Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 2

Texts come in 2 versions, translated from the 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1589 German and the 1598 Dutch edition; we first give the 1588S & 1589G translation which are of the scholarly type, and then the vernacular 1587 French & 1598 Dutch translations, which is a rather different text:


2.2. This map now following contains and represents the portrait of the whole world and the main oceans which surround it. This earthly globe was divided by the ancients (who were then not yet acquainted with the New World, discovered not long ago) into three parts, namely Africa, Europe and Asia. But since the discovery of America, the learned of our age have made that the fourth part, and the huge continent under the South Pole the fifth part.
2.3. Gerard Mercator, in his never sufficiently recommended map of the whole world, divides the entire earth into three parts: the first is that which the ancients divided into three parts and upon which the Holy Script bears the records that mankind originated there and lived there first; the second is what now is called America or the West Indies; for the third, he designates a southern continent, which some call Magellanica, as yet with coasts largely unexplored.
2.4. That this mass of the earthly globe measures, where it is largest, 5400 German or 21600 {1589G instead{216000}1589G instead} Italian miles, has been demonstrated in antiquity, and recent writers have supported these ancient opinions. And these so manifold regions of the world (says Plinius in the second book of his Natural History) or rather, as some have called them, the essence or centre of the world, (for so small is the earth in comparison to the whole framework of the world), this is the mother of our glory. Here we enjoy honours, here we exercise authority, here we hunt after riches, here men live in turmoil and tire themselves, here we move about and maintain civil war, and make more room on earth by mutual slaughter.
2.5. And to bring about the public outcries in the world, this is where we force our neighbours to make place for us and thus remove them, and where we encroach by stealth upon our neighbours' land. Like he extends his lands and lordships farthest, and cannot tolerate than anyone should settle nearby. How great, or rather how small a portion of earth does that person enjoy? Or when through his avarice he has stuffed his body to the full, how shall his dead carcass maintain possession of it all, {1589G only{having to be content with a piece of land seven feet long}1589G only}? So much from Plinius.
2.6. The situation of this earth and seas, the disposition of its various regions, with their inlets and gulfs, the manners and inclinations of its people, and other memorable and noteworthy matters are described by men of former times, such as the following [in two columns]:

2.7. Ptolemæus of Alexandria,
2.8. C. Plinius, the second in his books 3,4,5 and 6 of his Natural History,
2.9. Aristoteles, De Mundo [about the world], dedicated to Alexander the Great.
2.10. Strabo in 17 books,
2.11. Solinus Polyhistor,
2.12. Pomponius Mela,
2.13. Dionysius Apher and his commentator,
2.14. Eusthatius,
2.15. Apuleius in his booklet about the world,
2.16. Diodorus Siculus in his first five books of the library,
2.17. Martianus Capella,
2.18. Paulus Orosius in the beginning of his history,
2.19. Berosus who described the antiquities of the world,
2.20. Antonius Augustus (if indeed he was august) in his travels.
2.21. Stephanus described the cities,
2.22. Vibius Sequester, alphabetically, the rivers, springs, lakes, woods, hills and nations on it.

2.23. Descriptions by modern writers such as:

2.24. Raphael Volaterranus.
2.25. Abilfeda Ismæl in the Arab language.
2.26. Iohannes Honterus.
2.27. Bartholinus in his eighth book, by him called about Austria.
2.28. Sebastianus Munsterus.
2.29. Antoninus, the Archbishop of Florence, in his History, first title, third chapter.
2.30. Dominicus Niger.
2.31. Ioannes Aventinus in his Bavarian History {1588S only{Book 2.}1588S only}.
2.32. Iohannes Camers in his Comments on Solinus.
2.33. Georgius Rythaimerus.
2.34. Ioachimus Vadianus.
2.35. Petrus Iohannes Olivarius, upon Mela.
2.36. Laurentius Corvinus Novof.
2.37. Antonius Veronensis.
2.38. Gualterus Ludovicus in his Mirror of the World.
2.39. Isidorus Hispalensis.
[next column in 1588S]
2.40. Michael Villanovanus in his comments on Ptolemæus.
2.41. Zacharias Lilius Vicent {not in 1588S{about the world}not in 1588S}.
[second column in 1589G starts here]
2.42. Hieronymus Girava in the Spanish language.
2.43. Alexander Citolinus, in his Typocosmia written in the Italian language.
2.44. Vicentius Gallus in the second book of the Mirror of Histories.
2.45. Guilielmus Postellus.
2.46. Iohannes Mandevilius and his companions.
2.47. Odericus of Friuli.
2.48. Gaudentius Merula in his 5th book of Memorabilium, that is those things that are noteworthy.
2.49. Franciscus Monachi, in his epistle to the Archbishop of Panormitan [Palermo].
2.50. Andreas Thevetus, but in French. {1588S only{Francisco Belforest and Pedro Heynsio, in French, but the third in Flemish verse; Laurentio Ananiense, in Italian}1588S only}.
2.51. Antonius Pinetus, has in French published a description of many countries (this is also the title) of large and small cities of Europe, Asia, Africa and the New World.
2.52. Iulius Ballinus has published drafts of the most famous cities of the whole world, with a brief historical discourse, written in the Italian language. The same is done by
2.53. Georgius Bruno in Latin, but much more beautifully and diligently,
2.54. Benedictus Bordonius has described all the Islands of the World. So also has
2.55. Thomas Porcaccius, both in Italian.
2.56. Wolfgang Lazius, and
2.57. Iohannes Gorop.[ius] Becanus, the origin and shifting of the nations of the world.
2.58. Petrus Apianus, and
2.59. Bartholomæus Amantius has gathered ancient descriptions.
2.60. Iohannes Bohemus, and Alexander Sardus have written about the manners, rites and customs of all nations and their people, The same has been done by
2.61. Franciscus Belleforestius in the French language}1588S & 1589G end here}.

The vernacular texts of the 1587 French and 1598/1613 Dutch edition for this map are different from the one given above, and will be given below; it resembles the 1571D text:

2.62. {1587F{The World.

2.63. This map shows the entire earth and the seas surrounding and traversing it. Nowadays, it is divided into five parts, called Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Magellana. About the last part very little is known, as ships have hardly explored it as yet. Europe is the name of the part which for a long time has been the seat of Christianity. It is surrounded by the sea except for the part adjacent to Asia, where the river Tanais [Don] constitutes the border, and further the (imaginary) line connecting the source of this river with the Northern sea near the harbour of St. Niclæs, which the English nowadays reach by ship for trade.
2.64. Asia is also surrounded by the sea except where it joins Europe, as just mentioned, and Asia is also with a small piece of land connected to Africa, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, between the land of the Jews and Egypt. Africa would also be an island, if it were not connected to Asia by the narrow piece of land just mentioned.
2.65. About America it is as yet unknown whether it is on all sides surrounded by the sea or whether it is connected to Asia (although we present it as an island, thus following the best geographer of our time, Gerard Mercator). Then we have the fifth part, located down under at the South Pole which we call Magellana, about which we cannot say very much, since we have only been informed about two or three places there, located at the Magellan straights, called Terra del Fuego [Land of Fire] and concerning New Guinea (which is supposed to be a part of it as well) etc.
2.66. And because every part of the world will have its own map as well in this book, and will be discussed at some length, we will therefore refrain from discussing those here, and restrict ourselves to the seas, since together with the land they constitute the entire globe. Before us (as we think) nobody has planned and endeavoured to do this.
2.67. The first thing one has to know is that the sea, just like the land, also has various different names which it derives from the lands to which it is close or adjacent. Thus, one speaks of the Spanish, Indian, or Venetian sea, etc, or alternatively named after its orientation as Northern, or Eastern sea. The sea located between Europe, Africa and Asia is called the Midland or Mediterranean sea, because it finds itself between those three parts of the world.
2.68. Seas are sometimes after their colour. For instance, the Red Sea near Arabia. However, it does not have a red colour, but is called like that after its red sands, as described by John Barros in his book on Asia, based on his meticulous observations and judgment. There is another sea near New Spain in America called by the Spanish Mar Vermejo (meaning Red Sea), because it is similar to the other Red Sea, (as asserted by Hieronymus Girava). The sea north of Constantinople which the Italians call Mar Magiore is by the Turks called the Black Sea.
2.69. It is also sometimes called after some event that took place there. Like happens with the sea between Spain and the Canary islands located more Westwards, because through drowning and storms, so many horses and other animals have perished and drowned here (which were brought there when these islands were discovered, useful for breeding, for these islands were totally devoid of these animals), called Golfo de las yeguas, that is Horses Sea, etc.
2.70. Ebb and tide in the seas is not the same everywhere. In our regions high tide occurs at full moon, but in India (as Vartoman says), at the waning of the moon. In our regions the water reaches a marvellous height, as also in the North Sea, and similarly at Cambaia in India and in Africa around Rio Grande. We see the same thing in the Great Sea between America and the Moluccas and New Guinea, a sea called del Zur. But the situation is quite different in the Mediterranean sea or the big sea between Europe and Africa on the one hand, and America on the other (excepting the Rio Grande as mentioned), called Mar del Nort by the Spanish.
2.71. Also, at the Isle of St. Thomas the water rises so moderately that it can hardly be noticed. And what is most remarkable, the sea near Cabo Rosso in Africa rises for four hours, but falls for eight hours. Also, the sea always runs in the same direction along the North coasts of America, and along the Isle of Hispagnola it always runs Westwards, as is also the case in the sea we called Mar Magiore before, and again as happens in the Archipelago and in the Eastern {1598D{or Finnish}1598D} sea, although the water does not run so fast there.
2.72. Some are of the opinion that beneath the Polar Star the waters go down as if they rush into an abyss and disappear, and never surface again. In some places the sea water tastes sweet, as often happens at shores where large rivers empty themselves with a strong current into that sea, but this is also true for the entire sea in the North, Plinius called it Scyticum, if we may believe him.
2.73. There is also variation in depth, because the Mediterranean sea is deeper than the Ocean surrounding the entire world, and deepest around the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. The Red Sea is so shallow that it cannot be sailed at night. The Oceans del Nort and del Zur mentioned before are in some places for hundreds of miles covered so densely with a green weed that it seems that ships there do not seem to cross through water but rather through luxurious meadows.
2.74. The sea is also, (like the land), at some places more fertile than at others. For it happens, (as some report who cross the sea between Spain and the new countries of America), that sailing at certain places for hundreds of miles, not a single fish is caught, whereas passing along other places, so much fish can be found that the sea seems to bulge with them.
2.75. Mister Wind, called Æolus, also displays a strange behaviour at sea. In our sea, he is so unpredictable that one can hardly count on him. Elsewhere, he is so reliable that you hardly need to rise from your chair, as for instance in the Indian sea where, when one travels from Calicut to the Moluccas, the wind will continue to blow from June to October Eastwards, and the next six months always Westwards. In Brazil at the Rio de Plata it tends to blow Eastwards all year long.
2.76. Nature seems to enjoy itself in the watery element to make counterparts of almost all the animals which you see on land, as we also find in it quadrupeds like elephants, pigs, tortoises, dogs, calves, horses etc. Similarly for birds we find the sea-falcon, volador (or sea swallow), etc. And additionally you find all kinds of mussels etc. And that you would also find some creature resembling a human being, the sea also produces sea knights and mermaids, although by some considered as imaginary or as fables, yet by many ancients and modern authors, at various times and places, these are considered to be real, existing creatures. And whoever wants to see one, can go to the village of Swartewael near den Briel in Holland, and there can behold one, hanging in the church, in dried form.
2.77. Next various herbs and plants, such as coral, pearls, amber, aghats, sponges and many other things which may serve mankind for pleasure and necessity, so that it seems that humanity is truly not forgotten anywhere. But if we should want to describe all the strange things and peculiarities brought forth by seas, lakes, rivers, fountains and other waters, we would need a separate book for that, whereas we only shortly wanted to mention them here}1587F & 1598/1613D end here}.

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