Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 207

Text, translated from the 1584 Latin 3rd Add., 1584 Latin, 1584 German 3rd Add., 1585 French 3rd Add., 1587 French and 1592 Latin editions:

207.1. {1584L3Add{TVSCIA {1592L{or ETRURIA}1592L}.

207.2. This country is bordered by two rivers; the Tiber in the East and the Macra in the West. In the North are the Apennine mountains. In the South it has its own Tuscan sea. For although it was larger before the Roman empire [was established], as Livius and Polybius testify, and [once] extended its boundaries beyond the Apennine mountains all the way to Atria from which the Adriatic sea took its name, yet afterwards, its inhabitants being expelled from there by the Gauls, it was contained within these boundaries. Of the eleven provinces into which all of Italy was divided by Augustus, as Plinius reports, this was the seventh. The Origines, a book written by Cato, divide this country into the Maritima, the Transciminia and the Lartheniana [area].
207.3. {1592L{Iornandes and}1592L} {Marcellinus in his 27th book mention[s] Annonaria Etruria {1585F3Add & 1587F instead{the duchy of Spolito}1585F3Add & 1587F instead}, near the town of Pistorium. Dionysius Halicarnassæus writes {not in 1584G3Add, 1585F3Add & 1587F{in his sixth book}not in 1584G3Add, 1585F3Add & 1587F} that it was divided into twelve dukedoms. Livius in his first book calls their peoples, from which one common king was chosen, and each people sent several of their sergeants to attend on him. {1592L{Servius calls them Lucumones [Etrurian nobility] and they are called kings in Georgics, Book 2}1592L}.
207.4. {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{In the Origines just mentioned, they are called twelve settlements, and they are listed in the following order: Ianiculum, Arinianum on the Tiber, Phesulæ, and another Arinianum upon [the] Arno, Phregenæ, Volce, Volaterra, Cariara, also called Luna upon the shore, Ogygianum, Aretium, Rosellæ and Volsinium within the land. Volaterranus lists them with these names and in this order: Luna, Pisæ, Populonia, Volaterra, Agyllina, Fesulæ, Russellana, Aretium, Perusia, Clusium, Faleria and Vulsinia. An ancient monument [made] of stone, yet still extant at Vulsinium, as Onyphrius claims, makes mention of fifteen Etrurian peoples}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F}.
207.5. The country has received various names. For from Plinius we learn that it was first named VMBRIA, for he confirms that the Umbri were expelled from here by the Pelasgi, and after that it was called PELASGIA. These [in turn] were expelled by the Lydi, as the same Plinius as well as Trogus testify, after whose king Tyrrhenus it was [now] called TYRRHENIA, as Paterculus, Halicarnassæus, Strabo and Livius have left on record. Soon after that, because of their ceremony of sacrificing, it was called in the Greek language TVSCIA. It was also called, as the same Halicarnassæus writes, RASENA, after a certain duke or general of the nation. {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{In Myrsilus, if I am not mistaken, it is corruptly written [as] Razenua. Moreover, it was called COMARA and SALEVMBRONE, if we believe Berosus, Annius.
207.6. The Phocenses, as Herodotus writes in Clio, once possessed it. The fragment of Antoninus near the river Arno mentions the Phocenses, and lake Phocensis}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F}.
The Etrusci have for a long time been considered very wealthy. They were very powerful, both on sea and on land, and in war equal in strength to the Romans. Livius, {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{supported by Diodorus}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F}, says it is the richest province of all Italy, both in terms of men, arms and money. That there were 300 cities of the Umbri battered and captured by the Tusci we find on record, says Plinius.
207.7. Such was the wealth and power of Etruria that it not only spread over the land, but also over the sea, all along [the coast] from the Alps to the Sicilian straights {1585F3Add & 1587F only{now called El faro de Messina}1585F3Add & 1587F only}. Livius and Plinius confirm that Mantua and Atria were settlements of the Tusci. Pomponius and Paterculus say the same about Capua, and also about Nola, [and] although Solinus attributes this to the Tyrians, [yet] Trogus claims that it was first built by the Chalcidenses.
207.8. {in 1592L after § 10{Tuscus vicus, a street in Rome, Tusculum and Tusculanum in Latium took their names from here. [Then] mare Tuscum, also called mare Inferum, Notium, Tyrrhenum and Liburnum, as we find in Plinius and Cicero. Near Puteoli, as Dion has recorded, there is a sea creek called Tyrrhenus sinus, the bay of Tuscany. But there are also other Tusci, {different from these, in Sarmatia, as Ptolemæus notes, as also another Tyrrhenus, on the islands belonging to Attica, if you are willing to believe Marsylus Lesbius}after §10 in 1592L, which ends there}.
207.9. The nature of the soil is very fertile for all manner of things, yes, particularly for vines, as Halicarnassæus has written. The large, excellent plains, divided into several [parts by] hilly areas and mountains, are well manured and very fruitful, as Diodorus testifies. Martianus says that for the fertility of its soil, it was ever renowned and in high esteem, which fertility is of great significance for attracting people to indulge in pleasure and easy living.
207.10. For they are, as the same Halicarnassæus writes, very refined in their food and apparel. {1592L{Besides necessary things they carry with them, even when they go to war, various fine things, most intricately wrought, only for [their] pleasure and delight. Eustathius calls it a robbing, cruel and uncivil nation}1592L. They were always considered [to be] very religious, and they were the first that invented sacrifices, divinations and sooth-saying. It is from them that the Romans took over these manners, as also the Sella curulis [coach of estate], {1592L{paludamenta [warrior cloaks], trabea [kings cloak]}1592L} {1584G3Add{toga pretexta [formal attire]}1584G3Add}, {1592L{toga picta [checkered toga]}1592L}, fasces, secures [hatchets], litui, apparitores [rings], music [and] ludiones [whifflers]. {not in 1585F3Add & 1587F{Finally, all their ornaments of triumph & robes of the consuls}not in 1585F3Add & 1587F} {1592L{or rather, as Florus puts it, all decorations and apparel which belonged to the dignity of the empire}1592L}. That the Romans first committed their children to the Etrusci to be educated and brought up as afterwards they did with the Greek, you may read in Livius, Strabo and Siculus}1584L3Add, 1584L, 1584G3Add, 1585F3Add & 1587F end here}.{1592L{§8 here}1592L}.

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