Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 165

Text, one version only, translated from the 1595 Latin 5th Add; 1595 Latin, 1597 German 5th Add., 1598 French, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612//1641 Spanish edition:

165.1. {1595L5Add{The isle of JAPAN, {1606E{Or JAPONIA}1606E}

165.2. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Ioannis Petrus Maffeius in {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{the twelfth book of}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} his histories of India writes as follows about this island:}not in 1598/1610/1613D} it comprises especially three larger islands, with many other smaller ones around them, separated from one another by narrow straits or arms of the sea {1597G5Add, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612L only{called Euripo}1597G5Add, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612L only}, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and is commonly are called by the name of JAPONIA or Japan}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. The first and largest is divided into 53 {1598F instead{50}1598F instead} kingdoms. The chief city is Meaco from which the whole island derives its name. The second [island] is called Ximen and contains nine kingdoms. The most famous cities in the kingdom of Bungo are Vosuqui and Funai {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{it has wonderful cities}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}. The third island is called Xicocum {1598F has instead{Xocicum}1598F instead}. It contains no more than four kingdoms or signiories. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{It is beautified by the excellent city of Tosa of the same name as the kingdom}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Thus the regiments or kingdoms of Japan are altogether sixty six, besides various other jurisdictions which cannot justly be called kingdoms.
165.3. The length of the whole main land is, as they say almost two hundred leagues. The breadth is less than that. For in some places it is no more than ten leagues broad, and at the broadest no more than thirty leagues. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{About its circumference nothing has been written for certain. It runs from South to North from the thirtieth degree of latitude to almost the thirty eighth}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. On the East it is opposite New Spain, at a distance from it of no more than 150 leagues [!]. On the North it has the Scythians or Tartarians, and other people, exceedingly rude and barbarous. On the West lies China {1606E only{(Sinarum regio)}1606E only}, in some places nearer, in others further off, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{according to the various windings of the shore}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. For from the city of Liampo which is the utmost bound of China towards the East {1606E instead and incorrectly{West}1606E instead}, unto Gotum {1606E only{(Ogoto, I think)}1606E only} which is the first island of Japan that offers itself to the view of those who sail from there is not above sixty leagues.
165.4. But from Amacano, a Chinese market town in the West, where the Portuguese mostly do their trading, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{to the same Gotum}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} the distance is more than 297 {1598F, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{290}1598F, 1598/1610/1613D, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} leagues. On the South, close by, it has {not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{nothing but the vast and wide ocean. Further off, [there are]}not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G} certain lands and countries not yet known, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{from which, as reports go, certain sailors once came by chance to Japan, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{and never left again from there to return to their native soil}not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G}. The country for the most part is full of snow {1606E only{all year long}1606E only}, bleak and cold, and therefore not very fertile. In September they harvest their rice which is their ordinary food, and in some places they reap their wheat in May, yet, they make no bread of it, as we do {1606E only{here in Europe}1606E only}, but a kind of porridge, {1598F only{which the Italians call {1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only{Polenta}1598F, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only}{1606E only{which they eat instead of bread}1606E only}.
165.5. The temperature of the air is very kind and wholesome. Their fresh waters are reasonably good. They also have some springs with hot water of excellent medical virtue for the sick, {1598/1610/1613D only{and some worms which serve as medecin}1598/1610/1613D only} as some report consistently. High and steep mountains they have many in various places, but two are especially famous. One, of which I do not know the name, continually burns and casts forth flames of fire, {1606E only{as the Ętna on Sicilia used to do, and as the Hekla on Iceland now does at certain times}1606E only}. On the top of this mountain the devil, enclosed in a white cloud, shows himself to some men after they have for devotion's sake tortured themselves for a long time.
165.6. The other [mountain], called Figenoiama [Fukiyama], rises up for some leagues above the clouds. The people dig various sorts of metals from the bowels of the earth, whereby they entice foreign nations to come from far to their quarters. Trees they have, both for pleasure and profit or fruits, {not in 1598F{not much unlike ours here in Europe}not in 1598F}. Yet there is one tree, much resembling the palm tree, I do not know its name, which is of a very strange nature. For, as they confirm, it is very averse to any kind of moisture and if by any chance it happens to become wet, it will shrink together as if it had been affected by the plague, it withers immediately. The way and means to recover it, is to uproot it and to dry it in the sun, then to put it in an empty pit, and fully cover it either with the rust of iron, or else with sand. Then, after it has [again] been planted and put into the ground, it will grow and bud as before.
165.7. {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Also, if you fasten [its] boughs that fall off or are broken off with a nail to the trunk of another tree, it will grow onto it and join to it as if it had been grafted to it}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. There are everywhere many cedar trees of such height and thickness that carpenters make beams of them for pillars of stately buildings, and the shipbuilders make masts of them for the ships. Sheep, hogs, chickens, ducks, geese {not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{and other such filthy living creatures}not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G} {1598F only{causing infections and smells}1598F only} they seldom or never keep at home around their houses in Japan.
165.8. They prefer to eat venison such as they catch outside in the fields. These are covered with many herds of cattle, such as cows and horses {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which serve [them] in war}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Wolves, rabbits, boars, stags and other deer wander about in the forests. They have plenty of pheasants, wild ducks, doves, quails and wild chickens, and fish of various sorts, but especially river trout {not in 1597G5Add, 1598/1610/1613D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{(or silares as some call them}not in 1598/1610/1613D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}, as well as sea trout, not unlike that kind of fish {1606E only{which Ausonius calls}1606E only} Alosa}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, {1606E only{as does Plinius Clupea or Clypea, in the fifteenth chapter of his ninth book}1606E only}. {1597G5Add{This they value highly, and they consider it a dainty dish}1597G5Add}.
165.9. They do not know what butter is. They have no olive oil. But they make a kind of artificial oil from whales, which {1606E only{they catch or which}1606E only} are cast upon this shore {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{but use what the sea yields}1597G5Add & 1602G instead}. The common people use boughs or sticks from pine trees {1606E only{and in some places straw or hay}1606E only} instead of candles. If anyone is tall or well built, he will be more than proud about it. Many live long, and are strong, even to the end [of their lives], for most of them are fit for war until they are sixty years old.
165.10. They hardly wear beards, but for the rest they do curious things with their hair, and have various and unusual ways of cutting it. They do not shave, but pluck their hair out with tweezers. The boys [cut] their heads bare from the forehead all the way to the top [of their head]. The baser sort of people do it halfway, the gentlemen and noblemen almost totally, only leaving a few hairs at the back, at the nape of their neck. And they consider it a serious disgrace if anyone touches this spot, {1606E only{or even attempts to do so}1606E only}.
165.11. Hunger, thirst, heat, cold, [hard] labour, and similar inconveniences that trouble other people a lot, they can well make do with, and [they] endure [it] most patiently. As soon as they are born and come into the world, even if it is in the middle of winter, they are carried straight to the river to be washed. When weaned from their mother or wet-nurse, they are trained in hunting, and are kept far away from their mothers and nurses in rough places. For they think that there is nothing that effeminates the minds of men more than a tender and delicate upbringing.
165.12. They cover and line the floors of their houses with fine mats, padded as mattresses. On these they sleep and take a rest, laying a stone or woodblock under their head, instead of a pillow. And kneeling and sitting on their legs, they dine and take supper on these mats as well. They are neat and clean {not in 1598F{as the people from China}not in 1598F}. When they eat, they put their food so cunningly into their mouths with two little sticks or forks, that they never drop anything or let it fall aside, {1601L, not in 1602G{nor do they need to wipe their fingers even once}1601L, not in 1602G}.
165.13. They take off their shoes before going to eat, lest they should soil their carpets by treading upon them. The poorer sorts, especially those that live by the sea, live on vegetables, rice and fish. The wealthier people set out their banquets richly, and with a great variety of dishes. At every meal, everyone's wooden plate, made of cedar or pinewood, a hand {1598F has instead{foot}1598F instead} thick, is changed without [changing] the tablecloth. The food, when it is to be put on the table, is laid out in the form of a pyramid, bestrewn with gold, and adorned for the sight of it with small branches of the cypress tree, {1606E only{as we do with rosemary}1606E only}.
165.14. Often entire fowls are brought to noblemen's tables with their bills and legs guilded all over. They entertain their friends and guests very kindly. They have many guidelines for feasting and drinking, which are carried out in an interesting way with strange and exquisite ceremonies. They have no kind of wine, or vines there. They make an artificial kind of wine pressed out of rice. Yet, they are especially delighted to drink water, scalding hot, rather than any other kind of drink, and put the powder of an herb into it which they call Chia [tea](it is a very wholesome herb with excellent virtues). This kind of drink they often use, and they like to make it, so that many times princes and noblemen will prepare and mix it with their own hands, as an honour to their friends. And they have certain places in their houses assigned to this purpose, where there is a furnace or a fire lit at all times ready, with a kettle of cast iron continually hanging over it, from where they fetch their drinks to entertain their friends as soon as they enter their house, as well as for their farewell and departure.
165.15. When their guests are to depart, they show them all their treasures and household stuff which they esteem in particular. This, for the most part, is nothing else but those vessels and instruments needed for the making of the drink of which I spoke, namely the furnace or hearth, the pan or kettle tripod, the funnel, the drinking cups, the spoons, and the boxes where they keep the herb and the powder made of it. All these things they value no less highly than we do here in Europe rings beset with precious stones or bracelets of the best and most precious pearls.
165.16. Their houses are mostly framed with timber to avoid the danger of earth quakes which occur here very frequently although there are some that have houses very stately built from the foundations upwards of a very fair kind of stone. They have many excellent churches and monasteries, both for men and women, very sumptuous. The language of all these islands is one and the same, {not in 1598F{but with so many different dialects that it may be justified to say there are many [languages].
165.17. For one and the same thing may have various different names, some of which are used in scorn, in a bad sense, others in a good sense and in honourable usage}not in 1598F}. Some phrases and words are only [to be] used by the nobility, whereas others only by the common people. {not in 1598F{Some are only spoken by men, others only by women. Moreover, they speak differently from how they write, and in their writing there is great variety, for they write their private letters to their friends in one manner, and books and such things in another manner}not in 1598F}. They have a variety of books, very beautifully printed, both in verse and in prose. Again, their letters are such that with one and the same character they sometimes express and signify one word, sometimes two or more. Finally, the Japanese language is in some peoples impartial judgement [to be] preferred above Latin both in terms of elegance and smoothness of pronunciation, as a model and because of its variety. Therefore, it requires a lot of time and effort to learn it [well].
165.18. {not in 1598F{They are very warlike people, and much given to follow that kind of life}not in 1598F}. The chief dignitaries who have command over the kingdom and its government are generally called Tonos. Yet, among them there are also different ranks, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as there are amongst our nobility princes, dukes, marquises, earls and barons}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. There is another sort of men among them who are in charge of the management of the matters of their church. These are shaven all over, and have no hair on their head, nor a beard. These may never marry, {1606E only{and vow to perpetual chastity}1606E only}. There are various different sects among these religious persons. There are some who, after the manner of the knights of Rhodes, jointly profess to arms as well as to religion, and they are generally called by one name, Bonzij.
165.19. They have in many places different great schools, such as we [would] call universities. The third sort of people among them are the citizens and other lower ranks of gentry. Next to those there are the retailers, hawkers, handymen and shopkeepers, craftsmen, and handicraft men of various occupations, very ingenious and skilful in their trades. {not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{They have many kinds of armoury and weapons of war, made of various materials, and excellently hardened}not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G}. They also master the art of printing with letters and stamps, {1606E only{not much unlike our way as invented and practised here in Europe}1606E only}.
165.20. The last sort and rank of people on these islands are the farmers. In general, this is a very subtle, witty and wise nation, of single endowments and excellent things of nature, both as regards accurate judgement, aptness of learning and excellence of memory. It is no shame or [cause for] reproach to be considered poor. Slanderous and cursing speeches, thieving, robberies and blasphemous oaths and swearing, and all kinds of dicing and gaming they utterly detest. Any offenders against the law, of whatever degree, are punished by no less a penalty than banishment, confiscation of goods, or death. {not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{Those which are to be executed are mostly beheaded suddenly, before they are aware of it}not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G}. Nevertheless, it is their manner in some places to carry those such as are caught for robberies in a certain kind of chariot around the city, for everyone to see, and [then] to crucify {1606E instead{hang}1606E instead} them outside the city walls. In the service of god, which is the chief element of justice and virtue, they err miserably.
165.21. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{Their guides and great masters in religion, teaching all the rest {1598F only{that they have various gods}1598F only}, are those who I said they call Bonzij}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Amongst the saints they worship, the main ones are those they call Amida and Xaca. They have also other idols of less importance among them, to whom they pray for health {not in 1606E{called Fotoquos, and others again}not in 1606E} for recovery from sickness, children, money and other things belonging to the body. These they call Camis. All of Japan, or the people of that name, were subjected in former times to one emperor, whom they called Vo or Dair, {not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G{(this was his title of honour and dignity)}not in 1597G5Add, 1598F, 1598/1610/1613D & 1602G} until the time that he grew effeminate and only cared for pleasures and ease {1598F only{as another Sardanapalus [last king of Assyria]}1598F only}, and got to be scorned and condemned by the lieutenants and nobility, especially by the Cubi {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{(for that is what they call the two chief princes to whom the government of the country was committed, of whom one later killed the other)}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
165.22. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Therefore the lieutenants of several shires, with their military men, having for some time endured such an idler, gradually began to loath his government and finally wholly shaking off the yoke of subjection, every lieutenant seized the province of which he was governor under the emperor}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. Thus, at one instant that united body and main empire of such a large command was shattered. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{In spite of all this, a kind of sovereign authority even to this very day remains [with]in [the authority of] the Dair, of distributing and giving titles of honour to the nobility, which correspond to the diversity of ranks, and [these tokens of honour] are shaped in the form of certain notes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}.
165.23. The chief and most mighty of all princes of Japan is he who either by force or cunning possesses Meacum, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{and the best kingdoms near to it, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which they generally by one name commonly call Tensa}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. This area was lately seized by Nubunanga, the tyrant I spoke of before. This king was slain through treason about two years ago, and his children murdered or banished. A certain Faxiba, {not in 1597G5Add, 1598F & 1602G{a chief captain of the rebels, by force and violence}not in 1597G5Add, 1598F & 1602G} got hold of the regal throne, and took it upon him to sway the sceptre over that kingdom}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
165.24. The honour and credit of [achieving] the first entrance to this island is claimed by the Portuguese, but I prefer to believe Antonio Galvano who reports in the book which he wrote about the Features of the Newly found World that Antonius Mota, Franciscus Zeimoris and Antonius Pexotus on their journey sailing from the city of Dodra {not in 1598/1610/1613D{in Sion}not in 1598/1610/1613D} on their way to China were blown by a contrary wind to the islands of the Japanese in the year 1542}1597G5Add & 1602G end here}. All this we have extracted from Maffeius [whom we] mentioned before, who discusses the matter at greater length}1598/1610/1613D ends here}, {not in 1598F{with many other things about these islands of Japan}not in 1598F}. About this subject there are [also] many things in the Epistles {1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{and the maps}1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} of {1598F only{Peres of the company of}1598F only} the Jesuits}1595L5Add, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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