Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 171

Text, first scholarly version, translated from the 1579 Latin (AB), and the 1580/1589 German edition;

171.1. {1579L(A){PALÆSTINA,

171.2. PALESTINÆ, once called Chanaan, comprises Idumæa, Judæa, Samaria and Galilea; yet, we often call all of Palæstina by the name of Judæa. It has as its eastern border Mount Lebanon, in the west the Phœnician Sea, in the North Phœnicia, and in the South Arabia Petræa.
171.3. The IDVMÆI live in the West at the entrance of lake Sirbonis, which has the cities of Maresa, Rhinocorura, and more towards the centre Raphæa, Gaza (by others also called Iudæa), Anthedon, Ascalon and Azotus. Judea borders in the West and South on Idumea although the border between them is uncertain, and extends from our sea towards the North where it has the Dead Sea and further North what is now called the land across the Jordan.
171.4. There are many cities in Judea; of those which are situated in the East, Jerusalem is the most famous one, because of its beautiful temple for which it is famous all over the world. King Salomo built it in less than seven years {not in 1580/1589G{all the way to the roof}not in 1580/1589G} with the help of 150,000 labourers. Then there is the city of Joppe, nowadays called Jaffa, and Turris Stratonis, which the Tetrarch Herodes rebuilt, and called Cæsarea to honour emperor Augustus. Further, not far from Jerusalem, you find Bethlehem, Hebron and Cypris. In the land across the river Jordan there are Macherus, Sodom and Gomorra.
171.5. After Judea comes Samaria, which lies between our sea and lake Tiberias. Its cities are Sichem or Sichima, which was later called Neapolis. Capernaum is on the bank of lake Genesareth, and Betsaida on the river Jordan. Further, it includes Corazim and Magdalum.
In the East Galilea borders on the Syrian cave, in the West on Phœnicia, in the North on the mountains Libanus and Antilibanus, and in the South on Samaria. Its cities are Naim, Cana, Nazareth, Gadara, and Galilæa which is also called the pagen city, and which is next to the Tyrians, located in that part which when the country was divided fell to the tribe of the Naphtali.
171.6. The other Galilea lies in the area of the tribe of Zebulon, close to the lakes Tiberias and Genesareth. The river Jordan originates on Mount Antilibanon from two separate sources, one called Jor, the other Dan, and runs across Judea. In the same way as these two names have been combined into one, these two waters join into one river and have two lakes, namely Genesareth and Tiberias. Finally, the Jordan empties into lake Asphaltites which contains bitumen and where nothing can sink, and which because of the immobility of its water is also called the Dead Sea. And the stinking and filthy water of this sea pollutes the praiseworthy water of the Jordan.
171.7. At some distance from Jerusalem there is a region which has been burnt by fire from heaven. There the fields are still full of ashes, and the apples that grow there, in spite of their nice green appearance which makes them look tasty, are black inside so that they cannot be eaten. Further into Judea there live the Esseni, who do not behave like other people, but who have their own customs. They refrain from wives, wine and meat, and fast as a natural daily activity. They have no money, and they prefer to spend their lives in the service of God and to perform good deeds. And although they have no children, yet these people grow in number. For they maintain and renew themselves daily with those who flock to them. This we have taken from a description by Rithaimer.
171.8. This land is very praiseworthy (next to the Holy Bible), but as also been described by Josephus in the third Book, second chapter of his Jewish Wars, and also very extensively by Brochardus, a monk. Also by Vadianus in an excerpt from his three volumes about the world, and by Jacobus Zieglerus and Wolfgang Weissenburg. Also by Postellus in a booklet about the Universe and in a booklet called Syria. Also by many others who have visited it themselves, such as Petrus Bellonius in his Observations, Andreas Thevetus in his Description of the Eastern World, Jodocus á Ghistele and Bartholomeus Saligniaco. But best of all is the description by Benedictus Arias Montanus in a special booklet which he called Chaleb, in his Apparatus Biblicus. We should also add the Itinerary of the Blessed Mary by Georgius Agricola {not in 1580/1589G{Hammonius}not in 1580/1589G}.
171.9. The capital of the entire land, or rather of the whole world, namely Jerusalem is most accurately described by Josephus in his sixth book, sixth chapter of his Jewish Wars, and recently by Adamus Reisnerus in seven separate volumes}1579L(AB) & 1580/1589G end here}.

Second scholarly text version, translated from the 1584 Latin & 1592 Latin editions:

171.10. {1584L{PALÆSTINA,

171.11. CANAAN. The most ancient name of this country was Canaan, which it took from Canaan, the son of Cham, whose offspring divided it among themselves and first inhabited it. Their names were Sidon, Hethæus, Iebusæus, Amoræus, Gergesæus, Hamathæus etc., Gen. 10. Everyone of these gave his own name to that part of the country of Canaan which he possessed and enjoyed as his portion, and they are later mentioned in Gen. Exod. Num. 13.22.32. Deut. Iosu. Iudg. 1.King. 7.1., Chron. 1. Iud. 5. Psalm. Esa. 21. Ezech. 16.27. This country was called by the name of the Land of Canaan until the Israelites, having partly slain and partly subdued all the descendants of Canaan took possession of it. From this time it began to be called the Land of Israel which name was given by the Angel to patriarch Jacob, having wrestled with God, and from that time on the country gradually adopted that name, Gen. 32. For the word Israel means to prevail with God. That is why the sons and offspring of Jacob were called Israelites, and the country in which they lived the land of Israel, as is apparent from the book of Iud. and the first book of the Kings. Although the whole land of Chanaan was indeed called Israel, yet the portion and jurisdiction of every tribe, such as Josua assigned to every one of the twelve patriarchs received its own name from the chief of that family, as is apparent from various places in the Holy Script.
171.12. The names of the tribes were these, Ruben, Simeon, Juda, Zebulon, Isaschar, Dan, Gad, Aser, Naphtali, Benjamin, Manasse, [and] Ephraim. And thus the name of Jacob remains in posterity, as do their places of abode, so that the whole land of Chanaan was divided into twelve parts as testified in the Holy Script. Then, under Roboam, when Israel, That kingdom, was rent into two parts, the tribes of Juda and Benjamin, being untitled, retained the name of Juda for the following reason. First because of the two it was mightiest. Second, because it was to bring forth the Messias, it was more famous, and the name of the whole was taken from the worthiest. But the other ten tribes, which were commanded by the kings of Samaria still retained their ancient names, and were called Israel.
171.13. Again, the latter part was after the captivity in Babylon divided into two provinces, Samaria and Galilea. Samaria, the metropolitan or chief city from which the country took its name, was the seat of the Kings of Israel. But Galilea was possessed and inhabited by foreigners and strangers, 3. King. 9. and 4. King 17, and therefore was increasingly envied and despised by the rest of the Jews, so that they used to speak all kinds of villainous and reproachful slander about people from this area. The Northern part they scornfully called Galilea of the gentiles, and, with respect to its situation, higher Galilea. The other part of it, towards the South, was called lower Galilea. Therefore, afterwards, even to the time of Christ and his apostles, and so on, the land of Canaan or Israel was divided into three parts, called by three distinct names.
171.14. The higher country towards Sidon and Tyrus they called Galilea, the middle Samaria and the lower, towards the South and Arabia Petræa was properly called Juda, as becomes clear from the second chapter of Saint Matthew, and [from] the fourth of Saint John. This latter [part] only contained two tribes, Juda and Benjamin. Although also the land of Canaan, even as far North as the mountains of Thracon and the country of Ammon was called Judæa, as is evident from the nineteenth chapter of Saint Matthew and the tenth of Saint Mark. And therefore also Plinius mentions Judæa citerior. Strabo in his sixteenth book, and Lucanus in his second book also call it Judæa, which name, as we said before, derived from the tribe of Juda. Ptolemæus and others call it Palæstina after the Palæstini who in the Holy Script are called Philistinim.
171.15. This nation, both for its great rule and the wars they waged with their neighbours for a number of years were very famous. Herodotus in Polymnia and Dion in his thirty-seventh book calls that part of Syria which is next to Ægypt Syria Palestina. Ptolemæus calls it Palæstinam Judæam, or Palæstinam Syriæ, because this Palæstina is a part of Syria, as Pomponius Mela thinks, who calls it Syriam Judææ. Many places in this Palæstina are mentioned on his map, and are therefore omitted here.

171.16. ABOUT ÆGYPT. This country, situated between Syene, or the cataracts and mouths of the Nile, through the middle of which this river runs, watering all the soil of it by its yearly inundation and overflowing, was in former times called CHAM after Cham, the son of Noach, to whom this country fell when the world was divided, Psalm. 77, 104 & 105. Later it was called Misraim after Misraim, the son of Cham, Gen. 5. and 10. Josephus in the twelfth chapter of his first book calls it Mersin, which name is undoubtedly derived from Misraim, either by contraction or by fault of the writer. Herodotus in Euterpe confirms that Ægypt was once called Thebes. By some it was called Aëria.
171.17. Ægypt has three special provinces or shires, the higher, which was called Thebaica, the middle and the lower. Thebaica and the middle shire of Ægypt which are defined by the mountains of Æthiopia and the furthest section or parting of the river Nilus at Sebennytus are called higher Ægypt. Through the middle of it runs the river Nilus in one main course. It is enclosed by high and steep mountains called Eurus and Zephyrus. The other province, extending from there all the way to the Egyptian sea is called lower Ægypt. This they also call Delta, for this country or part of Ægypt which is contained between the parting of the river at Sebenytus, Canopus and Pelusium or the two mouths of the same river near these towns is in shape three-cornered or triangular, representing the form of the Greek capital letter D [shown].
171.18. These countries, through the discrete advice of Alexander of Macdonia were divided into [in Greek lettering] NOMOVS, NOME or NOMARCHIA that is, shires. For by these words the Greek understand a shire or ward, under the command of [Greek lettering] Nomarches, a lieutenant or lord warden. Thebes comprises ten shires, and the middle province sixteen shires, so that in all Higher Ægypt contains twenty-six shires. But in lower Ægypt or the Delta there were only ten.
171.19. Ægypt is very often mentioned in the Holy Script, and the places where it is mentioned are very famous and memorable. Gehon, that is, as some explain, the Nilus, Gen. 2. Bethshemesh, Heliopolis the Greek call it, Gen. 41 and 46. Esa. 19. This is also called On, Ezech. 30. Gessen or Gosen, Gen. 45.47.50. Exod. 9. Phitom, Exod. 1, a grain city of importance, situated on the Nilus. This was built by the Israelites in forced labour. Ramesse or Ræmses, Gen. 47. Exod. 1.12. which also was built by the Israelites in their exile when they were slaves. Sucoth, Exod. 12.13. Etham, Exod. 13. Piachiroth, Magdalum, Beelsephon, The red sea, Exod. 14. Migdal or Magdalum, Ierem. 44.46. Taphnis, Ierem. Ezech 30. Phatures, Phaturos, Pathros, Ierem. 44. Ezech. 19.30. Tanis, Num. 13. Esa. 19. Ezech. 30. Psalm. 77. This Josephus calls Protanis. Alexandria, Ierem. 46. Ezech. 20. Pelusia and Bubastus, Ezech. 30. Memphis, called Noph and sometimes Moph by the Jews, and Migdol, Esa. 19. Ierem. 2.44.46. Ezech. 30. Ose. 9. This was the seat of the kings of Egypt. It was the metropolitan city of the entire kingdom.
171.20. ARABIA. Arabia is by the Jews called Arab, which signifies a mixture, or a meeting, as can be seen in 2. Paral. 26. It should be noted that Arabia consists of three parts: savage or desert Arabia, happy Arabia and Arabia Petræa, which we will discuss at its proper place. It is called as it is after the city and royal seat Petra. By the Jews it is also called Nabaioth after Nabaioth, the son of Ismael, Esa. 60. Ezech 27, hence it was also called Nabatæa. It used to belong to the land of the Edomites, and Amalechites, which is why the Israelites left it alone as God had commanded.
171.21. Hieronymus says that Petra by the Hebræans was called Iacteel, and by the Syrians Recem. This part of Arabien, because of the passage of the children of Israel and because of the many miracles which God performed here, has become very famous, and are mentioned in the bible, such as Mare Rubrum in Exod., Num., Deut. 1.2.11., Ios. 2.24., Psalms 77.105.113., Act. 7.1., Corinth.10., Sur. & Mara in Exod. 15., Elim in Exod. 15. & 16 where they were in 12 springs and 70 palms which Strabo refers to in book 16., the desert Sin, Exod. 16.
171.22. Arabia Petrææ has in many places large and horrible deserts, as mentioned in Deut. 1. & 8. About its king and many testimonies about Sinai in Exod.16., about Raphidim in Exod.17.19., about Horeb in Exod.3. & 17. About this place it should be noted that Horeb was a part of the mountains which the Greek call [in Greek lettering] MELANAS [the black], of such height that on their top you could see the sun rise during the fourth hour. And the Sinai became part of East Horeb. This is proved in Exod.33., Deut., Psalms 105., Acts.7., Deut.33.
171.23. In Sinai, Mons Pharan is mentioned, and also a sacred mountain in Exod.18. The mountains of Sinai and its utter loneliness in all of Exodus, Leviticus and Deut.32. This desert region of Sinai is mentioned in Num. 9.10.26, Amalec in Exod.17, Num.14.24, Deut.25., and called Madian in Exod.18., Num.10., Act.7. The graves of gluttony & Haseroth in Num.11.12., Deut.1.9., Pharan in Num.12.20., Deut.1.33., the Zin desert in Num.13.20.26., Deut. 32., the desert Cades & Cadesbærne in Num. Deut.1.9., Ios.10.15., Horma in Num.14.21., Hor in Num.20., Deut.32., The waters of contradiction in Num.20.26., Deut.23., Oboth, Icabarim, Zared torrens, Mathana, Nabaliel, Bamoth in Num.21., Deut.2.
171.24. Also mentioned are Zared & Zei, Num.24., Deut.1.2.33., Ios.24. Tophel & Laban in Deut.1., Elath in Deut.2., Asiongaber in Deut.2.3., Kings 22.2. paragraph 8. Beroth, Mosera, Gadgad, Iatebatha in Deut.10., Num.33, where 42 settlements of the Israelites are mentioned by name. Further there were settlements or strongholds where divine miracles occurred and famous deeds were performed. They were not spaced in equal intervals of distance, as shown in Exod. 14.15.19., and Numeri.10.14.33. The references are clear, but the Jewish people made a roundabout journey, and only at their third attempt did they come to the Red Sea as shown in Num.33., Deut.2., & Iudic.11. These discuss the road taken and the location of the settlements.
171.25. SYRIA and PHŒNICIA. Although the territory of Syria used to extend far and wide, its proper location is between mount Amanus, on the Euphrates, Iudæa and the Phœnician sea. Phœnicia is a part of Syria with many specific features, and it has among others the cities of Sidon and Tyrus. Cœle, the part of Syria, which borders on Iudæa in the East, has as its capital Damascus, famous through religious and worldly events. About these places there has been a discussion under Palestina.
171.26. The author of this map is Stella. Also read about ancient Palestine in Hieronymus, and also someone who has written about it in our own time, B. Arias Montanus in his Chaleb. Specific books have also been written by Jacobus Zieglerus, Wolfgang Wissenburgius and Michael Aitzinger. Its prime city Jerusalem has been described by Josephus in his Jewish Wars Bk. 6 & 7, and recently in seven books by Adamus Reisnerus}1584L & 1592L end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1581 French & 1587 French editions:

171.27. {1581F{THE HOLY LAND.

By the old pagan writers this land is called Palestina. For the Jews it is the land of Promise, and the Christians call it the Holy Land. This Holy Land borders in the East on Mount Libanus, in the West on the sea, in the North on Phœnicia and in the South on stony Arabia. This area comprises Idumea, Judea, Samaria and Galilea, although sometimes all these are comprised under the name of Judea.
171.28. Idumea begins at lake Sirbonis in the West. Here are the cities of Maresa, Rhinocorura, Raphea, Anthedon, Ascalon, Azotus and Gaza (although this last one is sometimes attributed to Judea). Judea lies between the Great and the Dead Sea, and is the best part. It has many cities among which the prime one is Jerusalem, whose name is known all over the world. It is here that Salomon built the widely celebrated temple, accomplishing this with the help of one hundred and fifty thousand people in seven years.
171.29. The Turks nowadays call this Jerusalem by the name of Cuzumobarech. Then there is Joppe, now called Jaffa, lying on the sea coast where the pilgrims land who are going to visit the Holy Grave. Then Turris Stratonis, rebuilt by Herodes as Tetrarcha, and called Cæsarea in honour of Augustus. Then there are Bethlehem, Chebron, Cypris, and across the river Jordan Macheris, Sodoma and Gomorra.
171.30. Next comes Samaria, which lies between the great sea and lake Tiberias. The cities there are Sichem, later called Neapolis, Capernaum at lake Tiberias, Bethsaida on the Jordan, Corazim, Magdalon etc. Galilea extends from here to Mount Libanus. The cities there are Nain, Cana, Nazareth, Gadara etc. From Mount Libanus spring two waters, one called Jor, the other Dan which, when they merge, also merge their names, and are then called the river Jordan. This river runs through the entire holy land and makes two lakes after which it ends in the Dead Sea.
171.31. This is a miraculous sea by nature, always stagnant, (hence its name), and containing a gluish substance like tar, which is called in German Jewish glue, (in Latin Bitumen). In this lake, because of its tar which floats there, nothing can sink, no matter how heavy it is. It also emits a smokey stench or vapour. This sea used to be a pleasant and beautiful area where the cities of Sodom and Gomorra etc. were located, which now, as a perpetual memory have degraded into such a pool. For us this is a scar teaching us about the abominable sins and Gods perpetual punishments of them.
171.32. This land of promise is the one about which much has been written in the Old and New Testament. Also the one which God had chosen above all other lands to plant there the right religion and service to God, so that its branches and fruits from there could be extended and tasted throughout the entire world. Here is the glorious city of Jerusalem (symbol of eternal paradise and peace) with its precious and ornate temple of Salomon (an image of his glorious bride and church). Here used to live the patriarchs and prophets, who in the service of God have proclaimed the future of our saviour. Here God became human, adopting our mortal flesh, and he died for our sins, and rose from the dead for our justice.
171.33. Here his beloved apostles received the Holy Ghost and from here they departed to preach the gospel throughout the entire world. Therefore this land may with good reason be called Holy, and the events which took place here may be read and contemplated by us in great reverence and devotion}1581F & 1587F end here}.

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