Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 174

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612//1641 Spanish edition:

174.1. {1570L(A){NATOLIA, formerly called ASIA The Lesser.

174.2. Petrus Bellonius in those learned observations about his travels {1606E only{which he performed and published}1606E only} says that this part of Asia (by the ancients called Asia minor, Little Asia) is at this day by the Turks called NATOLIA, or Anatolia after the Greek word [in Greek lettering:] Anatolia {1580/1589G, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L have instead{Anagolia}1580/1589G, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L instead} which means the East, under which name they comprise all that part of Asia that is beyond the Propontis {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{called sea of Saint Georgio}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}{1606E only{(Mar di Marmora it is now commonly called)}1606E only} and the Hellespontus, {not in 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{which the Ottomans call Prosapia}not in 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I, & 1608/1612/1641S} {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Straits of Gallipoli as they now call it,}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only} that is to say, all of Phrygia, Galatia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Caria, Paphlagonia, Lycia, Magnesia, Cappadocia and Comagena.
174.3. If anyone wants to know [more] about the {1606E only{miserable}1606E only} state and condition of these countries, their ways of life and customs which its people practise nowadays, let him go to the author {1580/1589G only{Bellonius just}1580/1589G only} mentioned, who himself was an eye witness of it, {1606E only{and he shall undoubtedly be satisfied to the full}1606E only}. Let him also look at the description of the Eastern countries (called Orientale Cosmographia) by Andreus Thevetus, the Oriental observations by Nicolas Nicolai and Peter Gillius' Bosphorus {1606E only{a description of Constantinople and the places close to that city}1606E only}. {1573L(A){Laonicus Chalcocondylas writes that of all the provinces of Asia {1606E{minor,}1606E only} Paphlagonia only has a mine of copper, and that the king of this country (Ismaël he calls him) yearly raises customs or revenues of 50,000 rose-nobles {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{five million}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}{1580/1589G & 1602G instead{500,000}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}{1606E instead{10,000}1606E instead} Stater {1606E only{is what the Greek call this kind of} [or] gold coin)}1606E only}.
174.4. Yet it seems that he does not refer in general to all of Asia since he adds afterwards that this copper is considered to be the best in quality next to that from Iberia, for Iberia {1608/1612I only{or Georgiana}1608/1612I only} is a province of Asia bordering on the Caspian sea. But perhaps this may be true of that [part of] Asia [only] which is called Asia Minor, of which Paphlagonia is a part}1573L(A)}. Theodoricus Amadæus of Svallemberg has described Rhodes, an island which lies not far from the coast of Asia Minor.

174.5. ÆGYPT.

174.6. Egypt is known and admired by all ancient writers because of its long history and the wonderful events that took place there. It is enclosed by the Mediterranean sea, the Arab Gulf, the region of Bugia and the Libyan desert. The river Nile, the largest river of the whole world, runs through the middle of it. In it, we find Alexandria, once a famous market place, & Cairo, which is now reckoned to be one of the largest cities of Africa. And its pyramids are counted among the seven wonders of the world because of their height and impressiveness. Whoever wants to know more about them should consult among the ancient writers Diodorus Siculus' book 1, Strabo, Herodotus, Plinius, {1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)(& Ammianus Marcellinus' end of book 22}1570L(B), not in 1570L(C)}. Of the modern writers, see Petrus Bellonius, Dominicus Niger, Laurentius Corvinus from Novoforensis {1573L(A){& Guilelmus Tyrius in his book 19, chapter 24}1573L(A)}. {1579L(A), 1580/1589G & 1602G only{And also Melchor Guilandinus in his book about Papyrus}1579L(A), 1580/1589G & 1602G only}. But particularly Joannes Leo who in his works has described it excellently as regards all the antiquities of its cities, locations and inhabitants.
174.7. Ludovicus Nugarola has published a Dialogue, attributed to Timotheus, about the river Nilus. And Joannes Goropius Becanus has included his Niloscopius among his Becceselana. We have some time ago published a map of Egypt in a larger format, based on ancient and modern writers, and shown its most topical shape on our depiction of the whole country. But what you see here is based on maps in our possession which have been published in Italy.

{1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S have for Egypt instead of the above text the following one{:
174.8. {1584L{On its West, this country is enclosed by the deserts of Barca, Lybia and Numidia; on its East by the deserts which lie between Egypt {1606E has instead{the Nilus}1606E instead} and the Red sea; on its North by the midland sea [and] on its South it is bordered by the territories of the city of Bugia. These are its borders according to the judgment of Johannes Leo Africanus who divides it into three provinces, [viz.] Assahid {1606E only{or Alsahid}1606E only}, which lies between Bugia and Cairo, Errifia from Cairo to Rosetta and Bechria between Pelusium {1608/1612I only{or Damiata}1608/1612I only} and Tenessa.
174.9. In Haithon {1606E only{the Armenian}1606E only} we read that it was once divided into five shires, namely Sayt, Demesor, Alexandrina, Resnit and Damiata. That [part] which Haithon calls Sayt and Leo [calls] Assahid is called Serch by Tyrius, unless the copy [from which I took this] is corrupted and faulty. The same author mentions another shire of Egypt which the Egyptians in their language call Phium. Haithon claims that the country of Egypt is a fifteen days journey in length, (a manuscript copy which bears the authorship of Antonius Curchinus, not [that] of Haithonus {1606E only{Armenus}1606E only} has corruptly and falsely, in my opinion, a twenty-five days journey rather than fifteen) and three days in breadth.
174.10. Guilielmus Tyrius seems to agree with this calculation when he says that [the distance] between the cities of Phacusa and Alexandria is somewhat more than a hundred miles. Upper Egypt is only seven or eight miles broad, and in some places so densely covered with mountains and hills that it is no more than four or five miles [wide]. Leo says that from the Mediterranean sea to Bugia [this country] is 450 Italian miles long, and that its width, particularly in the upper part, is almost nothing worth mentioning.
174.11. The Nile, the river which runs through the middle of it and waters all the country empties itself into the Midland sea, according to what Guilielmus Tyrius teaches us, by only four mouths, [this] in contrast to what all other ancient writers say. This [Tyrius] is a man worthy to be believed in this matter, because he was both an eye witness and a most diligent searcher of the truth. I have a map, I think drawn with a pen in Egypt, which shows this many [river mouths, viz. four], and it does not refer to any others that are worth speaking of. Haithon writes that in this whole country there is no strong city fortified with a ditch, wall or rampart except for Alexandria and Cairo.
174.12. Yet it becomes clear from the description of this area by Joannes Leo Africanus that there are various other cities besides these [two], although they may not be very strong. For in the eighth book of his description of Africa he lists thirty-two [cities], next to certain other villages, which he describes according to their name and location. About Egypt you may read in the description of the Holy Land published by Brocardus towards its end, as also in Bellonius' Observations, and [those by] Guillandinus and Niger. About the Nile read Goropius and Nugarola next to what ancient writers have written about it, which you will see on our map of old Egypt}1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L and 1609/1612/1641S instead of § 174.6, 174.7}. {1608/1612I only{Finally, Filippo Pigafetti has written two documents in Italian about Egypt, Mount Sinai, Arabia, the flooding of the river Nile, having seen it in admiration with his own eyes, when he travelled there in the year 1577, when his home country was afflicted with a horrible pestilent plague}1608/1612I only}.

174.13. The Port of CARTHAGO.

174.14. It is not our purpose to describe CARTHAGO, rival of Rome, that famous city (and after Rome the only glory of the world), {1606E only{which so long resisted the Romans and withstood all foreign subjection,}1606E only} but because we saw this bay of it [on a map] published in Italy in this form, I thought it would be a matter pleasing the student of geography to add it also to this work, together with the following discussion about it written by Paulus Jovius:
174.15. Such is the form of the bay of Carthago that its entrance cannot be discerned by those who sail towards it from the main sea, because of cape Clupea, by old writers called Mercuries Foreland or Fairness, which extends itself far towards the West, and again winding and bending itself inwards, produces another cape, once called Apolloes Foreland, now the sailors call it Zafranio. From there to the straits of Guleta it is doubled in the shape of a half moon, and at the left side of the city of Rada, {1606E only{(Raba on this map)}1606E only}, famous for its hot baths of sovereign virtue, leaves the country. On the opposite side are to be seen the ruins of old Carthage and the place where it stood. So far Jovius. But the places bordering this area are described in greater detail by Joannes Leo Africanus}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB) 1574L 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

174.16. {1571D{Natolia or lesser Asia.

174.17. Lesser Asia is nowadays by the Turks (who subdued it through their tyranny and possess it now) called Natolia, which in the Greek language means as much as for us East. And thus they call all the land which from Constantinople across the sea lies towards the East, that is, all areas which the ancients called Asia Minor, as follows: Phrygia, Galatia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lidia, Cappadocia &c. which now, under the Turk, each have a different name.
174.18. And if they want to praise any object or piece of work as being genuine, or made with patience, then the remark is made that it is from Natolia. Like we tend to say about some stone that it is Oriental, or of linen that it is Dutch, or of games that they are from Bois-le-Duc, or something similar. In all these countries Greek used to be spoken, but now it is Turkish {1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F have instead{Turk-like}1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F instead}. All the washed and unwashed camlets [a kind of fabric] which you find here are made in the city of Angouri (situated in Caramanien){1581F additionally, 1587F & 1598F have instead{in Galacie}1581F additionally, 1587F & 1598F instead} and processed there, and those derive from the hair of certain goats which you find in this country, which are somewhat smaller than ours, and snow white, the hair longish and softer than silk, are not shorn, but pulled out. This we have gathered from Bellonius' Observations.

174.19. Egypten.

174.20. About this land, wondrous things are to be read in all ancient writers, such as Diodorus, Herodotus, Strabo, Plinius &c. For truly, it is a land where nature has produced many wonders, where man has experienced strange stories, and where such extremely marvellous pieces of work have been made, that some of these can still be seen nowadays, (as for instance the pyramids, which are still standing near Cairo, the obelisks, columns, and statues which from here have been brought to Rome), unbelievable when you just read about them.
174.21. This land receives the famous river Nilus, (whose nature they have been busy investigating without rest, and who are still occupying themselves with this) and it leads this river to the sea. On its banks lies the city Cairo (once called Babylon), counted among the great cities of the world, and the renowned merchant city of Alexandria. This land is in the North bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, in the East by the Red sea, in the South by the land of Nubia, and in the West by Barcha and the wilderness of Libya.

174.22. The harbour of Carthago or Tunis.

174.23. Even though this little map does not encompass a large area, yet, out of love for history-lovers, we have wanted to include it also here in our Theatre. For this harbour used to be of great renown, because of the wars which this city of Carthago has waged against the city of Rome for prestige reasons. This city has also provided fame to Charles the fifth in our times because of the glorious victory which he achieved here in the year 1535, when he expelled Barbarossa, captured the Golettes and the city of Tunis, reinstated the king who had been chased away, and released many thousands of captured Christians.}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

Bibliographical sources

For questions/comments concerning this page, please e-mail