in the judgment of Solinus and Livius. But since the river Peneus {1606E only{(Pezin, or Salampria)}1606E only} separates Thessalia from Macedonia, it seems rather to be situated within the borders of both these countries, {1595L, not in 1606E{according to Strabo and others}1595L, not in 1606E}, than to be contained wholly within the bounds of one [of them]. Strabo, Plinius, Herodotus, Livius and Theon {1591G5Add, not in 1606E{Sophista}1591G4Add, not in 1606E}, {1606E only{a liar}1606E only} according to Theopompus, place this Tempe, or this large and pleasant plain (through the middle of which runs the excellent clear river Peneus) between the two stately mountains Ossa {1606E only{(Olira or Cossovo)}1606E only} and Olympus, {1606E only{now called Lacha}1606E only}.
231.5. {1595L{Solinus is of the same opinion as appears from these words: Peneus the river which runs between the mountains Ossa and Olympus with the excellent hills rising and falling gradually, and its woody valleys, has created this pleasant Tempe in Thessalia. {1601L, not in 1602G{Tempe, quæ silvæ cingunt super impendentes, Tempe, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{that is, which is enclosed by overhanging groves}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as Catullus the poet has recorded in his Argonautics}1601L, not in 1602G}. It is, as Plinius says, about three land-breadths wide (Sesqui iugerum, Ælianus calls it Plethrum){1591G4Add & 1602G have instead{one and a half shouting distance, that is 180 feet, and according to Ælianus 100 feet wide}1591G4Add & 1602Ginstead}. Its length (which they define to be from the mouth of the river Gonnum all the way to the bay {1606E only{now commonly called Golfo di Salonici}1606E only}, {not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{at the time called Sinus Thermæus)}not in 1591G4Add & 1602G} is as Livius testifies five miles, or, as Ælianus says, which amounts to the same, forty furlongs {1591G4Add & 1602G only{or five [German] miles}1591G4Add & 1602G only}.
231.6. These mountains, Livius writes, are so high, steep and craggy on all sides, that a man may hardly look down from the top of them without dazzling the eyes and giddying the brain. The noise also, and depth of the Peneus, which runs through the middle of the valley, is very terrible. Plinius says that the stately tops of these mountains on the left and right side rise little by little higher up into the air than a man may well discern. Within these hills the excellent river Peneus flows, which for its fresh greenish {1606E instead{crystal clear}1606E instead} waters, rolling over the smooth pebbles, its excellent meadows and grass, always fresh and green on its banks, its overhanging groves and trees continuously resounding with the melodious harmony of sweet singing birds, is as pleasant and delightful as any in the world.
231.7. But because all these authors have spoken of it as it were by the way, and not for a specific purpose, I think it is not amiss to put down its description in this place as done by Ælianus, such as you may read in the first chapter of his third book De varia historia, where it is most excellently and clearly put down in true and lively colours. These, therefore, are his words, {not in 1606E only{as brought to us, among others, by N. Gerbelius}not in 1606E}.
231.8. There is a place between Olympus and Ossa, the two loftiest mountains of all Thessalia, separated from one another through the divine providence of eternal god, by a fair plain extending on one level between them. The length of this plain or valley is forty furlongs {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead{five miles}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead}. It is from one side to the other in some places two or more than three land breadths {1591G4Add & 1602G instead{one hundred feet}1591G4Add & 1602G instead}{1608/1612I has instead{250 strides}1608/1612I instead}, in some places it is somewhat broader. Through the middle of the valley runs the river Peneus to which other rivers, falling [into it] and mingling their waters with it, do much to increase the stream of Peneus.
231.9. This place is most pleasant and delightful, by reason of its great variety of all sorts of alluring and enticing pleasures, never made by any art or industry of man, but [all] by nature itself, showing all her skill in beautifying this valley at such time as it was first made. There is in this place plenty of ivy, always green and flourishing, always budding and putting forth its pleasant flowers, ever clinging and winding in the manner of the excellent vine around tall trees, and climbing up little by little until it reaches the very top.
213.10. In the same places grows the evergreen yew-tree which, lifting itself up on top of rocks, provides shade to the caves, holes and cliffs which are hidden in the valley below. All other things whatsoever flourish, blossom and bear flowers as can be seen everywhere. This is a most impressive and glorious sight for the eyes to behold. In the plain, when the sun is at its [maximal] height in summer, you shall have many excellent shadowy groves and various places of shelter into which travellers, desirous to refresh their weary limbs from the violent heat and their bothersome sweat, betake themselves, as [also] into the most pleasant and delightful inns and shelters that there are in the world.
231.11. Moreover, there are numerous and various overflowing wells and pleasant springs, with cool and fresh water running here and there in various places of this valley, which, if we must believe the report of our fathers, have been very wholesome, and healing for various sorts of diseased people that wash themselves in it. Again, all sorts of birds, dispersed here and there in these groves and woods, bring guests great merriment at their banquets, with their sweet songs and pleasant tunes. Especially those that have the loudest and sweetest voices do so please and entice the ears of those that hear it, that those who pass by this way are so ravished and delighted by this music that they instantly forget all about their travels and business.
231.12. On each bank of the river, such are the delights, pleasures and recreation for the wearied travellers as we have mentioned before. The river Peneus, flowing on leisurely and smoothly like oil, runs quietly through the middle of Tempe. Around this river, because of the trees which grow on its banks, and their far-reaching bows, there is most excellent shade, so that those who row in boats up and down the stream for almost the whole day, may sail in the pleasant shade, free from the violence and scorching heat of the sun.
231.13. The people who dwell near this river often meet in companies, sometimes in one place, sometimes in another. Having done divine service and ceremonies in due form and manner, they banquet and make merry. Therefore, those who do these services and perform these ceremonies being very numerous, it is no wonder that such as come here to walk for recreation, or who travel this way or sail up and down the river upon whatever occasion, continually notice a most sweet and fragrant smell. In this manner this place was consecrated with great honour & religious services. These things and many others [are what] Ælianus has written about Tempe {1624LParergon/1641S{and Thessalia}1624LParergon/1641S}.
231.14. Procopius has also written about it (although he does not mention it by name) in his fourth book De Ædif. Iustiniani. Imperatoris. {1601L, not in 1602G{There is a good description of these places by Catullus in his Argonautics}1601L, not in 1602G}. But I think it a good [thing] to record here from various writers several matters about this Tempe as they are here and there dispersed in their works. Maximus Tyrius in his 39th oration has left recorded that divine honour was formerly bestowed on the river Peneus for its marvellous, excellent beauty, and its uniquely clear waters.
231.15. Plinius writes that this river admits {1591G4Add & 1602G only{near Lacedemon}1591G4Add & 1602G only} into its flow the stream of the brook Eurotas but its water floats on top like oil, and having carried it for a certain distance {1624LParergon/1641S{as Homerus has on record}1624LParergon/1641S}, [Peneus] casts it off again, as if refusing to mix and have meddled its silver stream with this filthy, water. The same author [Plinius] says that there grow plenty of laurel, {1595L, not in 1602G{polypodion, dolichus {1606E only(a kind of bean)}1606E only}, serpillus}1595L, not in 1602G} the seaweed Nymphæa {1606E instead{wild-time and water-lily here}1606E instead}. {1595L, not in 1602G{But the last [mentioned] has black flowers, if we may believe Apuleius}1595L, not in 1602G}.
231.16. {1601L, not in 1602G{Pausanias writes in his Phocica that the temple of Apollo at Delphos was built of laurel boughs which grew in this place}1601L, not in 1602G}. Mela and the poets speak of Ossa the mountain [which is] memorable for the fabulous story of the giants. They also report that the Lapithæ, {1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only{a people from Thessalia}1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E only} dwelt here once. I read in Polyænus {not in 1608/1612I{in his fourth book}not in 1608/1612I} that Alexander, king of Indica (for I prefer to spell it like this, rather than as India, as authors so far have spelled it, seeing that Indica is a country close to Pontus {1608/1612I only{or the Black Sea}1608/1612I only}, {1606E only{as Stephanus states}1606E only}){1591G4Add & 1602G instead{the sea}1591G4Add & 1602G instead} in this mountain [Ossa] made small stairs by hewing in the craggy cliffs of it, which subsequently was called Alexander's ladder.
231.17. Near Tempe there is a water described by {1595L, not in 1602G{Seneca and}1595L, not in 1602G} Plinius which is so bad and filthy that it will make any man afraid to look into it, and which, so they say, will dissolve both brass and iron. {1595L, not in 1602G{Vitrivius in the third chapter of his eighth book says that there {1606E only{is a well or spring with running water of which no cattle will drink, nor is any kind of animal willing to approach it. Close by this fountain}1606E only} is a tree which bears purple flowers}1595L, not in 1602G}.
231.18. About mount Olympus {1601L, not in 1602G{(which Homerus in {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{the second book of}not in 1624LParergon/1641S} his [in Greek lettering in 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S] Odyssee calls the seat of the gods)}1601L, not in 1602G} Solinus cites {1595L, not in 1602G only{from the sixth book of Varro, {not in 1601L, 1608/1612I & 1624LParergon/1641S only{De lingua Latina}1595L, not in 1601L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1624LParergon/1641S only} that it rises up so exceedingly high into the air that the people who live near it call this lofty top heaven. {1595L, not in 1602G{Lucanus says that it is higher than the clouds. For it is ten furlongs {1608/1612I has instead{one and a quarter miles}1608/1612I instead} high, as Plutarchus has recorded in his Æmilius on authority of Xenagoras who measured it.
231.19. No bird nor fowl flies higher than the top of this mountain says Apuleius in his book entitled De Deo Socratis}1595L, not in 1602G}. On its very top there is an altar, built and consecrated to Jupiter where, if any of the entrails of sacrificed animals are left, they are neither blown away by the blistering blasts of the rough winds, nor dissolved by the dampish air or washed away by stormy rains, but next year, {1606E only{after twelve months,}1606E only} you shall find them looking exactly like [they did] when they were left there.
231.20. And at all times and seasons of the year, whatever has once been consecrated there and offered to that god, is preserved from all putrefaction and corruption of the air. Also, letters written and drawn in the ashes remain there undisturbed until the next solemnity of the same rites and ceremonies the following year}1591G4Add & 1602G end here}. {1601L{So far Solinus}1601L}{1606E only{Polyhistor}1606E only}.
231.21. Et nubibus intactum Macedo miratur Olympum, [that is:] {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the brave Macedonians admired to see the top of Olympus so high and stately far above the highest clouds}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, as Claudianus the poet has said about it in his poem about the wars of the Goths. {1595L{About this mountain Varro notes in his sixth book of De lingua Latina that the muses were called Olympiades}1595L}. So far in general terms about Tempe, which in the beginning did not have this form and excellent countenance, as all ancient writers agree, but the river Peneus, being enclosed by the mountains, and accommodating many rivers into it, overflowed all of this valley, making it to be full of water like a fen or a pond.
231.22. And afterwards, when the mountains Olympus and Ossa which at one time touched one another, were rent asunder (which happened through an earthquake, as Strabo, Seneca and Athenæus have written, while others such as Herodotus, Claudianus and Philostratus attribute it to Neptune, others again such as Diodorus and Lucanus to Hercules) and as a result Peneus found an exit and way to unload itself into the main ocean. And so it happened that the valley was emptied and dried up cleanly.
231.23. In Stephanus, in his book of cities {1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S instead, in Greek lettering{peri poleoon}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S instead} I find that this tract and plot of ground was first called {1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S only, in Greek lettering{lutai}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S only}, LYTÆ, before it was relieved of those waters by Neptune. {1595L{Euripides in his tragedy entitled Troades calls it [in 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612/S/L & 1624LParergon only in Greek lettering] Semnan choran}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S only}, the sacred and honourable country. Amongst the poets there is everywhere much talk about this most excellent coast, namely in Vergilius, Ovidius, Horatius, Catullus, Claudianus, Statius, Lucanus, Flaccus and Seneca, where you may find these features attributed [to Tempe] and spoken of, some calling it Tempe Thessalica, Peneia, Heliconia, {1595L{Phthiotica}1595L}, others Tempe frigida [cold], tenebrosa [dark], nemorosa [full of trees], opaca [shadowy], gratissima [grateful], lucentia [full of light], oloria [full of swans] and teumessia}not in 1606E}.
231.24. {1606E only{[I also find] the paradise of Thessaly, Peneus, Helicon, Phthiotis, the cold, shadowy, woody, cool, kind, swanny and Teumessian paradise,}1606E only} although the latter, [which comes from] the singularly learned man Hermolaus Barbarus in my opinion does not properly belong to this place, but rather to another most delightful place [namely] Bœotia where {1606E only{according to Pausanias, Strabo, Stephanus and Hesychius}1606E only} the mountain Teumessus is located.
231.25. I think that Lutatius {1624LParergon/1641S instead{Lactantius}1624LParergon/1641S instead} the grammarian is wrong, when he calls the place the city of Teumessia. Nor is it altogether an unaccustomed or unusual thing amongst writers, particularly poets, to use this word Tempe and to apply it figuratively to other places, famous for their many delightful pleasures, as you may see in Heliora Tempe, a place in Sicilia and also in Tiburtina villa Latij, a place in Latium {1606E has instead{Villa Hadriani}1606E}.
231.26. {1606E only{If we believe Spartianus in his life of the emperor Hadrianus}1606E only}, {1595L{again there was a college in Athens known by this name}1595L}. Similarly Dionysius and Priscianus call Daphne, the outskirts of Antiochia by the name of Tempe.
231.27. Plutarchus in Flaminius describes a place near the river Apsus {1606E only{(Spirnasse or Ureo in Macedonia)}1606E only} in pleasantness much resembling Tempe. About these and similar places I cannot help adding these words of emperor Iulianus to Libianus the sophist, and end my discussion of this most excellent valley as follows, {not in 1606E{as reported by Morentinus}not in 1606E}{1608/1612I only{who translated it from Greek}1608/1612I only}: Then, he said, Batnæ, {1606E only{a city in Mesopotamia}1606E only} entertained me. I never in all my life saw the like of such a place, except only Daphne, {1606E only{in the outskirts of Antioch in Syria}1606E only}. Daphne, which now is compared to Batnæ, as before excepting the temple and image, I would no doubt not only compare it, but also far prefer it above Ossa, {not in 1608/1612I{Pelio}not in 1608/1612I} Olympus and the Thessalian valleys &c. (he means Tempe).
231.28. This Batnæ is situated (if you would like to know) {1590L4Add & 1592L only{in Cyrrhestica of Syria between Berrhœa & Hierapolis}1590L4Add & 1592L only, which end here}{1595L{in Osroëna, a province of Mesopotamia {1608/1612I only{now Diarbech}1608/1612I only}, as Zosimus and Stephanus think, or in Anthemusia, as Ammianus states, {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{on the road between Antiochia of Syria and Carræ}not in 1624LParergon/1641S}. So far about Tempe. But because I see that Daphne, the outskirts of Antiochia in Syria is by some writers meant under this name [Tempe], and because it is as pleasant a place as Tempe, I will apply myself to describe and show this [Daphne] also, but on the next page, not on this one}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}. (See description of the next map, Ort 232, Daphne).
231.29. {1608/1612I only{To the matters mentioned before, I add that Filippo Pigafetta has seen these three mountains, namely The Olympus, Ossa and Pelio, when he returned from Constantinople in the year 1574. And among them, he has crossed the river Peneus by boat, where the local inhabitants said that there is hardly a bottom to be found, and that the banks become exceedingly small in that place where this river empties into the lesser Tiber. As the first, mount Olympus rises up in the West above the others, and in the East it has mount Ossa, and towards the sea mount Pelio, [like] three brothers, one smaller than the other, while that river empties into the sea between mount Olympus and mount Ossa, where there is plenty of space. Mount Olympus was covered with snow from top to bottom, and it had its head in the clouds. As concerns the height, I consider what has been written about it as a fable, since I am firmly convinced that mount Gotthard of Switzerland exceeds it in height by a large measure. And from there, four rivers descend: the Rhine, the Rhône, the Ticino and the Rus. But the fame of the lovely valley of Tempe remains. Its inhabitants use the original Geek spelling, saying [in Greek lettering] Olumpos for this Olympus, because its top is shining, is never veiled in clowds, and is therefore called [in Greek lettering] olos lampros [totally shining], yet I believe that it rains, thunders and has lightning up there, and that snow falls there, just like on other mountain ridges, higher than this one}1608/1612I only, which ends here}.

Since the vernacular text of the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch edition differs considerably from the text provided above, a separate translation of this text is provided here:

231.29a. {1598/1610/1613D only{Tempe.

231.30. There is a place between Olympum and Ossam, the highest mountains of Thessalia, through Gods providence consisting of a plain valley. In the middle it is 40 furlongs long. It is partly 66 cubits wide, but wider in other places. Through the middle of it runs the river Peneus, which grows and widens through other waters that it receives.
231.31. This place is exceedingly pleasant because of various and sundry attractions, not resulting from humans, but created by nature itself, which has revealed itself in this valley elegantly and luxuriously. Lots of ivy grows here, ornating with flowers and buds the highest trees like a vineyard. In the same place there is also an abundance of bindweed, which climbing ornates the rocks, holes and cliffs hiding in the shade. The rest, growing and blossoming, can be seen by everyone, which is a feast to the eye. On the plain, when the sun in summer shines at its hottest, you might see green and woody chambers, where the travellers, tired by the heat, may hide like in a comfortable inn.
231.32. Of fountains there are many, flowing through the valley, as also fresh and cool brooks. These are, as has been established, very healthy and effective for diseased bodies. Here also, the birds will cheer up the banquets of the inhabitants with their sweet songs, so that who happens to pass by will forget about his worries and cares, enchanted as he is with these sweet sounds. On both sides of the river one finds bowers and benches for everyone. The river Peneus, flowing smoothly like oil, runs sweetly through the middle of Tempe. It is lined with trees, green on both sides, so that the people who are boating on it with their ships are liberated from the heat of the sun all day long because of its pleasant shades.
231.33. The inhabitants often assemble to have banquets with one another when they have made their sacrifices. And since there are large crowds doing their sacrifices, it is no wonder that sweet smells present themselves to the strollers and those sailing the river. Thus, this place and in this manner, with great honour and gifts, affords to many people enjoyment and bliss. We have wanted to portray this in our map-book so that, nearing the end [of this map-book], we provide a resting place and pleasure garden for the weary reader. This we also hope to achieve with the description of Daphne, which follows after this one}1598/1610/1613D only end here}.

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