Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 152

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin(ABC), 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin (AB), and 1574 Latin editions:

152.1. {1570L(AC){TRANSSYLVANIA.

152.2. Stephanus Broderith in his treatise printed at Basel, together with the Hungarian history of Antonius Bonfinius describes this country with these words: Transsylvania, he says, was once a part of Dacia. Its chief city is Alba Iulia [Balgrad], so called either after Iulius Cĉsar or rather after Hiula, a certain prince of the Huns. It has many other excellent towns, among which there are Cibinum [Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben], Brassovia [Kronstadt, Brasov, Brassò], Colosium [Clausenburg], Bistricia [Bestereze] and many others, built up and inhabited by a people of high Germany that we call Saxons.
152.3. In this country live the Siculi, a fierce and warlike people, among whom there are no tramps nor gentlemen, because all men are of equal rank, as is also the case among the Swiss. Transsylvania is very abundant in all kinds of things, especially in gold, silver and other metals, as also in salt dug from its mountains. It yields excellent horses and a great amount of wine, though not as good as [that from] Hungary and Slavonia. The two Walachies, [viz.] Walachie Transalpina and Moldavia enclose Transsylvania. One lies at the river Danube, the other at the Black Sea.
152.4. Both of them, together with Transsylvania now occupy that part of Europe which in ancient times was called Dacia. Thus, the whole area beyond [the] Danube which not only contains higher Hungary but also Transsylvania together with the two Walachies, is enclosed on every side by [the] Danube, the Carpathian hills, the Black Sea and again by the same Danube. So far Broderith.
152.5. I do not think it amiss here to publish its description [as taken] from Antonius Bonfinius' first decade of the first book of his history of Hungary. Beyond the Carpathian mountains, he says, is the utmost area of Dacia, extending even to the river Axiaces [Oczacow]. This is now commonly known by the name of Transsylvania. It is a most fertile country for cattle, wine and corn, and also for gold and silver.
152.6. Certain rivers bring down traces of gold, and [even] pieces, sometimes a pound and a half in weight, [the rivers] being all around beset with steep hills like a crown. In the woods are cows or oxen with long manes like horses, very swift and light in their running, and the horses have very long manes hanging down all the way to the ground. Those which are tame and have been brought up for service naturally have a very fine [and] easy way of walking.
152.7. This country is inhabited partly by the Scythians, partly by the Saxons and Daces. Those [first mentioned] are more civil, those [last mentioned] are more rude. In old times, before the attacks of the Goths and Huns, all Dacia was occupied by the Roman and Sarmatian settlements &c. See also George Rithmayer, Pius the second in his description of Europe, Ioannes Aventinus, and Martinus Cromer in his twelfth book on the history of Poland.
152.8. This country is commonly called Sibenburgh and [also] Zipserland, as Sebastian Münster has written}1570L(ABC), 1571L, 1573L(AB) & 1574L end here}.

Text, vernacular version translated from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German & 1572/1574 French editions:

152.9. {1571/1573D{Sevenburgen or Transsylvania.

152.10. Sevenburgen, so called by the Saxons, (as Rithaymer writes), because they are supposed to have built seven bulwarks there, is surrounded by a high and wild mountain range, like a city is surrounded by a wall, so that it is hard to get out or in, except through some narrow passage, where rivers leave the country, as in this case the river Alt [Oltul], which has the strong bulwark Rotthurn high above it, guarding passage. Similarly, the strong bullwark Bros guards the passage of the river Marisch [Maros]. The principal cities in this region are Hermannstadt [Nagyszeben], Cronstadt [Brasov], Schlespurg [Segesuar], Medwisch [Megies], Nosn [not on map], Clausenburg [Kolosuar], Millembach [Zaszebes], Weyssenburg [Balgrad], as their German names are, for otherwise, (there being more than one language in this land), they have each of them also specific names in the Hungarian language.
152.11. Its capital city is Cibinium, in German Hermannstadt, a big and strong city, with many marshes around it, hard to conquer. The second best city is Cronstadt [Brasov]. This city too, as regards the street for coming in and going out of the country is guarded by a strong bulwark called Turtsfest {1572/1573G only{to keep the street free and clean}1572/1573G only}. There is reasonable trade in merchandise which the Greeks carry out there. A two days journey from here lies the city of Tervis [unidentified] in the Walachy [area], a good merchant city, but under the Turks.
152.12. This land of Sevenburgen is full of people, mostly having come from Saxony, which still shows in their language, because they still speak the Saxon language, and they do not say was and das, but wat and dat. Also note that this country with its German language lies in the middle of regions with different languages, such as Hungarian and Windisch [Slavonic], just like Bohemia with its Windisch language is entirely surrounded by German, although in this Sevenburgen Hungarian is spoken in some places, and most of the geographical names such as of mountains, waters, have both in Hungarian and in German names.
152.13. It is a very fertile country, full of gold mines and in some rivers you also find specks of gold, even pieces as heavy as one and a half pound, as Bonfinius writes. People also mine much silver, copper, and iron, as also salt. Much wine grows here too, red and white, but not of such virtue as Hungarian wine. It is also very fertile in cattle and corn. They also have good wild horses, very fast when running, with manes hanging all the way to the ground. There are also wild oxen here and animals called aurochses, {not in 1572/1574F{with long hair}not in 1572/1574F}.
152.14. In this Sevenburgen there is also a special region, on the North side, called Zeckelland, with inhabitants excellent in war, among them neither noblemen nor farmers, but all equally capable, and they are not subjected by anyone, like the Swiss. They have three cities called stools, which are Kysdy, Orbay and Scepsy [unidentified]. Here they gather when they have their yearly meeting. These do not speak German, but Hungarian}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G & 1572/1574F end here}.

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