Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 184

Text, surrounding the map in seven columns:

Geographical place names [in the East] as they occur in the Holy Script, Martyrologies and other Histories, alphabetically ordered.


Adiabene, [or] Sarca, an Assyrian region beyond the river Tigris, held by the Persian Empire.
Ægyptus, [or] Egitto, by its inhabitants called Sahid, a noble and well known part of Africa.
Albana, [or] Bachu, at the Caspian Sea, a metropolis of Albania where the apostle D. Bartholomæus is supposed to have died.
Alexandria (truly outstanding), archfather of Ægypt, not far from the mouth of the Nile on the West coast. You can see on the map what remains of it, if you like.
Amasia, [or] Amasie, a worthy region in Asia Minor, now the seat of the ruling Turks.
Antiochia, large and outstanding, [or] Turkish Cachia, now belonging to Syria, once very large, situated at the river Aleppum, once called Hierapolis & Tripolis.


Babylon, [or] Bagdet, once the largest city of Assyria, at the other side of the river Euphrat, covered by 30.000 ruins, joined to new Bagdet.
Beritus, [or] Baruti, a sea port of Syria or Phoenicia, between Biblum and Sidon.


Cæsaria, of great importance, in Palestine called Chaizar, once very famous, located at the Mediterranean sea, now the abode of pirates.
Cæsarea Cappadociæ, [or] Mazaca, or Casaria, once the seat of St. Basilius. You will find another Cæsarea on the map.
Calamina, [or] Malipur, on the coast of this side of India, glorious for the statue of St. Thomas, erected by the Portuguese.
Constantinople, by the Turks called Stamboli, once called Byzantium, a famous city in the Turkish region.
Cyzicus, [or] Chyzico & Spiga, in ancient Asia between the Hellespont and Propontis.


Diospolis, in Ægypt, once the main city of Thebe and the Thebeans.


Ecbatana, [or] Tauris, in Media, once a Persian region beyond the Caspian sea.
Emesa, [or] Ems, a Syrian Episcopate between Hierapolis and Damascus.


Fama Augusta, [or] Famagusta, on the East coast of Cyprus near the city of Salamina.


Gangra, [or] Cangri, once the head of the episcopate of Asia Minor, now as it were a village.


Heliopolis, [or] Balbec, in Syria, between Laodicea and Damascus.
Hus, in the Arab region.


Iberi, [or] Giorgiani, people between and beyond the Black sea and the Caspian sea.
Iconium, [or] Cogni, in Asia. Capital of Lycaonia, now frequented and inhabited by Christians.
Isauria, a region of Asia Minor, where you find the Isaura, Lystra, Derbe and other cities.


Laura, [or] St. Saba, a place in Palestine renowned for its monks, not far from the Dead Sea.


Mesopotamia, [or] Diarbech, a region in Asia intersected by the rivers Euphrat and Tigris.


Nazianzum, an Episcopate in Asia Minor between Seleucia Pisidiæ and Cæsaria Cappadociæ, made famous by the theologist St. Gregorius.
Neocæsarea, [or] Tocato, in Cappadocia bewteen the metropolis of Amasia and Nicopolis in Armenia.
Nicæa, [or] Isnich, an Archepiscopate of Asia not far from Constantinople, where two famous councils were held.
Nicomedia, [or] Comidia in Asia, not far from Propontis, once famous because of extraordinary suffering by martyrs. Now there are only woods and ruins.
Nytria, a place in Egypt near lake Moeridis, 40 miles South of Alexandria, where there are still monks.


Paphos, [or] Baffo, once very famous, on the West coast of Cyprus.
Paros, [or] Pario, an important island in the Southern Ægean sea, from which Parium marble comes.
Patara, [or] Patera, on the coast of Lycia , home land of St. Nicolas.
Pelusium in Egypt, at the mouth of the Nile. This is thought to be Damiata but Pelusium was close to Damiata.
Phoenicia, a coastal region of Syria. Its cities are Tyrus, Sidon, Tripolis, &c. and it extends at the Mediterranean until Cæsarea of Philippus.
Ptolemais, also Acon, at the coast of Palestine, now Acri & Acone.


Samosata, an Archepiscopate, which once existed in Syria on the banks of the Euphrat, not far from Edessa.
Scætis, a single Mount in Egypt, not far from Alexandria.


Tomi, at the Southern outlet of the Black Sea.
Typus, [or] Sur in Asia, once adjacent to Carthago, now it covers both.

Text on verso, translated from the 1624 Latin Parergon/1641 Spanish edition [but text in Latin]:

184.1. {1624LParergon/1641S{Enlightenment on the Holy Histories in the East.

184.2. To illustrate holy matters, which is the purpose of this map, requires that we determine the royal city of Constantinople and the Aegæan sea as the point where the East begins. It is in the city of Constantinople that the following important and universal councils were held: after the council of Jerusalem (about which see the Acts [of the Apostles] 15), the first Nicean council was held in the Bithnyan city of Nicæa in the year of our Lord 325, assembled on the advice of priests, as Ruffinus tells, by emperor Constantinus. The same emperor presided magnanimously over the public quarrels of the bishops, ensuring by his presence that they would not display disorderly conduct.
184.3. Three hundred and eighteen church fathers were present there, as eye witness Athanasias tells us. [During this council] Arrianus was condemned for his teachings in which he advocated that the son of God is not eternal as is his Father, and composed of the same matter. It was also proclaimed there that Eastern must be celebrated on the fourteenth moon after the first day of the month but not on the fourteenth moon itself, which many had been accustomed to observe together with the Jews. Other matters were also proclaimed in a satisfactory manner.
184.4. After this the [second] council was held in the city of Constantinople in the year 381, assembled by emperor Theodosius the Elder, on the authority of pope Damiasus. One hundred and fifty church fathers acted there against Macedonius, a heretic bishop of Constantinople who had been attacking the divinity of the Holy Spirit.
184.5. The third council was the Ephesian one, where 200 bishops took action against Nestorius who taught that Maria, the mother of Christ was not to be called equal to God since this implied that Christ lived in two bodies. This council was held in the year of our Lord 431 at the time of pope Cælestinus and Theodosius the Younger.
184.6. The fourth council was held at Chalcedon, with 630 bishops. Under the chair of envoys of pope Leo, assisted by emperor Marcianus, there was a condemnation of Eutyches and Dioscorus who, in fighting the views of Nestorius, resorted to the opposite extreme by preaching that Christ, being one single person, was also of one single nature.
184.7. These were the first four and also the most important universal councils. After this there followed two more Constantinople councils, numbered II and III, and after that, in the year of our Lord 787, the second Nicæan council was held with 350 bishops who opposed the iconoclasts and others; but we are commenting on a map, so let us not write a book here.
184.8. Now hear briefly about the patriarchates and archbishoprics of the East: the dioceses from early times on were divided among themselves into the Constantinople patriarchs, the Antiochian ones and the ones from Jerusalem. To the Constantinople patriarchs, the council attributed three dioceses, namely of Asia, of the Pontick and of Chalcedonian Thracia. But after that the same patriarch[s] gained more in Macedonia, Greece and the adjacent regions in such a manner that 81 Metropolites and additionally 38 archbishops became subject to the Constantinople one.
184.9. On the basis of the declaration of the first Synod of Nicæa, the Alexandrian patriarch has jurisdiction over Ægypt, Libia and Pentapolis. Afterwards, more provinces have been added to Ægypt, so that it had ten Metropolitans there by the time of the council of Chalcedon.
Under the Antiochian [patriarch], (who also wants to be called the patriarch of the East) resort thirteen Metropolites, and under them more than 125 bishops, and next to these 19 other Metropolites and 12 archbishops whom they call Autocephales, or independent ones.
184.10. The patriarch of Jerusalem has only four Metropolites under his rule, who in their turn rule over 72 bishops. This is how it used to be. For now, what remains of the significance of Christianity in the East, is summed up by our highly learned Miræus in his Description of his bishopric, chapter 17, and further on he says: The Armenian region is subject to two prominent patriarchs, of which one is of greater Armenia, seated in the monastery of Ecmeazin near the city of Erva in Persia. The other [patriarch] is from lesser Armenia, seated in the city of Sis in Cilicia, nowadays called Caramannia, belonging to the realm of the Turks.
184.11. Next to this, other priors can be found in Armenia, placed there with the approval of the Turks. There are even tax collectors who force Armenian families to pay to the Turks. The families who resort under the patriarch of greater Armenia are more than 150,000 in number, and further there are various monasteries and even bishops in the cities of Betlis, Caramit, Angyr and others. The patriarch of lesser Armenia is obeyed by 24 prelates, bishops or archbishops and by some 20,000 families who live in the cities and fortifications of Syria and Cilicia as also by many communities of monks, priests, clergy and deacons. The patriarch of this land, Azarias, has embraced a confession of faith presented to him by bishop Leonardus of Sidon, envoy of pope Gregorius XIII who came to this region in 1583, and in return he sent letters signed by him to the same pope.
184.12. This patriarch lives on gifts and alms. He used to obtain from every Maidinian household (of which a third is royal or Julian) a yearly stipend, but this income has been taken from him by the Turks. Among the Armenians there is also a Franc-Armenian group that lives according to Latin-Catholic rites under an archbishop in the province of Necuevan and in Persia itself. They embraced obedience to the church of Rome long ago thanks to the [efforts of] the holy Bartholomæus, a Latin bishop of the order of the Holy Dominicus.
184.13. But the Maronites on mount Lebanon have their own patriarch, who received the same Leonardus, envoy of Gregorius XIII, equally humbly. And of all Christian lands in the Orient it is only the land of the Maronitans on mount Lebanon and the Armenians from the province of Necevan in Persia as also the Chaldean Assyrians from the cities of Caramit and Seert and the surrounding area who have truly and correctly embraced the teachings of the holy Catholic church. The other regions have their heretics.
184.14. The Jacobites and many Armenians say that there is only one kind of nature to be found in Christ, and they do not subscribe to the council of Chalcedon. The Nestorians on the other hand divide the person of Christ, and they reject the council of Ephese. The Greeks have their faults too about the progress of the Holy Spirit, and other faults which have been condemned at the Florentine council. There are also Kopt Christians in Ægypt, but these are circumcised. Their patriarch Gabriel obtained the title of patriarch of Alexandria in 1595. He sent envoys to [pope] Clemens VIII in Rome. Their pledge of faith has been recorded by Baronius, Book 6. The same Clemens VIII founded a university to educate Ægyptians and Kopts in Rome}1624LParergon/1641S end here}.

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