Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 206

Text, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add., 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Spanish/Latin and 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] editions:

206.1. {1590L4Add{ITALY of the GAULS.

206.2. This part of Italy was formerly called Gallia. For the old writers extended the borders of Gallia from the ocean sea Eastwards all the way to the river Rubicon {1606E only{(Runcone or Rugoso)}1606E only} {1591G4Add & 1602G only{which separates Gallia Togata from Italia}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Therefore, the Alps run through the middle of it, and divide it into two parts. One they call TRANSALPINA, and Gallia ulterior, {1602G & 1606E only{Gallia beyond the Alps, or the farther Gallia}1602G & 1606E only}. The other [part] which we here show on this map [is called] CISALPINA, Subalpina and Citerior, {1602G & 1606E only{Gallia on this side of the Alps, under the Alps, or the hither Gallia}1602G & 1606E only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Ausonius calls it Gallia the old and Livius, in his 45th book just Gallia}1595L, not in 1602G}, {1601L{and so does Solinus where he writes that the Vmbri are an ancient offspring and branch derived from the old Gauls}1601L}{1606E & 1608/1612I only{Livius in his 45th Book just calls it Gallia}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
206.3. {1590L4Add, 1592L & 1602G only{Livius in Bk.18 {1602G instead{28}1602G instead} simply call[s] it Ariminum in these words: Ariminum, also called Gallia is part of Sp. Lucretio}1590L4Add, 1592L & 1602G only}. And because this entire area, in the process of time, fell under the name of Italy, therefore by Appianus in his Annibalica it was called by the fitting name, to distinguish it from the other part, [of] ITALIA GALLICA. The book of records of the provinces calls it ITALIA MEDITERRANEA, {1606E only{Midland Italy}1606E only}. {1595L, not in 1602G{This comprises that part of Gallia called Togata. And this was called Ariminium by Livius in his book 25 {1601L and later instead{28}1601L and later instead}, if the reading is not corrupt. Silius Italicus in his 9th book calls the people of this place Celtes, dwelling on the river Eridanus}1595L, not in 1602G} {1606E & 1608/1612I only{or Po}1606E & 1608/1612I only}.
206.4. In this area (which Tacitus calls the most flourishing part of Italy) are the eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh provinces of Italy, according to the division [made] by Augustus. This is the very same area as that of the river Padus {1606E only{(Po)}1606E only} which waters it, and divides it in the middle into two parts, namely {1591G4Add & 1602G only{the duchy of Milan and Lombardy}1591G4Add & 1602G only} {other editions have instead{GALLIA TRANSPADANA and GALLIA CISPADANA}other editions instead}, {1606E only{Gallia beyond the Po and Gallia on this side of the Po}1606E only}. The latter, Cispadana only, in Ptolemæus contains what was otherwise called Togata. This part also includes the Ligures {1591G4Add & 1602G only{bordering on Tuscany}1591G4Add & 1602G only} who, as we have noted in ancient writers, for a long time have been living as high as the river Po.
206.5. If we lend any credibility to the Origines, a book which is commonly attributed to Cato, this same province was also called ÆMILIA, FELSINA, AVRELIA and BIANORA. Polybius says that the shape of this whole area of Gallia is triangular. Its top {1606E only{or vertex, as the geometricians call it}1606E only}, is formed by the meeting of the Alps and Apennines, {1591G4Add & 1602G only{or Bartelbirgh}1591G4Add & 1602G only}{1606E only{that mountain range that runs through the middle of Italy from one end to the other}1606E only}. The base line is the Hadriatic sea {1606E only{(Golfo di Venetia)}1606E only}.
206.6. Moreover he adds that in this area {1591G4Add & 1602G only{between Italy and Illyria or Dalmatia}1591G4Add & 1602G only} there are the most excellent plains and most fertile fields of all of Europe. It is everywhere full of woods, good pasture for feeding the cattle, and well watered by many pleasant brooks and rivers, {1601L, not in 1602G{and it contains 18 {1606E has instead{12}1606E instead} large and excellent cities, built and situated in such a manner that they had all things necessary either for their own convenient prosperity, or for their maintenance and provisions to live comfortably}1601L, not in 1602G}, as Plutarchus notes in his life of Camillus.
206.7. The same is confirmed by Plinius, who in a similar manner says that it is three-cornered, and as in Delta, a province of Egypt, where the river Nilus empties itself into the ocean, so does here the Po, which empties itself into the sea. This river Po, as Strabo notes, waters this plain, makes it fertile and also divides it by many most fruitful hills into various different parts. This is the river which in antiquity was called Eridanus, famous for the poetical or fabulous story of Phaëton. Vergilius calls it the king of rivers. Claudianus gives it the title of Oloriferus, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{the swan-bearing stream}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}. Plinius calls it Auriferum, {1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead{the golden stream}1591G4Add, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I instead}, and also says that for clarity it is not inferior to any river whatever. It originates from the bosom of mount Vesulus {1606E only{(Veso)}1606E only}{1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Liguria}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, between the highest mountains of all the Alps.
206.8. It first begins from many small springs, then these come together, then hiding itself or running under the ground {1606E only{for many furlongs altogether}1606E only}, finally emerges again not far from Forum-Vibij {1606E only{or Vibi Forum}1606E only}{1608/1612I only{or Saluzzo}1608/1612I only}. From there (while many huge lakes empty themselves into it), fortified by thirty other rivers, it empties itself through many mouths into the Hadriatic bay {1606E only{or gulf of Venice}1606E only}, into which it falls so swiftly and with such violence that, forcing back the waves and the tide, it creates its own channel in the sea, and as Pomponius mentions, makes the water fresh and potable amidst the brackish surges of the [surrounding] sea.
206.9. Plinius writes that in the Ligurian language it was named Bodincus, that is, {1606E only{(as Scepsius interprets it)}1606E only} bottomless. In this area, among others, the Gauls once lived, who first of all mortal men waged war against the Romans, took the city of Rome, sacked and burnt it, only leaving the capitol preserved [and] untouched. This is the part of Italy which, as Plinius [Minor] wrote to his close friend Junius Mauricus, retains even to this day much of its ancient fertility and good farming of our ancestors.
206.10. In the fifth book of Strabo {1606E only{in his geography}1606E only} and in the third {1601L and later instead{second}1601L and later instead} book of Polybius' {1606E only{history}1606E only}, you will find an excellent description of this country. {1595L, not in 1602G{About Venice, a part of this province, read Cassiodorus 24th section of his 12th book}1595L, not in 1602G} {1595L and later Latin editions{of Variar.}1595L and later Latin editions}. Bonaventura Castilleonius and Gaudentius Merula, born here, have in our times much praised and depicted this part in their learned writings, and several treatises have been written on it. {1608/1612I only{Last of all there is a description of the river Po by Filippo Pigafetta in an elaborate treatise, a learned work, discussing the foot of mount Vesulo or Viso just mentioned, as it is now called by the farmers there, and its location, as it has now been recognised}1608/1612I only}. Whoever is delighted by tales and fables, let him turn to Aristoteles who, in his book entitled Admiranda has something about the Electrides islands {1606E only{(supposed by the ancients to be in this gulf, but incorrectly, as we have shown before)}1606E only} and about doves {1606E only{or magpies}1606E only}, which eat the seed newly sown}1591G4Add & 1602G end here}. {1595L{Theopompus also speaks about them in the 16th chapter of the 17th book of Ælianus' de Animalibus [about animals]}1595L}.
206.11. Some things might well be said here about LIGVRIA if it were the case that this map contains all of it, but because only a part of it is depicted here (for in former times, as good authors note, it extended its borders beyond Marseilles and the river Rhône {1606E instead{Eridanus or Po)}1606E instead}, we will therefore refrain from saying much about it in this place. I will only write down an ancient inscription, cut in a copperplate found in this province long ago, because it contains many place names of the area of Genua mentioned on this map and nowhere else to be found in any author whatever.
206.12. {1606E only{And because of its antiquity (which I think to be genuine), it is a matter of great admiration, I will describe it in the same manner as it was presented by Ortelius. This is it, as written word for word by Stunica}1606E only}. [Note that the following text has not been translated, as its purpose is not so much to convey content information, as rather to show variability in spelling next to providing numerous place names. It contains a geographical description of the surroundings of Genua, and the buying, selling and demarcating of farmlands. This is the only extensive piece of Latin found in 1608/1612I, although the first paragraph has been translated into Italian].
206.13. Q.M. Minutieis Q.F. Rufeis de controuersieis inter Genuateis & Veiturios in re præsente cognoverunt: & coram inter eos controuorsias composeiuerunt: & qua lege agrum poßiderent, & qua fineis fierent, dixserunt eos fineis facere, terminósque statui iouserunt: vbei ea facta essent, Romam coram venire iouserunt. Romæ coram sententiam ex Senati consulto dixerunt, eidib. Decemb. L. Cæcilio. Q.F.Q. Muucio. Q.F. Cos. Qua ager priuatus Casteli Veituriorunt est, quem agrum eos vendere hæredémq sequi licet: is ager vectigal nei siet. Langatium fineis agri priuati ab rivo infimo qui oritur ab fontei in Mannicelo ad flouium Edem, ibi terminus stat. Inde flouio suso vorsum in flouium Lemurim.
206.14. Inde flouio Lemuri susum vsque ad riuom Comberane. Inde riuo Comberanea susum vsque ad conualem Cæptiemam, ibi termini duo stant circum viam Postumiam. Ex eis terminis recta regione in rivo Veindupale. Ex riuo Vendupale in flouium Neuiascam. Inde dorsum flouio Neuiasca in flouium Procoberam. Inde flouio Procobora deorsum vsque ad riuom Vinelascam infumum: ibei terminus stat. Inde sursum riuo recto Vinelasca: ibei terminus stat propter viam Postumiam. Inde alter trans viam Postumiam terminus stat. Ex eo termino quei stat trans viam Postumiam recta regione in fontem in Manicelum. inde deorsum riuo quei oritur ab fonte in Manicelo ad terminum quei stat ad flouium Edem agri poplici quod Langenses posident: hisce finis videntur esse: ubi confluont Edus & Procobera ibei terminus stat.
206.15. Inde Ede flouio sursuorsum in montem Lemurino infumo: ibei terminus stat. Inde sursum vorsum iugo recto monte Lemurino: ibei terminus stat. Inde susum iugo recto Lemurino: ibei terminus stat in monte Procauo. Inde sursum iugo recto in montem Lemurinum summum, ibi terminus stat. Inde sursum iugo recto in castelum quei vocitatust Alianus, ibei terminus stat. Inde sursum iugo recto in montem Louentionem, ibi terminus stat. Inde sursum iugo recto in montem Apeninum quei vocatur Boplo, ibei terminus stat. Inde Apeninum iugo recto in montem Tuledonem: ibei terminus stat. Inde deorsum iugo recto in flouiom Veraglascam, in montem Berigienam infumo: ibei terminus stat. Inde sursum iugo recto in montem Prenicum: ibi terminus stat. Inde dorsum iugo recto in flouium Tutelascam: ibi terminus stat. Inde sursum iugo recto Blustiemelo in montem Claxelum: ibi terminus stat.
206.16. Inde deorsum in fontem Lebriemelum: ibi terminus stat. Inde recto riuo Eniseca in flouium Porcoberam: ibi terminus stat. Inde deorsum in flouiom Porcoberam vbei conflouont flovi Edus & Procobera, ibei terminus stat. Quem agrum poplicum indicamus esse: eum agrum Castelanos Langenses Veiturios posidere fruique videtur oportere: pro eo agro vectigal Langenses Veituris in poplicum Genuam dent in annos singulos VIC.N.CCCC. Sei Langenes eam pequniam non dabunt neque satisfacient arbitratuu Genuatium, quod per Genuenses mora non fiat quo setius eam pequniam acipiant: tum quod in eo agro natum erit frumenti partem vicensumam, vini partem sextam Langenses in poplicum Genuam dare debento in annos singulos.
206.17. Quei intra eos fineis agrum posedet, Genuas aut Viturius quei eorum posedeit. K. Sextil. L. Caicilio. Q. Muutio. Cos. eos ita posidere colereque liceat, eus quei posidebunt vectigal Langensibus pro portione dent: ita vti ceteri Langenses quei eorum in eo agro agrum posidebunt fruenturque. Præterea in eo agro ni quis posideto, nisi de maiore parte Langensium Veituriorum sententia: dum ne alium intromitat nisi Genuatem aut Veiturium colendi causa.
206.18. Quei eorum de maiore parte Langensium Veiturium sententia ita non parebit: is eum agrum nei habero niue fruimino. Quei ager compascuos erit: in eo agro quo minus pecuascere Genuates Veituriosque. liceat, ita vtei in cetero agro Genuati compascuo ne quis prohibeto: niue quis vim facito: neiue prohibeto quo minus ex eo agro ligna materiamque sumant vtanturque. Vectigal anni primi K. Ianuaris secundis Veturis Langenses in poplicum Genuam dare debento. Quod ante K. Ianuaris primas Langenses fructi sunt eruntque vectigal inuitei dare nei debento. Prata quæ fuerunt proxuma fœnisicei. L. Caicilio. Q. Muuitio Cos. in agro poplico quem Vituries Langenses posident: & quem Odiates & quem Dectunines & quem Cauaturineis, & quem Montouines posident: ea prata inuitis Langensibus, & Odiatibus, & Dectuninebus, & Cauaturines, & Mentonines, quem quisque eorum agrum posidebit inuiteis eis ni quis sicet: niue pascat: nive fruatur.
206.19. Sei Langenses aut Odiates aut Dectunines aut Cauaturines aut Mentonines malent in eo agro alia prata inmitere, defendere, sicare, id vti facere liceat, dum ne ampliorem modum pratorum habeant quàm proxuma æstate habuerunt fructique sunt Vituries. Quei controuersias Genuensium ob iniourias iudicati aut damnati sunt, sei quis in vinculeis ob eas res est: eos omneis soluei mittei leiberique Genuenses videtur oportere ante Eidus Sextilis primas. Si quoi de ea re iniquom videbitur esse, ad nos adeant primo quoque die, & ab omnibus controuersieis & hono. publ. leg. Moco. Meticano Meticoni. F. Plancus Peliani Pelioni. F.
206.20. So far regarding this map from Stunica. For although I know that others [too] have described this inscription, yet because I considered his copy [to be the] best, relying on his diligence and trustworthiness (for he claims that he has written it out without any alteration or adding or subtracting one letter), I have followed him rather than others. He admonishes the reader not to be disturbed by the various spellings of one and the same word, as iouserunt and iuserunt, [or] dixserunt and dixerunt, [or] susum and sursum, and other such examples. Let him [the reader] not think that these are faults slipped over by the negligence of the writers, but to be so variously written in the copy. Augustinus Justitianus (if I may add this as well) for in Manicelo reads Immanicelum, for Vendupale [he reads] Vindupale, for Louentio, Iouentio and for Berigiena, Berigema. Some other variations are also to be observed in certain words, as you may find by Fulvius and Lipsius in Smetius' book.
206.21. Stunica thus understands the abbreviations [above]: VIC.N.CCCC [means] victoriatos nummos quadrigentos {1606E & 1608/1612I only{(four hundred pieces of silver money called Victoriatus, of which one had about the value of our groat)}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. HONO. PVBL. {Latin editions only{LI. LEG.}Latin editions only} MOCO. [means] Oneribus publicis liberi, lege Maconia [For books on public tasks, read Maconia].
206.22. This plate [described above] was found in the year of Christ 1506 by a labourer as he was digging in the ground, in the liberties of Genua, at the foot of the mountain range Apenninus, in the valley [of] Porceuera which they commonly call Sicca, in a village called Izosecco, from where it was carried to S[aint] Laurentius church {1606E only{in Genua}1606E only}, where it can be seen to the present day. It seems to have been written about one hundred years after the beginning of the Punic war}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

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