Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 212

Text, translated from the 1595 Latin 5 Add., 1595 Latin, 1597 German 5 Add., 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish edition which has Latin text, 1609/1612L which has a text identical with 1609/1612S, 1618Bertius & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish, but with Latin text:

212.1. {1595L5Add{DACIA and MOESIA {1597G5Add & 1602G only{that is, Walachia, Servia & Bosnia}1597G5Add & 1602G only}.

212.2. The inhabitants of DACIA, the Greeks call them DACI, the Romans GETÆ, as Plinius, Dion, Stephanus and others testify; {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(this is also confirmed by Cottiso, once the king of that nation, whom Suetonius calls the king of the Getes, Horatius calls him Dacum, a Dacian)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, or as Iornandes says, GOTHI. I note that Herodotus and other writers from that period have generally called them by the name of the SCYTHÆ, Scythians, as Iornandes just mentioned also does. Stephanus calls them DAOS, and Strabo [calls them] DAVOS, Daces {1606E only{or Dawes}1606E only}. Yet he makes this distinction between the two: that the Getæ were those who settled more Eastwards, whereas the Daci {1597G5Add & 1602G only{or Walachians}1597G5Add & 1602G only} were those which lived more towards the West. Still, they speak one and the same language, namely the German {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Russian}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} {1606E instead{Dutch}1606E instead} tongue, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{also used by the Thracians}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, as may be proved on the basis of Plinius and Iornandes.
212.3. Moreover Arrianus writes that the Getæ were also called APATHANIZONTES {1597G5Add & 1602G only{that is, the immortal ones}1597G5Add & 1602G only}, but this is to be corrected, and on the basis of Herodotus' {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{fourth {1606E has instead{first}1606E} book [ought] to be written [as] ATHANATIZONTES, {that is to say, [the] Immortal[s]. For they truly believe that they shall never die, but after their departure from this life they shall immediately go to Zamolxis, {1606E only{a saint or idol whom they worship and adore in particular}1606E only}. But about this saint of theirs {1603L{and the ceremonies [surrounding him]}1603L} you may read more in the authors mentioned.
212.4. Suidas makes clear that in his time these people were known by the name of PATZINACITÆ}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. That those Dacians lived on either side of the river Danube {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{even as high up as mount Hæmus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, I find recorded by Dion, who as I understand it, also includes the Mœsi {1597G5Add & 1602G only{or Serbians and Bosnians}1597G5Add & 1602G only} under that name. And indeed, we shall after this prove that the same Dacians {1597G5Add & 1602G instead{Walachen}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} were often confused with these Mœsians. For this reason Saint Paulinus {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{in his treatise About the return of Nicetas}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} considers this same DACIA to have two {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{meanings in the following verse Et Getæ currunt, & uterque Dacus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{The Getes in troups do throng, both Dacians do the same}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
212.5. In [Justinianus'] Digests of the civil law, mention is made of two Dacias. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{But we will later speak about the Mœsians, and this place we have assigned to genuine DACIA, properly called like that}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, whose bounds Ptolemæus, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{the prince of all geographers}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, makes out to be the rivers Danube, the Teissa {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{(Tibiscus}1597G5Add & 1602G only} {1606E only{or Pathissus, as Plinius calls it)}1606E only}, the river {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{Pruth}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only} (Hierasus) and [the] {1597G5Add & 1602G only{Krumbachian, Kremnitzian Semnitzian}1597G5Add & 1602G only} mountain [range] Carpates. Iornandes, born in this country, says that the nextdoor neighbours to this Dacia on the East are the Roxolani {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Russians}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}, on the West the Tamazites {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(Iazyges I would prefer to read it, because of the likelihood of it, as also by the various readings in another copy, which has Taziges}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E only{a word nowhere else to be found}1606E only}), on the North it has the Sarmatæ {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Poles}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and the Bastarnæ}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, and on the South the river Danube.
212.6. This Dacia, as the same author says, opposite Mœsia, beyond the Danube, is enclosed all around by mountains, and has only two passages in and out, one via Bontas {1606E only{(Rotteothurn)}1606E only}, and [the other via] Tabæ {1606E only{(Bross)}1606E only}. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Xiphilinus, I think, later calls this Taphæ}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Ammianus Marcellinus adds to this {not in 1608/1612I{Succorum angustias, {1606E only{the straights of Turkzuest near}not in 1608/1612I} the town Succi}1606E only}. Aurelius Victor, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Eutropius, Marcellinus, Comes in his Miscellaneous Stories, and the book of Remembrances}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {not in 1608/1612I{divide this country into two provinces, MEDITERRANEA and RIPENSIS}not in 1608/1612I} {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{the area along the Danube}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}. There are some, (of which Lazius is one), who to these add a third [province] called ALPESTRIS {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{an area close to the great mountain range}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{on what ground and proof I do not know}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.7. VANNIANVM REGNVM, about which Tacitus and Plinius speak, was as it seems in this area. This is properly that [shape of the] province of Dacia {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{Walachia}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} which Eutropius reports to have had a circumference of a thousand miles. The chief city of this area was Zarmisogethusa, which later was called COLONIA VLPIA TRAIANA AUGVSTA DACICA ZARMIS., as we find in certain inscriptions in marble, and [it] received its name from {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Vlpius Traianus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} the emperor. For he made it into a province by conquering [and] overcoming their king Decebalus. About which war, waged by Traianus against the Dacians (for the histories of it, written by himself [and] cited by Priscianus the grammarian, have been lost), you may read in Dion in his life of this emperor.
212.8. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Also, behold and inspect the column erected by the senate of Rome on the Forum {1606E instead{on Traianes market place}1606E instead}, which remains to this very day whole and sound. This column was depicted by Hieronymus Mutianus, the famous painter, in his own hand, and [was] printed in Rome with 130 illustrations. It has also been depicted and described by F. Alphonsus Ciaccones {1608/1612I only{of Spain}1608/1612I only} so lively, and with such a learned and elaborate commentary that one would think him personally to have witnessed this battle being fought, rather than to have read and heard about it from the testimony of others}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.9. Florus writes that this country lies in the middle of the mountains. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Also, he calls it a bushy country, full of woods and forests. For he claims that Curio came up as high as Dacia, but did not dare to go further, for fear of the dreadful dark woods. Strabo in the seventh book of his Geography, and Vergilius in the third of his Georgics, speak about the deserts and wildernesses of the Getes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. The same author calls it Gentem indomitam, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{an unruly nation}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
212.10. Statius says that they are hirsuti, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{hairy}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, intonsi, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{unshaven}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}, pelliti, {1606E only{furred or clad in skins}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, inhumane, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{sturdy, stern, braccati}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E only{wearing long breeches and mantles, similar to our Irishmen}1606E only}. {1601L, not in 1602G{I read in Plinius that they used to paint their faces}1601L, not in 1602G} {1606E only{[like our Britans [do]]1606E}. Ovidius the poet, who not only visited this country but also lived among them and saw their manners, very truly wrote about them that there is not a more stern nation in the world.
212.11. Vegetius, {1606E only{who wrote about the art of war}1606E only}, says that this is a very warlike people, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{having indeed, as the prince of poets [Ovidius] testifies, god Mars as their lieutenant and governor}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. By Claudianus it is named Bellipotens, {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{similarly}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} {1606E & 1608/1612I only{a mighty nation for warriors}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Philargyrius writes, based on Aufidius Modestus, that when they go to war, they will not start marching before they have drunk a certain quantity of the waters of the river Ister (Danube) in the way of hallowed wine, and swear that they will never return to their homes in their own country before they have slain their enemies. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{For which reason Vergilius calls this river Istrum coniuratum}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the conjured Danube}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
212.12. Trogus writes that this nation, with their king Orores (another copy has Olore, in Dion {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{elsewhere}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} I read Role) fought against the Bastarnæ, with very little success. In revenge of this cowardice, they were ordered by their king, when they went to bed, to lie at the beds feet, and to do those services to their wives which the wives were accustomed to do for them. They were in former times so strong, as Strabo writes, that they were able to form an army of 200,000 men.
212.13. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{To them also this speech by Silius Italicus seems to apply: At gente in Scythica suffixa cadavera truncis, | Lenta dies sepelit putri liquentia tabo, again, among the Scythians the dead are fastened to tree-trunks and left to rot, and
time at last is the burier of their bodies. [Punica Book 13, line 486]. Iosephus in his second book against Appianus writes that there are a certain kind of Dacians commonly called Plisti whose manners of living he compares to those of the Essenes. These I truly believe to be the same as those whom Strabo calls Ctistæ {1606E instead{Plistæ}1606E instead}, and they descended from the Abij. So much about Dacia. Now the Mœsi will follow who, as Dion Prusæus notes on the basis of Homerus, were once called Mysi}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.14. The name MOESIA {1597G5Add & 1602G only{Servia & Bosnia}1597G5Add & 1602G only} was the common name of that area which the river Saw (Savus), emptying itself into the Danube, North of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Thracia, divides from Pannonia {1597G5Add & 1602G instead{Hungary}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}. In this Moesia, next to other people, live those who anciently were called the {1597G5Add & 1602G only{Bulgaren}1597G5Add & 1602G only}{not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Triballi, and those who are now called the Dardani. These are the words of Dion Nicæus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E{as Xilandrus reports}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E}. According to Ptolemæus, it is bound and enclosed by the same borders. According to Plinius, its borders also extend from the joining of the river Saw and the river Danube, all the way to Pontus (Mar Maiore) Eastwards, and Iornandes claims it to extend as far as Histria Westwards.
212.15. We have said before that MŒSIA {1597G5Add & 1602G instead{Walachij}1597G5Add & 1602G} was once called DACIA, for the proof of which I could refer to Flavius Vopiscus, who writes that {1608/1612I only{Valerianus}1608/1612I only} Aurelianus the emperor, who was born here, brought certain people out of Dacia and settled them in MŒSIA, {1597G5Add & 1602G only{nowadays called Servia and Bosnia}1597G5Add & 1602G only} which he named DACIA AVRELIANA, after his own name. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{This is now that province which divides the two Moesias from one another}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Suidas {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{reports the same about the word DACIA. He places the province of Dacia according to}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} Eutropius, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(speaking about the same Aurelianus), in Moesia, where it is now, on the South side of the Danube, whereas before it was placed on the North side of it [this river]}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.16. And Sextus Rufus {1597G5Add & 1602G only{agrees with this}1597G5Add & 1602G only} {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and demonstrates that by the same emperor two Dacias were made out of the countries of Mœsia and Dardania. Whereupon in the Codex [Code of civil law] these words are read: Mediterranea Mysia, seu Dardania, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{upland Moesia or Dardania, confounding one with the other}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. Below [the country] named Dacia, besides the countries referred to above, PRÆVALITANA was also situated, and that part of Macedonia commonly called SALVTARIS, as the book of Remembrances (liber Notitiarum) clearly shows}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. About its people, brought from other places, Strabo similarly writes that in his time (and we know he lived in the time of Augustus and Tiberius) {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Ælius Catus (or rather, as the learned and industrious Causabonus on the basis of Dion wants us to read, Licinius Crassus), brought of the Getes who lived beyond the Danube (Ister) into Thracia more than 50,000 men who were afterwards called MYSI, Mysians.
212.17. An inscription on an ancient stone, mentioned in Smetius says that Ælianus Plautius, pro-prætor of Mœsia, brought into this country, from the people and nations living beyond the Danube, more than 100,000 {1606E has instead{10,000}1606E instead} men, together with their wives, children, noblemen, princes and kings}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.18. This MYSIA, or as most of the Romans write it, MOESIA, is by Ptolemæus [distinguished] into UPPER and NEATHER [Mœsia], (Superior & Inferior). In the Codex of Iustinianus [the latter] is called SECVNDA, [the former] PRIMA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{(the second and [the] first)}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. The lower one is by Iornandes named MINOR SCYTHIA, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the Lesser Scythia}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, by Zosimus SCYTHIA THRACENSIS, Scythia of Thrace, by Plutarchus in Marius, [it is called] SCYTHICA PONTICA, Scythia of Pontus, and its inhabitants Celtoscythæ. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{By Polyænus {not in 1606E{in book 8}not in 1606E} [it is called] PONTICA MARITIMA, Pontus upon the sea{not in 1606E & 1608/1612I{or [in Greek lettering] paralia}not in 1606E & 1608/1612I}. By Ovidius and others [it is] simply [called] PONTVS, without anything added}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.19. There are some who call it FLACCIA after a certain Flaccus, a Roman who, as appears with certainty from Ovidius, was once in this area lieutenant for the state of the empire. And this does not seem altogether improbable, for the name WALACHIA or VALACHIA by which it is known today, amounts to the same. By Ovidius it was in various places described {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{under these names: Sarmaticum solum, Geticum littus, Cymmerium littus, and Barbaria}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{the Sarmatian soil, the Gottish or Cymmerian shore, and Barbaria}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
212.20. These countries are very fertile with all kinds of fruits and commodities, so that, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Solinus notes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, the Romans commonly called it Cereris horreum, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{Ceres' granary}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{The poet, as Procopius notes in the fourth book of his Ædifici, calls these people {not in 1606E & 1608/1612I {[in Greek lettering] Enchemachous}not in 1606E & 1608/1612I}, those who fight aloof, and far off. Mysos in palustra feroces, and Cum Geticis ingens premeretur Mysia plaustris: {1606E & 1608/1612I only{when great Mœsia was much oppressed by Gottish wagons}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, is what Claudianus, the poet, writes about them. Dant illis animos arcus, plenæque pharetræ: {1606E & 1608/1612I only{They much rely on their bow, and great cunning in archery}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, is what Ovidius writes about them in his first book de Ponto.
212.21. Ælianus writes that they were able, by their own strength and power, to prevent the Scythians from entering their country, and to defend it in every [conceivable] way against that furious and violent enemy}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Strabo says that they were very much given to robbing and stealing. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Vix hac invenies totum, mihi crede, per Orbem, Quæ minus angusta pace fruatur humus: {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Scarcely may you find in all the world, so small a plot of ground, where bloody wars their hideous noise, more oftentimes do sound, is what the poet just mentioned [viz. Ovidius] writes about this country}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, {not in 1606E & 1608/1612I{as the song of the Tomitan exile goes}not in 1606E & 1608/1612I}. As also this, which follows in another place: In quibus est nemo qui non coryton & arcum, Telaque vipereo lurida felle gerat {Ovidius Tristia Bk. 5 § 7]: {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Among these men there is none, who has no sturdy bow, with poisoned arrows sharp and swift, to fight against his foe}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
212.22. How fair and valiant they were, you may gather from the following passage by Florus. One of the captains, he says, stepped out in front of the [enemy] army [troops] and asking for their silence, asked: Who are you? It was jointly with one voice answered by all: We are Romans, lords of all nations of the world. To which answer they replied again: So you are indeed, if you can conquer us. Posidonius in}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} Strabo confirms that they abstained from eating meat for the sake of their religion and conscience, and live on butter and cheese. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{If you want to know more about the fabulous story of a kind of horses here, see Ælianus}not in 1597G5Add& 1602G}. When with those, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Ælianus relates}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {not in 1606E{the horses throng together, they sing a certain wedding song. Touched by the sweetness of this song, the mares are soon pregnant, and give birth to their foals, excelling in beauty}not in 1606E}. As also Solinus about a strange medicinal herb which grows in that part of the country {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{called Pontica}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Once this herb {not in 1606E{from which oil is made which is called medicinal oil} has been lit, it will burn more violently when you try to extinguish it with water, and it can only be extinguished by throwing a handful of dust on it}not in 1606E}.
212.23. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{In Moesia there is also a province called DARDANIA, which we said was also called MYSIA MEDITERRANEA, {1606E only{[or] Upland Moesia}1606E only}, because it is far remote and distant from the river Danube}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. About the inhabitants and people of this country, the same author speaks like this: In their whole life, as I hear by report from others, these people only wash themselves three times: once as soon as they are born, another time when they marry, and again at their death.
212.24. About {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{the Triballi}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, a people of this country, hear this from Plinius {1624LParergon/1641S only{book 7 chapter 2}1624LParergon/1641S only}, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which he claims to have taken from Isigonus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}: They bewitch and kill with their looks those who look at them in a steadfast manner for some length of time, especially if they are angry. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{This mischief of theirs is mostly exercised on the young, who are most hurt by it}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. But what is most notable and worth observing is that each of their eyes provides two sights. He who wants to read more about this country, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{especially about Lower Moesia}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, should turn to Ovidius' 3rd book de Ponto, at the 1st, 4th and 10th Elegy.
212.25. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{About their barbarous manners, rites, customs and ceremonies, you shall find much in the}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} 7th Elegy of his 5th book Tristia. It is not amiss, in my opinion, also to say something here about the river Danube or Ister {1601L, not in 1602G{(which Ælianus in the 23rd chapter of his 14th book de Animalibus calls The king of rivers, and which by Apollonius, in the fourth book of his Argonautics is named Cornu oceani, the horn of the sea)}1601L, not in 1602G}, because it runs through the middle of those countries that we have described here. {1608/1612I has instead{with various names, for the Greeks call it Istro, the Romans Danubio, the modern Italians [also] Danubio or more anciently Danoia, and the Germans Tounou}1608/1612I instead}.
212.26. We read in the fragments of Salustius that the Ister or Danube, of all the rivers of the Roman empire, in size comes next after the Nilus. Gyraldus in his {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E{17th book of}1595L5Add} Syntagmata Deorum}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E} confirms that the kings of Babylon used to keep some water from the Danube or Ister in their treasuries among their precious jewels. Cæsarius, the brother of Nazianzenus says in his dialogues that this is one of the rivers of paradise, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and that it is what the holy Script calls Phison}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, which I will easily concede him to be true if he convinces me that by paradise is meant the whole world or massive globe of this lower element of earth, which I truly think he considers to be right.
212.27. Seneca in the sixth book of his Natural Philosophy says that this Danube separates Europe from Asia. In spite of this, most writers, both Greek and Latin ones, ancient as well as contemporary, generally attribute this [function] to the river Don (Tanais). {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{And what about him, I ask you, who imagined that Germany, which is [partly] beyond this river, should be a country of Asia? Should we correct the [manuscript] copy? Or shall we retain the reading [found in] Horatius, on the credit and peril of Acron {1608/1612I has instead{Macron}1608/1612I instead}, his interpreter, where he says that the Tanais is also called Danubius? I leave this to the judgment of the learned. This much we know for sure: that the Tanais as well as the Danubius are by the inhabitants of that area [both] called Don, {1606E only{and I surely think that both the Greek word Tanais and the Latin [word] Danubius derive from the barbarous [words] Don or Tane, which in their language, for all I know, may mean river or stream. Similarly Nilus, as Pomponius Mela seems to say, derived its name from Nuchul which generally means river, as all people who have some skill in Hebrew or Arabic will confirm)}1606E only}.
212.28. {1601L{Isidorus too, in the ninth chapter of the seventeenth book of his Origines, seems to have this opinion, where he writes that Rhabarbarum, rhubarb, grows in solo barbarico, in a barbarous country, beyond the Danube. For we know at this day that it grows near the river Rha {1608/1612I only{or Wolga}1608/1612I only}, which is Eastwards beyond the Danube}1601L}. In Plinius we read that each stream of its estuary, through which it empties itself into the sea, is so wide and large that it is claimed to push aside the sea for a distance of forty miles altogether, and that for that distance the water may be perceived to be sweet amidst the brackish waves of the salt sea, {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E{as may be seen on this map}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E}.
212.29. Polybius in his fourth book adds to this that by the violent and swift fall of the waters of this river into Pontus (Mar Maiore), there are certain banks, hills or shelves which the seamen call Stethe, {1601L{or Pectora}1601L} {1606E & 1608/1612I only{that is, breast bones}1606E & 1608/1612I}, composed of the assembly of material which the river brings down with it, which are more than a days sailing from the shore. The sailors sometimes hit upon this [tangled mass] by accident by night, running great danger of shipwreck. Strabo also mentions the same thing}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
212.30. They who want to know more about this river, its name, nature, quality, origin, mouths and the streams that contribute to it, should read {not in 1608/1612I{the commentaries of Guilelmus Stuckius, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{given on}not in 1608/1612I} Arrianus' Periplus about the Euxine sea}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. For there he has most abundantly and learnedly described all these matters}1597G5Add & 1602G end here}. About the Thracians, Mœsians, Getes, Dacians and other countries, nations and people on this map, read the seventh book of Strabo's Geography, and its Epitome}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L, 1618Bertius & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

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