Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 202

Text, translated from the 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612Spanish/Latin & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] editions:

202.1. {1603L{About the FOUNDATION and ORDER of the GERMAN EMPIRE {1606E only{in the West}1606E only}{not in 1606E{GERMANICI TABVLA II}not in 1606E}.

202.2. OTTO the Fourth {1624LParergon/1641S have instead{Third}1624LParergon/1641S instead} {not in 1624LParergon/1641S{or, as some have written, OTTO the Third}not in 1624LParergon/1641S}, {not in 1603L{about whom we have spoken on the previous map}not in 1603L}, perceiving that Gregory the Fifth, pope of Rome, whom he had shortly before promoted to that dignity, had been expelled from his see and perceiving that Crescentius, a consul or alderman of Rome had been appointed emperor by the Romans, crossed the Alps with a great army, assaulted Italy furiously and forced the Romans, and any [inhabitants from] other cities that had rebelled against him to open their gates and surrender themselves to his mercy.
202.3. Crescentius, hearing that the enemy had been admitted into the city, was exceedingly amazed and therefore went with {not in 160E{Pseudo-}not in 1606E} -Pope Ioannes, the usurper whom he had promoted to that dignity, to Adrian's castle, which he had recently fortified and repaired, as their last refuge and help. But unable to withstand the attacks and violent assaults which the emperors soldiers daily carried out against him, he finally surrendered the castle and himself to Otto, who immediately commanded that Crescentius, the cause of this commotion, be blinded, his nose cut off, and be carried on horseback around the town, with his face to the horses tail.
202.4. When this was done, he [Otto] decided that his hands and feet were to be cut off, and that he was to be hanged on the gallows, where, before he was altogether dead, the soldiers pitifully wounded him and mangled him from head to toe. Moreover, {not in 1606E{Pseudo-}not in 1606E} -Pope Ioannes, the usurper, was removed, [and] Gregorius, restored and supported by Otto's imperial authority, regained the papal throne {1606E only{from which he had been expelled before most degradingly by Crescentius}1606E only}.
202.5. Then Gregorius, to reciprocate the kindness of the emperor and his Germans, and to take sufficient revenge himself on the Romans for the intolerable wrongs that they had done to him, discussed with the emperor a new law [regulating] the election of the emperor to be carried out by the princes of Germany, so that this choice would forever only be in their power, and also that they should always choose one of their company or group, as it were, to that dignity, a custom which continues to be duly kept and observed to this very day.
202.6. By virtue of this choice of theirs, he now is only to be called, as a result of their election, CĈSAR, and KING OF THE ROMANS, but once he had received the imperial crown from the hands of the pope, he was for ever after to bear the title of IMPERATOR AVGVSTVS.
202.7. But before these rulings were published, Otto assembled the princes and states of Germany, demonstrated to them how confused and disorderly the choice and election of the emperor had been conducted, and how many there had been who had tried by all possible means to implement their preference for their friends and kinsfolk to that dignity, something which can only, in the course of time, breed great dissatisfaction and danger to the Christian commonwealth. And that therefore it would be best if some of the princes of Germany would be elected who might have the true power and authority commensurate to this election, and he admonished them that the fewer of those electors there would be, the smaller the chance that contention should arise about their choice.
202.8. Moreover he tried to persuade them that these electors might be appointed and chosen from the peers and officers of the empire, because they of all people knew best what was good for the body and state of that kingdom and empire. Because all present liked the course and counsel proposed by him, the emperor and the pope first nominated [from their group] three ecclesiastical princes, bishops of Germany, who they desired to be lord chief Chancellors of the empire, namely the bishop of Mainz for all matters in Germany, the bishop of Cologne for Italy, [and] the bishop of Trier for France.
202.9. To these they added four secular princes who should assist the emperor in all matters, attend on his person and acknowledge him as their lord and monarch of the world, namely the duke of Saxony, sword-bearer to his majesty, signifying that he is the fountain of justice. [Then] the marquis of Brandenburg, lord great chamberlain, [from] the county Palatine of the Rhine a food taster, and the king of Bohemia, cup-bearer. These were to attend on the emperor and to guard his person. By these [dignitaries] the king of the Romans was chosen, [and] the Cĉsar (or he that was to be the next emperor) was appointed. In their hands [now] resided the whole right, interest and authority of electing that king, so that no one afterwards, as had been usual, could challenge [it] and claim this dignity for himself as due by inheritance from his ancestors.
202.10. Charles the fourth many years later materialised this [election] instrument or act into a bullion or tablet of gold, which is extant to this day, on which he explained every detail more specifically and meaningfully. It is reported that this ordinance was ratified, and instituted in the year of Grace 1001 and caused much discontent among the French, who considered it a horrible measure, and a great indignity forced upon them.
202.11. Yet, next to these there were made at that time, and later in subsequent times, many other ordinances and decrees in the Roman empire, and various other offices were appointed and instituted for the state and majesty of the empire.
202.12. For next to these seven electors there were also appointed four dukes, four marquises, four landgraves, four burggraves, four counts, four barons, four knights in the field, four cities, four villages, and four yeomen or farmers. All these offices we have depicted in their true nature in these two maps, devoted specifically to that purpose. Yet, other subsequent emperors who were not satisfied with these constitutions and ordinances have regularly appointed new dukes and counts, and many that were only counts so far, have been advanced to the title and honour of dukes.
202.13. To these dignities mentioned they have added certain other new officers so that they might as much as possible strengthen the state of the empire, namely those that follow:{1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612S/L in three columns from here on, 1624LParergon/1641S in one column:{Four HIGH MARSHALS, [to wit] Pappenheim, Gülick, Meissen and Uinstingen. Four LORDS OF THE SOIL, Milan, Scala, Padua and Mirandola. Four BOROUGHS of the empire, Aldenburg, Meidenburg, Rothenburg and Mecklenburg. Four KNIGHTS or servants, Waldeck, Hirten or Fulchen, Arnsperg and Rabnaw. [next column; in 1624LParergon/1641S next page:] Four SOLDIERS, Andlaw, Meldingen, Strondeck and Fronberg. Four LORD ABBOTS, Fulden, Campidon, Weissenburg and Murbach. Four HUNTSMEN, Hurn, Vrach, Scomburg and Metsch near Curia. [next column, but not in 1624LParergon/1641S:] Four VILLAGES, Ingelheim, Altdorff, Lichtenau and Deckendorff. Four MOUNTAINS of the empire, Munsterberg, Friedberg, Heidelberg and Nurnberg. Four OFFICES hereditary to the dukedom of Switzerland, The sewer [food taster] of Waldprugh, the cup-bearer of Radach, the marshal of Merkdorff, and the chamberlain of Kemnat}1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612S/L columns end here}.
202.14. Yet many of these dignities have been altered and changed into others, or [have been] wholly abolished or [have become] extinct by the death of those that held them, as can be seen in greater detail in Münster's Cosmography. If anyone desires to know the names of the imperial cities let him turn to the same author, {1606E only{[and] he shall by satisfied to his hearts content}1606E only}.
202.15. Charles the Fourth, emperor of Germany, erected many other constitutions next to these. When the emperor sits in his majesty and chair of estate, then the archbishop of Trier sits opposite to him, the archbishop of Mainz on his right, and the archbishop of Cologne on his left. The king of Bohemia takes his seat on the right side of the archbishop, and next to him the [representative of] the county Palatine of the Rhine seats himself, the duke of Saxony sits at the left side of the archbishop, and next to him [sits] the marquis of Brandenburg.
202.16. But about these offices different authors write differently. Since it is not our intention to devote a long discussion to this matter, we refer the reader for further satisfaction in this to Sebastian Münster just mentioned, and [to] other historiographers of Germany}1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/L/S & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}. [Last paragraph in de Jode's 1593 Speculum:] and we will did not strictly investigate this, but only that which pertains to the institution and order of the empire; and about what has been done towards the election of the emperors has merely been touched upon, and for much that yet you only seem to understand, among other things, we refer you to those writers where you can see and read about these matters as discussed thoroughly and in detail.[de Jode's 1593L text ends here].

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