Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 172

Text, first scholarly version, translated from the 1595 Latin, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin edition [also in 1609/1612 Spanish but text in Latin] & 1624LParergon/1641 Spanish [but text in Latin]:

172.1. {1595L{PALÆSTINA,
{1606E only{OR
THE HOLY LAND}1606E only}.

172.2. CANAAN, The most ancient name of this country was Canaan, which it took from Canaan, the son of Cham, whose offspring divided it among themselves and first inhabited it. Their names were Sidon, Hethæus, Jebusæus, Amoræus, Gergesæus, {1606E only{Hevy, Arky, Siny, Arvady, Semary and}1606E only} Hamathæus etc., Gen. 10.{1606E only{}1606E only}. Everyone of these gave his own name to that part of the country of Canaan which he possessed, and they are later mentioned in Gen. Exod. Num. 13.22.32. Deut. Iosu. Iudg. 1.King. 7. 1.Chron. 1. Iud. 5. Psalm. Esa. 21. Ezech. 16.29. This country was called by the name of the land of Canaan until the Israelites, having partly slain and partly subdued all the descendants of Canaan took possession of it. From this time it began to be called the land of Israel which name was given by the angel to patriarch Jacob, having wrestled with God, and from that time on gradually adopted that name, Gen. 32.{1606E only{28}1606E only}. For the word Israel {1606E only{in the Hebrew tongue}1606E only} means to prevail with God, {1606E only{or a mighty man prevailing against the mighty God}1606E only}. That is why the sons and offspring of Jacob were called Israelites, and the country in which they lived the land of Israel, as is apparent from the book of Iud. and the first book of the Kings. Although the whole land of Chanaan was indeed called Israel, yet the portion and jurisdiction of every tribe, such as Josua assigned to every one of the twelve patriarchs received its own name from the chief of that family, as is apparent from various places in the Holy Script.
172.3. The names of the tribes were these, Ruben, Simeon, Juda, Zebulon, Isaschar, Dan, Gad, Aser, Naphtali, Benjamin, Manasse, [and] Ephraim. And thus the name of Jacob remains in posterity, as do their places of abode, so that the whole land of Chanaan was divided into twelve parts as testified in the Holy Script.
172.4. Then, under Roboam, when Israel, that kingdom, was rent into two parts, the tribes of Juda and Benjamin, being untitled, retained the name of Juda for the following reason. First because of the two it was mightiest. Second, because it was to bring forth the Messias, it was more famous, and the name of the whole was taken from the worthiest, {1598/1610/1613D only{which explains why this tribe was more important than that of Benjamin}1598/1610/1613D only}. But the other ten tribes, which were commanded by the kings of Samaria still retained their ancient names, and were called Israel.
172.5. Again, the latter part was after the captivity in Babylon divided into two provinces, Samaria and Galilea. Samaria, the metropolitan city from which the country took its name was the seat of the kings of Israel. But Galilea was possessed and inhabited by foreigners and strangers, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{3. King. 9. and 4. King 17}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, and therefore was increasingly envied and despised by the rest of the Jews, so that they used to speak all kinds of villainous and reproachful slander about people from this area. The Northern part they scornfully called Galilea of the Gentiles, and, with respect to its situation, higher Galilea. The other part of it, towards the South, was called lower Galilea. Therefore, afterwards, even to the time of Christ and his Apostles, and so on, the land of Canaan or Israel was divided into three parts, called by three distinct names.
172.6. The higher country towards Sidon and Tyrus they called Galilea, the middle Samaria and the lower, towards the South and Arabia Petræa was properly called Juda, {1606E only{Jewry}1606E only}, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{as becomes clear from the second {1606E has instead{nineteenth}1606E} chapter of Saint Matthew, and [from] the fourth of Saint John}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. This latter [part] only contained two tribes, Juda and Benjamin. Although also the land of Canaan, even as far North as the mountains of Thracon {1606E only{near Antioch}1606E only}, and the country of Ammon was called Judæa, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{as is evident from the nineteenth chapter of Saint Mathew and the tenth of Saint Mark}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. And therefore also Plinius mentions Judæa citerior, {1606E only{[that is] Jewry on this side of the Jordan}1606E only}. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Strabo in his sixteenth {1608/1612I has instead{sixth}1608/1612I instead} book, and Lucanus in his second book also call it Judæa, which name, as we said before, derived from the tribe of Juda}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. Ptolemæus and others call it Palæstina after the Palæstini who, according to the propriety of the Hebrew pronunciation in the Holy Script are called Philistinim, {1606E only{(Phelistines)}1606E only}.
172.7. This nation, both for its great rule and the wars they waged with their neighbours for a number of years were very famous. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Herodotus in Polymnia {1608/1612I only{Book seven}1608/1612I only} and Dion in his thirty seventh book calls that part of Syria which is next to Ægypt Syria Palestina, {1606E only{Palæstina of Syria}1606E only}. Ptolemæus calls it Palæstinam Judæam, {1606E only{Palæstina of the Jewry}1606E only}, or Palæstinam Syriæ, {1606E only{Palæstina of Syria}1606E only}, because this Palæstina is a part of Syria, as Pomponius Mela thinks, who calls it Syriam Judææ, {1606E only{Syria of Judæa}1606E only}. Many places in this Palæstina are mentioned on his map, and are therefore omitted here}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.

172.8. ABOUT ÆGYPT. This country, situated between Syene, or the Catarractæ Nili, {1606E only{the falls or mouths of the Nilus}1606E only}, through the middle of which this river runs, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{watering all the soil of it by its yearly inundation and overflowing}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, was in former times called CHAM after Cham, the son of Noe, to whom this country fell {not in 1608/1612I{when the world was divided}not in 1608/1612I} {1606E only{shortly after the confusion of Babel}1606E only}; {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Psalm. 77, 104}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, {1606E has instead{78. v. 51.}1606E} & 105. {1606E only{v. 22 and 106. v. 22}1606E only}. Later it was called Misraim after Misraim, the son of Cham, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Gen. 5. and 10}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. Josephus {not in 1598/1610/1613D{in the twelfth chapter of his first book}not in 1598/1610/1613D} calls it Mersin, which name is undoubtedly derived from Misraim, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{either by contraction or shortened way of speaking, corrupted through usage, or}not in 1598/1610/1613D} by fault of the writer.
172.9. Herodotus {not in 1598/1610/1613D{in Euterpe}not in 1598/1610/1613D} confirms that Ægypt was once called Thebes. By some it was called Aëria, {1606E only{or Ætia, as some copies have it. Marmolius Thevet and Pinetus confirm that the Turks and the country people in and around Ægypt now call this country Chibth, Elchibet or Elchebitz. And indeed, the Arabs who translated Genesis, the first book of Moses into Arabic, for Ægypt have [Arabic lettering omitted] Elchibth from which, no doubt, the Greek and Romans got their Ægyptus, like Phrat, its Hebrew name, comes from Euphrates}1606E only}.
172.10. Ægypt has three special provinces or shires, the higher, which was called Thebaica, the middle and the lower. Thebaica and the middle shire of Ægypt which are defined by the mountains of Æthiopia and the furthest section or parting of the river Nile at Sebenytus are called higher Ægypt. Through the middle of it runs the river Nile in one main course. It is both on the East and the West enclosed by high and steep mountains {not in 1598/1610/1613D{called Eurus and Zephyrus}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. The other province, extending from there all the way to the Egyptian sea is called lower Ægypt. This they also call Delta, for this country or part of Ægypt {not in 1598/1610/1613D{which is contained between the parting of the river at Sebenytus, Canopus and Pelusium or the two mouths of the same river where it empties into the Mediterranean sea near these towns}not in 1598/1610/1613D} is in shape three-cornered or triangular, representing the form of the Greek Capital letter D [written in the proper Greek form as the capital letter Delta].
172.11. These countries, through the discrete advice of Alexander the Great, were divided {not in 1598/1610/1613D{into [in Greek lettering] NOMOUS, NOME or NOMARCHIA that is, shires. For by Nomos, {1601L{Nome and Nomarchia}1601L}, the Greek understand a shire or ward, under the command of [Greek lettering] Nomarches, a lieutenant or lord warden. Thebes comprises ten shires, and the middle province sixteen shires, so that in all higher Ægypt contains twenty-six shires. But in lower Ægypt or the Delta there were only ten}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
172.12. Ægypt is very often mentioned in the Holy Script, and the places where it is mentioned are very famous and memorable. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Gehon, that is, as some explain, the Nilus, Gen. 2.{1606E only{13}1606E only}. Bethshemesh, {1606E only{the Suns house}1606E only}, or Heliopolis the Greek call it, Gen. 41 and 46. Esa. 19. This is also called On, Ezech. 30. Gessen or Gosen, a part or province of Egypt, Gen. 45.47.50. Exod. 9. Phitom, Exod. 1, a grain city of importance, situated on the Nilus. This was built by the Israelites in forced labour. Ramesse or Ræmses, Gen. 47. Exod. 1.12. which also was built by the Israelites in their exile when they were slaves and served the Ægyptians. Sucoth, Exod. 12.13. .{1606E instead has{12}1606E} Etham, Exod.
172.13. Piachiroth, Magdalum, Beelsephon, The red sea, Exod. 14. Migdal or Magdalum, Ierem. 44.46. Taphnis, Ierem. Exod. {1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624LParergon have instead{ Ezechiel}1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612LS & 1624LParergon/1641S instead} 30. Phatures, Phaturos, Pathros, Ierem. 44 (1606E has instead{46}1606E}. Ezech. 19.30. Tanis, Num. 13. Esa. 19. Ezech. 30. Psalm. 77. This Josephus calls Protanis. Alexandria, Ierem. 46. Ezech. 20. Pelusiam and Bubastus, Ezech. 30. Memphis, called Noph and sometimes Moph by the Jews, and Migdol, Esa. 19. Ierem. {Latin editions only{2.44,46}Latin editions only}. Ose. 9. This was the seat of the kings of Egypt, where they ordinarily kept court. It was the metropolitan city of the entire kingdom}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
172.14. ARABIA. Arabia is by the Jews called Arab, which signifies a mixture, or a meeting, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{as can be seen in 2. Paral. 26}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. It should be noted that Arabia consists of three parts: savage or desert Arabia, happy Arabia and Arabia Petræa [stony], which we will discuss at its proper place. It is called as it is after the city and royal seat Petra. By the Jews it is also called Nabaioth after Nabaioth, the son of Ismael {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Esa. 60. Ezech 27}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, hence it was also called Nabatæa. It used to belong to the land of the Edomites, and Amalechites, which is why the Israelites left it alone as God had commanded.
172.15. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{St. Hieronymus says that Petra by the Hebræans was called Iacteel, and by the Syrians Recem}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. This part of Arabia, because of the passage of the children of Israel and because of the many miracles which God performed here, has become very famous, and on this map the settlements of the children of Israel have been indicated, since some miracles or other events happened there. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Such as Mare Rubrum in Exod., Num., Deut. 1.2.11., Ios. 2.24., Psalms 77.105.113., Act. 7.1., Corinth.10., Sur. & Mara in Exod. 15., Elim in Exod. 15. & 16 where they were in 12 springs in 70 palm trees which Strabo refers to in book 16., the desert Sin, Exod. 16.
172.16. Arabia Petrææ has in many places large and horrible deserts, as mentioned in Deut. 1. & 8. About its king and many testimonies about Sinai in Exod.16., about Raphidim in Exod.17.19., about Horeb in Exod.3. & 17. About this place it should be noted that Horeb was a part of the mountains which the Greek call [in Greek lettering] MELANAS [the black hills], of such height that on their top you could see the sun rise during the fourth hour {1606E only{an hour or two before appearing to those who dwell in the plains}1606E only}. And the Sinai became part of East Horeb. This is proved in Exod.33., Deut., Psalms 105., Acts.7., Deut.33.
172.17. In Sinai, Mons Pharan is mentioned, as also a sacred mountain in Exod.18. The mountains of Sinai and its utter loneliness in all of Exodus, Leviticus and Deut.32. This desert region of Sinai is mentioned in Num. 9.10.26, Amalec in Exod.17, Num.14.24, Deut.25., and called Madian in Exod.18., Num.10., Act.7. The graves of gluttony [called Kibroth-Taäva because of the gluttonous people buried there] & Haseroth in Num.11.12., Deut.1.9., Pharan in Num.12.20., Deut.1.33., the Zin desert in Num.13.20.26., Deut. 32., the waters of contradiction in Num.20.26. Deut.23., Oboth, Icabarim, Zared, torrens, Mathana, Nabaliel, Bamoth in Num.21., Deut.2.
172.18. Also mentioned are Zared & Zeir Num.24., Deut.1.2.33., Ios.24. Tophel & Laban in Deut.1., Elath in Deut.2., Asiongaber in Deut.2.3., Kings 22.2. paragraph 8. Beroth, Mosera, Gadgad, Iatebatha in Deut.10., Num.33, where 42 settlements of the Israelites are mentioned by name. Further there were settlements or strongholds where divine miracles occurred and famous deeds were performed. They were not spaced in equal intervals of distance, as shown in Exod. 14.15.19., and Numeri.10.14.33. The references are clear, but the Jewish people made a roundabout journey, and only at their third attempt did they come to the Red Sea as shown in Num.33., Deut.2., & Iudic.11. These discuss the road taken and the location of the settlements}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
172.19. SYRIA and PHŒNICIA. Although the territory of Syria used to extend far and wide, its proper location is between mount Amanus, {1606E only{(Monte Negro is what Postellus calls it}1606E only} on the Euphrat, Judæa and the Phœnician sea. Phœnicia is a part of Syria with many specific features, and it has among others the cities of Sidon and Tyrus. Cœle, the part of Syria, which borders on Judæa in the East, has as its capital Damascus, famous through religious and worldly events. {1598/1610/1613D only{The name of Damascus signifies Bag of Blood, because here Abel was killed by his brother Cain. It is certain that it is here that the old patriarchs first began to inhabit the world, as many sources testify}1598/1610/1613D ends here}{1606E only{About which we have spoken in [the text of] Palestina}1606E only}. {Latin, English and Italian only{The author of this map is Stella. Also read about ancient Palestine in saint Hieronymus, and also someone who has written about it in our own time, B. Arias Montanus in his Chaleb. Specific books have also been written by Jacobus Zieglerus, Wolfgang Wissenburgius and Michael Aitzinger. Its prime city Jerusalem has been described by Josephus in his Jewish War bk. 6 & 7, and recently in seven books by Adamus Reisnerus, and by Christianus Adrichomus}Latin, English and Italian only; 1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L/S & 1624L/1641S [but in Latin] end here}.

Now, the second scholarly text version follows, translated from the 1602 German text, which closely follows the 1579 Latin and 1580/1589 German editions:

172.20. {1602G{PALÆSTINA,

172.21. PALESTINÆ, once called Canaan, comprises Idumæa, Judea, Samaria and Galilea; yet, we often call all of Palæstina by the name Judæa. It has as its eastern border mount Lebanon, in the west the Phœnician Sea, in the North Phœnicia, and in the South stony Arabia.
172.22. The IDVMÆI live in the West at the entrance of lake Sirbo, which has the cities of Maresa, Rhinococura, and more towards the centre Raphæa, Gaza (where you also find people from Judæa), Anthedon, Ascalon and Azotus. Judea borders in the West and South on Idumea although they have no formal border between them, and extends from our sea towards the North where it has the Dead Sea and further North what is now called the land across the Jordan.
172.23. There are many cities in Judea; of those which are situated in the East, Jerusalem is the most famous one, because of its beautiful temple for which it is famous all over the world. King David built it in less than seven years with the help of 150,000 labourers. Then there is the city of Joppe, nowadays called Jaffa, and Turris Stratonis, which the Tetrarch Herodes rebuilt, and called Cæsarea to honour the emperor [Augustus]. Further, not far from Jerusalem, you find Bethlehem, Hebron and Cypris. In the land across the river Jordan there are Macherus, Sodom and Gomorrha.
172.24. After Judea comes Samaria, which lies between our sea and lake Tiberias. Its cities are Sichem or Sichima, which was later called Neapolis. Capernaum is on the bank of lake Genesareth, and Betsaida on the river Jordan. Further, it includes Corazim and Magdalum.
In the East Galilea borders on Syria Cava, in the West on Phœnicia, in the North on the mountains Libanus and Antilibanus and Libanon, and in the South on Samaria. Its cities are Naim, Cana, Nazareth, Gadara, and Galilæa which is also called the pagan city, and which is next to the Syrians, located in that part which when the country was divided fell to the tribe of the Nephtalim.
172.25. The other Galilea lies in the area of the tribe of Zabulon, close to the lakes Tiberias and Genesareth. The river Jordan originates on mount Antilibanon from two separate sources, one called Jor, the other Dan, and runs across Judea. In the same way as these two names have been combined into one, these two waters join into one river and have two lakes, namely Genesareth and Tiberias. Finally, the Jordan empties into lake Asphaltites where nothing can sink, and which because of the immobility of its water is also called the Dead Sea. And the stinking and filthy water of this sea pollutes the healthy and praiseworthy water of the Jordan.
172.26. At some distance from Jerusalem there is a region which has been burnt by fire from heaven. There the fields are still full of ashes, and the apples that grow there, in spite of their nice green appearance which makes them look tasty, are black inside so that they cannot be enjoyed and eaten. Further into Judea there live the Esseni, who do not behave like other people, but who have their own customs. They refrain from women, wine and meat, and fast as a natural daily activity. They have no money, and they die rather than to have no religion and to perform good deeds. And although they have no children, yet these people grow in number. For they maintain and renew themselves daily with those who flock to them. This we have taken from a description by Rithaimer.
172.27. This praiseworthy land is not only described in the bible, but also by Josephus in the third book, second chapter of his Jewish Wars, and also very extensively by brother Brochardus, a monk. Also by Vadianus in an excerpt from his three volumes about the world, and by Jacobus Zieglerus and Wolfgang Weissenburg. Also by Postellus in a booklet about the Universe called Syria. Also by many others who have visited it themselves, such as Petrus Bellonius in his Observations, Andreas Thevetus in his Description of the Eastern World, Jodocus á Ghistele and Bartholomeus Salignaco. But best of all is the description by Benedictus Arias Montanus in a special booklet which he called Chaleb, in his Apparatus Biblicus. We should also add the Itinerary of Nuns by Georgius Agricola.
172.28. The capital of the entire land, or rather of the whole world, namely Jerusalem is most accurately described by Josephus in his sixth book, sixth chapter of his Jewish Wars, and recently by Adamus Reysnerus in seven separate volumes}1602G ends here.}

Bibliographical sources

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