Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 198

Text, very similar to that of Ort197, translated from the 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612Latin/Spanish & 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin] editions:

198.1. {1595L{BELGIVM{1602G & 1606E have instead:{THE LOW COUNTRIES}1602G & 1606E instead}

198.2. The word Belgium which Cæsar uses frequently {not in 1606E{in his French Wars}not in 1606E} has for a long time and often troubled readers {1602G instead{scholars}1602G instead}. For some of them think that Cæsar referred to a city, which some (including Guiccardini and Marlianus) interpret to be BEAUVOIS in France, others BAVAYS in Henault. To the latter group belong B. Vigenereus and our own fatherlands chronicles. The learned Goropius thinks that the Bellovaci, a people of this area were meant by it. There are some who think that Cæsar used Belgium for Belgica, as Livius uses Samnium for the country of the Samnites. {not in 1602G{This was the opinion of Glareanus. Ioannes Rhellicanus says that it contained part of Gallica Belgica, but which part that should be, he does not say.
198.3. H. Leodius claims it to be that part which is now near Henault, where the [city of] BAVAYS just mentioned is now situated}not in 1602G}. But leaving these opinions for what they are, let us hear what Cæsar himself has to say about this Belgium of his. In his fifth book, where he speaks of the distribution of the legions in Belgica, he uses these words: Of whom he committed one to Quintus Fabius, the legate, to be led against the Morini, another to Quintus Cicero against the Nervij. the third to L. Roscius against the Essui. The fourth he commanded to hibernate, with Titus Labienus {not in 1602G{in Rheims}not in 1602G}, in the confines of Triers. Three he placed in Belgium. Above these he set as commanders Marcus Crassus the treasurer, and Lucius Munatius Plancus and Caius Trebonius the legates.
198.4. One legion which he had taken up just beyond the Po with five cohorts, he sent against the Eburones. And a little earlier in the same book, where he speaks of Britannia, you shall find these words: The sea coast (of Britain he means) is inhabited by those who for plundering and war went from Belgium to it, all of them mostly called by the names of those cities where they were bred and born. Here it appears very clearly for the first time that Cæsar under the name Belgium takes not just one city, but many. Also, that he does not refer to all of Belgica {1606E only{Gallica}1606E only}, seeing that he mentions the Morini, Nervij, Essui, Rhemi and Eburones, all of which nations he himself, as well as other good writers, attribute to Gallia Belgica. Therefore it is as clear as daylight that Belgium is a part of Belgica, but which part it should be is not so clear.
198.5. That it is not in the area of Bavacum (BAVAIS) in Henault, as Leodius claims, is manifest because that [city] is situated among the Nervij which Cæsar himself excludes from Belgium. Neither can I be persuaded that it was near the Bellovaci, but rather that it was a part of Belgica, which is closer to the sea and which lies further up to the North, namely, where the three great rivers Rhine, Maas and Schelde meet and fall into the main ocean. These afford an easy passage and where they fall into the sea, it is only a short journey to Britain. Moreover, it is most likely that they should take the sea route with which they were familiar and acquainted, and they lived on the shores and banks of these rivers, in contrast to those who dwelt higher up into the country, to whom the sea was more threatening and terrible. They therefore who went from Belgium to Britain {1608/1612I only{or England}1608/1612I only} only exchanged one coast for the other.
198.6. About the origin and reason for the words Belgium and Belgica the opinions of various writers differ. There are some who derive it from BELGEN or WELGEN, a word of our own [language] which means stranger. Another man of great learning and judgment fetches it from BELGEN or BALGEN, signifying to be angry, to fight. Our Belgian chronicles claim it to be named as it is after Belgis, the chief city of this province. Neither do they agree in the location and place of it. For one of them places it at Bavais, a town in Henault, another at WELTSICK, a village near Oudenaarde. They who think the name comes from the city of Belgis (which is not found elsewhere in the writings of any good author, either a geographer or a historian) refer to Isidorus in the 4th chapter of the 13th {1624LParergon/1641S have instead{14th}1624LParergon/1641S instead} book of his Origines as their example, {not in 1602G{where he writes like this: Belgis is a Gaul city from which the province of Belgica took its name}not in 1602G}.
198.7. {not in 1608/1612I{The same is found in earlier in Hesychius' {1606E only{the Greek [who came] before him, in his Lexicon}1606E only} {not in 1602G{[in Greek lettering]: Belgaios apo poleoos Belgas}not in 1608/1612I}, {1606E only{that is, Belgy was so named after the city of Belges}1606E only}, as Honorius also says in his image of the world}not in 1602G}. Justinus in his 24th book cites {not in 1602G{from Trogus Pompeius}not in 1602G} one Belgius {not in 1602G{(Pausanias calls him Bolgius)}not in 1602G}, a captain of the Gauls, from whom it is likely that they took the name {not in 1602G{if you believe Berosus, or rather Pseudoberosus. For he writes: Beligicos (sive Belgicos) appellari a Beligio (aut Belgio) Celtarum rege {1606E & 1608/1612I only{[that is] The Beligici or Belgici were so named after Beligius (or Belgius), a king of the Celtes}1606E & 1608/1612I only}. About the region of Belgis we have written in our geographical Treasury. Well, let us leave this to the censure of the learned, and proceed to certain testimonies of ancient writers which we think will be pleasant}not in 1602G} {1606E only{and profitable to the student of chorography}1606E only}.
198.8. Cæsar in his first book of the wars in France speaks like this. All of GALLIA is divided into three parts, of which the Belgæ inhabit one, the Aquitani another. The third [is inhabited] by those who in their own language are called Celtæ, but in Latin Galli. {1606E only{Again, a few lines later:}1606E only} Of all these, the Belgæ are the most stout and hardy because they are further away from the quaint behaviour and manners [typical] of this province, and because they have no traffic with merchants or others who bring in those things which effeminate men's minds, and also because they are neighbours to the Germans who dwell beyond the Rhein, with whom they wage war continually.
198.9. {1606E only{The same [author] on the same page thus describes the location of their country}1606E only}. {not in 1602G{The Belgæ dwell in the outskirts of Gallia. They belong to that lower part which is within the river Rhine. They are on the North and East sides of it}not in 1602G}. The same author in his second book has these words: Cæsar found that many of the Belgæ came from the Germans, having long ago traversed the Rhine and having settled themselves there because of the great fertility of the area, and that they had driven out the Gauls, who formerly had dwelled there. And that these were the only men who in the days of our fathers, all Gallia being sorely troubled, had prevented the Teutones and Cimbres from entering within the bounds of their territories, after which it came to pass that the memory and record of these famous deeds have made them proud and conceited because of their great power and skill in martial affairs, {1601L, not in 1602G{[as mentioned in] Suetonius in Tib. 9. In the German war, he sent over 40,000 volunteers into Gallia}1601L}.
198.10. In the 8th book of Cæsar's Commentaries {not in 1606E{by Hirtius}not in 1606E} [we find] The Belgæ, whose courage was great}not in 1602G}.
Strabo, in the 4th book {1606E only{of his Geography}1606E only} says The Belgæ wear cassocks or cloaks, their hair [is] long and they wear side breeches. Instead of coats or jerkins they use a kind of sleeved garments, hanging down to their waist or as low as their buttocks. Their wool is very coarse and rough, yet has been cut close to the skin. Of that they weave their coarse, thick cassocks which they call lænæ, rugs or mantles.
198.11. Their weapons according to their size are long swords, hanging by their right side, a long shield, lances to measure, and a javelin (meris or materis, as some read it), a kind of short pike with a barbed head. Some use bows and slings, others have a wooden staff like a dart which they do not cast with a loop or thong {1606E only{(as our Irish [soldiers] do)}1606E only} but with the hand only, and further than one can shoot an arrow. They use this especially in {1606E only{hunting and}1606E only} fowling.
198.12. They are all used to lying on the ground, even to this day. They dine and take supper sitting in their beds. Their food generally consists of milk and all kinds of meat, especially pork, both fresh and salted. Their hogs lie out in the field night and day. In size, strength and swiftness of feet they surpass those of other countries, and if a man is not used to them, they are as dangerous to encounter as a hungry wolf.
198.13. They build their houses of boards, planks and rafters, covered by a large roof. They have so many and excellent herds of cattle and hogs that they do not only provide Rome with those {1606E only{cassocks just mentioned, but also with}1606E only} dried beef and bacon, but also many other places in Italy. Most of their cities and regions are governed by the nobility and gentry. In former times the common people yearly used to choose one prince, and one general captain for the army. They are now mostly subject to the command of the Romans.
198.14. They have a kind of custom in their councils which is specific and peculiar to themselves [only]. If any man interrupts or troubles another, the sergeant will come to him with a bare knife in his hand and commands him to keep quiet. This may be repeated a second or third time. If [the offender] will still not be quiet, so much of his cassock will be cut off that the remainder is no longer of any use.
198.15. They have in common with many other barbarous nations that the services of men and women are requested in a way which is quite different from the customs and manners we use here. {1606E only{The same [author] in another place:}1606E only} {not in 1602G{The nearer the Gauls are to the North and to the sea, the more brave and valiant they are. The Belgæ are particularly to be recommended, divided as they are into 15 nations (in Cæsar I find 31 mentioned), so that the Belgæ alone sustained the assault of the Germans, Cimbers and Teutones. What an infinite number of men they were able to put together may here be understood because they enlisted a long time ago as many as 300,000 Belgæ, only [consisting of] able men, fit for war, (this number is increased by another 27,000 {1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S have instead 47,000}1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612S/L & 1624LParergon/1641S instead} by Cæsar in the beginning of his second book of the wars of France).
198.16. There are some who divide the Gauls into three nations, namely the Aquitani, Belgæ and Celtæ. The Belgæ possess the places near the sea, even as low as the mouth of the Rhine}not in 1602G}. Diodorus Siculus in his 5th {1606E has instead{6th}1606E} book [says] A nation mostly inhabiting those places towards the North. It is a cold country so that in winter time instead of water it is all covered with deep snow. The ice also, in this country, is so heavy and thick and their rivers are frozen so thoroughly that they may be walked on, not only by a few in company of each other, but even by whole armies with horses, carts and carriages.
198.17. Plutarchus in his Life of Cæsar [says] But after that news reached us that the Belgæ, the most mighty and war-like nation of the Gauls, who possessed the third part of all Gallia had gathered many thousands of armed men, he attacked them with all possible speed &c. Appianus in his history of France [says] Cæsar, quickly directing his army against the Belgæ at a narrowing of the river slew so many of them that the heaps of dead bodies served as a bridge. {not in 1602G{Ammianus in the 15th book of his history [says] Of all the Gauls the ancients considered the Belgæ to be the most valiant and stout, because they were far from those who lived more court-like and comfortable. Neither were they corrupted or effeminated with foreign delicacies and foolish pleasures, but they were fully exercised in wars and fights against those Germans who dwelt beyond the Rhine.
198.18. Dion in his 55th book [says] The Batavi are excellent horsemen. Again, in his 39th {1608/1612I has instead{35th}1608/1612I instead} book: The Morini and Menapij do not live in towns and cities, but in cottages and mountains covered with very thick woods. {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{He means Arduenna, that huge forest which was then more extended than it is now}1601L, not in 1608/1612I}. Florus in his 3rd book [says] The next was a far more cruel battle, for then they fought for their liberty}not in 1602G}
198.19. Plinius in the 20th {1606E & 1624LParergon/1641S have instead{22nd}1606E & 1624LParergon/1641S instead} chapter of his 35th {1606E has instead{26th}1606E}{1624LParergon/1641S has instead{36th}1624LParergon/1641S instead} book [says In the province of Belgica they cut a kind of white stone with a saw (as they do more easily for wood) to make slates and tiles as coverings for their houses, {1606E only{not only flat and plain, but also hollow and crooked}1606E only}, to serve as roof tiles and gutter tiles, and when they like, as those kinds of coverings which they call pavonacea like a peacock's tail, in such a manner as they may be cut or sawed. Again, in the 36th {1608/1612I has instead{26th}1608/1612I instead} chapter of his 16th book: The Belgæ stamp the tufts or beards of this kind of reed and put them between the joints and planks of ships to seal them {1606E only{as thoroughly as with pitch and tar}1606E only}.
198.20. The same [author] in the 22nd chapter of his 10th book writes that from the country of the Morini there came geese on their feet as far as Rome. In the first chapter of his twelfth book he says that The plane tree has come now as far as the Morini, into a tributary soil, so that these nations may pay customs even for their shade. In the 25th chapter of the 15th book: In Belgia and on the banks of the Rhine the Portugal cherries are most esteemed. In the 14th chapter of the same book, where he speaks of various kinds of apples: which, since they have no kernels, are called by the Belgæ spadonia poma, {1606E only{spade apples}1606E only}.
198.21. In the 5th chapter of his 19th book: Gelduba is the name of the castle built upon the Rhine, where the best skirrets or white parsnips grow. In the 6th {1606E & 1624LParergon/1641S have instead{8th}1606E & 1624LParergon/1641S instead} chapter of his 17th book: Of all foreign nations the Ubij whose soil is very fertile, dig up any sort of earth, when they plough their ground, so that it is at least three feet deep. And spreading over it a sandy kind of earth one foot thick, they improve their soil as others do with dung and fertiliser.
198.22. Marcus Varro in the 9th chapter of his first book of Husbandry [says]: In Gallia beyond the Alps, up higher into the country around the Rhine I came to certain regions where neither vines, olives, nor apples would grow, and where they marked their grounds with a kind of white chalk dug from the earth. {1601L, not in 1606E{Plinius calls these borders marga. Ausonius [in Mosella § 362] says about the river Gelbe, which empties into the Mosella: Rolling the grindstones devoted to Ceres, in strident turnings and whistling saws moving through soft marble. Silius Italicus in book 10: As when a Belgian dog chases hidden boars, he searches cunningly by nose the meandering tracks of the wild beasts in hidden, untrodden areas}not in 1606E}.
Vergilius in the first book [in fact book 3, § 204] of his Georgics [says] or he will with an obedient neck pull the Belgian chariots. Lucanus in his first book [§ 426] [says] The Belga, a docile driver of the scythe chariot}not in 1602G; 1595L ends here}. {1602G only{In Rome at Gentile Delphinio one finds part of a pillar of Licinius Sura on which these peoples and their lands are mentioned. The same applies to Graitz in Stiria and in Naples}1602G only, which ends here}. {1601L{Martialis in his Xenia: Allow me to receive a Cantarenian ham, or one, if possible, from the Menapi, and let the sumptuous devour ham which is fresh}1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612/L/S, 1619Bertius & 1624LParergon/1641S end here}.{1608/1612I, partly as previous, partly new{Mãcie, who speaks poetically about the hams of the pig, still remembers those of the land of the Menapi in the sense that these are for me the shoulders of the pigs of Cereti, or those of the Menapi (people from Clivia & of Westfalen) the tasty hams of the bones, which nowadays in Italy are also called the hams of Cereto, and in Germany and France those of the Menapi, also called the hams of Maienco, that is, those of Mainz}1608/1612I only which ends here}.

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