Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 15


Text:

First, scholarly text version, translated from the 1584 Latin 3rd Add., 1584 Latin, 1584 German 3rd Add., 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin editions:

15.1. {1584L3Add{PERU.{1608/1612I instead{LA PERVVIA OVERO [or] PERV}1608/1612I instead}.

15.2. The Spaniards divide the Southern part of America into five regions, namely what they call Golden Castilia, Popayana, Peru, Chili and Brazil. In former times, before the Spanish came there, still under the government of the Incas, Peru was much larger than at present, as Girava and others write. Now they confine it to Quito in the North, and {1606E only{Puerto de}1606E only} Plata {not in 1606E{or Villa Argentea}no in 1606E}{1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Villa de Plata}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} in the South. It was thus named after a river and a harbour called Peru. At present, they divide it, according to the situation, into three parts: the Sierras, the Andes and the plains. They call the land next to the sea the plain country. Sierras are the mountains, and the Andes is a region beyond the mountains towards the East.
15.3. The main city of this country of Peru is Lima or [ciudad] de los Reyes [city of the kings], where the chancery of the whole kingdom is located. It is the see of an archbishop as well, who under his jurisdiction has the following bishoprics: Quito, Cuzco, Guamanga, Arequipa, Paz, La Plata, Trujillo, Guanuco, Chachapoyas, Portus Vetus [Old Harbour] {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Puerto antiguo}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, Guayaquil, Popayŗn, Carchi, San Miguel, and San Francisco.
15.4. That this is the richest country in gold in the world, is written by these few among many others. Franciscus de Jerez writes that in Cuzco there were houses of which the floor, walls and roof were covered entirely with plates of gold. Girava reports that the inhabitants of the province of Anzerma are all armed in gold, from head to foot. Their coats of mail, their breast-plates, and their leg- and thigh-harnesses consist entirely of gold. The same author confirms that from certain gold mines near Quito they dig more gold than earth.
15.5. Those that have written the story of King Atabalipa [Atahualpa], the last king of Peru, agree that he offered so much gold to the Spaniards for his ransom as the room where he was kept prisoner could contain. It was twenty-two {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{twenty}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}{1602G has instead{26}1602G instead} feet long and seventeen feet wide. He offered to fill this with gold as high as he could reach with his longest finger on the wall. Or if they preferred, (note also the infinite quantity of silver in this region) he offered to fill it twice with silver, even to the very roof. It has also been recorded that when the Spanish first entered this country, they shod their horses with gold and silver shoes {not in 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1621S{as appears from documents {not in 1584G3Add & 1588S{and monuments}not in 1584G3Add, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}.
15.6. This region in times past was governed by Incas (which word means kings, or supreme governors) of whom I find a listing or pedigree {not in 1606E{in Diego or {1595L, not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Jacobus}1595L, not in 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S} Fernandez. The first was MANGO CAPA. The Peruvians deny that he was born of a man, supposing that he was made out of a certain rock which can be seen near Cuzco. This man begat from his wife Mama Guaco a son named SICHEROCA. Being even more warlike than his father, he subdued many bordering nations, and enlarged the confines of his empire. Of his wife Mama Cura he begat LOCVCO PANGVE, the third Inca. This king preferred to keep that which his father had obtained, rather than making new conquests to augment his dominions.
15.7. At an advanced age he took Mama Anaverque as his wife, who bore him a son and successor called MAYTA CAPA. This successor of his joined the province of Cuzco to his father's empire. Of his wife Mama Yacchidela he begat a son named CAPAC YVPANGV who achieved nothing worth remembering. He too had by his wife Mama Cagna a son called INGA RVCA. But he did not achieve any memorable deed in his life either, except that he took as his wife Mama Micay from whom he begat many sons.
15.8. About one of them, named Yaguar Guac Inga Iupangue, they report this story: as a child of three months old, he was taken away by a certain Cacique, to be murdered. But while they were discussing whether they should kill him or not, it came to pass that drops of blood trickled from the infant's eyes, which they regarded as a prodigious sign, which stopped their intention to murder him. After that, being found by a stranger and restored to his father, he grew up as a most valiant and warlike prince, as he subdued many bordering nations. He married Mama Chiquia, who gave birth to his son VIRA COCHA, who succeeded him to rule the empire, and who enlarged it quite a bit.
15.9. After him his son PACHACOTI reigned, born from his wife Mama Yunto Cayan. This prince, who surpassed all his ancestors in martial undertakings, conquered various and diverse nations. He laid the first foundations of the castle of Cuzco. When he died, he left behind him as his heir TOPA INGA YUPANGVE, begotten from his wife Mama Anabarque. This one not only finished the castle that had been founded by his father, but following him in his footsteps as a warrior, he won from his neighbours the kingdoms of Chili and Quito, annexing them to his crown.
15.10. He was the initiator of the public highways, most wonderful in the world, which run from Cuzco to Charcas and on to Chili. These are all entirely built from Chasqui, (or, as we would call them, wooden piles), making the journey over them very short. Benefiting from this, he marched in the company of speedy footmen (a thing incredible to our ears) the distance of 120 leagues {1602G only{or Spanish miles}1602G only} in three days (since before the coming of the Spaniards the inhabitants had no knowledge of animals of burden).
15.11. This king had more than 150 sons. But he ordained GVAYNA CAPA whom he had by his wife mama Oclo to be his heir. Although this son had such a valiant father, famous in peace and war, yet, by his brave undertakings he far surpassed this father. For he extended the bounds of the Peruvian empire much further than they ever were before. He brought his commonwealth into a much better shape, reformed many laws and ordained some new ones. He took as his wife Coya Pilico Vaco, with whom he could not have any offspring.
15.12. He also had various other wives, from which he begat sons, not just equal, but superior in numbers to those of his father. The eldest of these was GVASCAR [Huascar], whose mother's name was Rava Oclo. He had another son, named ATABALIPA [Atahualpa]. Some difference of opinion arose between these two concerning the government of the kingdom, Atabalipa residing in Cajamarca, and Guascar in Cuzco. Atabalipa marched then with an army against his brother, came out victorious, captured him and carried him captive to Cuzco, where he later put him to death, and was burned there himself by the Spaniards. This was the end of the two brothers.
15.13. Upon which MANGO Inga, a third brother, took over the government, because Guayna Capa, as we mentioned before, had many wives and sons. When Mango died, he appointed as his heir Inga XAIRE TOPA, who married Coyo Cuxi Varcay, daughter of Guascar. This man changed his name before he was crowned with the imperial diadem, and now called himself MANGO CAPA PACHVTI YVPANGE. But he submitted himself to King Philip [the second] {1602G only{of Spain}1602G only}, and became his vassal. This happened in the year 1557, on the fifth of January, at the very feast of Epiphany.
15.14. To these Incas, and their memorable deeds, Pedro de Cieza {1606E only{de Leon}1606E only} has promised to devote an entire book. Whether he has meanwhile done this or not I do not know. {1595L, not in 1602G{So much about their kings. Let us now on the basis of three worthy eye witnesses add something about the nature and disposition of the people.
15.15. Girolami Benzoni of Milan who lived for many years in those countries, in his book about the New world dedicated to Pope Pius IV {1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead have{VI}[which is not correct because pope Pius IV was pope from 1559-1565 and Pius VI was pope from 1775-1799]1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, writes that the inhabitants of Peru are naturally gifted with a sharper and more subtle mind than any other Indians subdued by the Spanish. The same author (speaking of them elsewhere) says: Mark my words. I can by no means be induced to believe what some report about them, namely that they are addicted to theft, and that, according to their laws, the most petty robber deserves to be hanged.
15.16. But who can imagine them to be thieves, they, who are neither covetous nor rich, esteeming nothing to be more ordinary than silver and gold, as they do? Of which, if they intended to do so, they might without impediment take as much out of the mines as they would like to, like water from a fountain. Unless perhaps they have learned from the Spaniards, who have established colonies &c. in that country, how to become thieves. Bartholomť de las Casas, a Spaniard belonging to the order of the Dominicans and bishop of Chiapas, a city in the New World, in the volume entitled The destruction of the Indies, dedicated to king Philip, calls them a peaceful, humble, gentle and harmless nation. And somewhere else: simple, plain people, void of any malice, most obedient and faithful, not only to their own natural princes, but also to Christians that have command over them.
15.17. And of any people in the whole world, these are of the most quiet disposition, not given to brawling or outcry, nor greedy of taking revenge. Friar Jodocus [Joos] de Rijcke, of the Franciscan order, {not in 1608/1612I{born in Mechelen}not in 1608/1612I}, who in Quito, a city in this region, erected the first monastery of his order, writes in his letters (which I have read myself) to the guardian of the Franciscans at Antwerp as follows: all these Indians (he says) thirst after the faith, and even if they are barbarous, and without learning, still nature has taught them an excellent form of government and behaviour.
15.18. Among them no beggar is to be found, although they have little food and apparel. And a little further: among them was found such great justice and integrity of life, that they excel in this even above those who abound with books and learning. The same author, in another letter to the friars of his order in Flanders: it is (he says) a witty, bold and warlike nation, giving us hope that they will easily be converted to Christianity, if they are not discouraged from doing so by the Spaniards' greediness. These letters, I think, have not been printed. The original manuscripts were bestowed on me by the worthy citizen Adriaen van Marselaer, senator of Antwerp, through his singular humanity and in support of my studies on this subject.
15.19. This senator was kinsman through his mother's side to the Jodocus we just mentioned. This F. Jodocus is also mentioned by Girolamo Benzoni, & Pedro Cieza, a Spaniard, in their stories on the [West] Indies}1595L, not in 1602G}.

15.20. FLORIDA.

15.21. This is a part of North America {1584G3Add & 1602G only{towards the South}1584IG3Add & 1602G only}. It is called Florida {1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{[which is pronounced with a] long i}1592L, not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} in connection with the feast of Easter, which the Spaniards call Pascha Florida, because on that very day in the year of our Lord 1512, it was {1592L, not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{(as I read in Girava) under the leadership of Juan Ponce de LeÚn}1592L} that its coast were discovered and explored}not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. Thevet writes, which agrees with this, that it was called by its name on account of its being green and flourishing. {1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{By the inhabitants it was named Iaquasa}1595L but not in 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. The French have more than once attempted to establish a colony here.
15.22. But so far they have never been able to accomplish this because of resistance of the Spaniards, who often expelled them from there. It is inhabited by savage, forlorn and beastly people. They live on spiders, ants, lizards, serpents and other poisonous and creepy creatures. The region is very fruitful, and also rich in gold. {1592L, not in 1602G{Concerning this country, Jacobus Colius {1601L, not in 1606E & 1608/1612I{Ortelianus}1601L, not in 1606E & 1608/1612I}, my nephew, writes to me as follows, recorded from the mouth of an eye witness: the inhabitants are of a brownish colour, but the king's wives are made black by some artifice.
15.23. The king has the power to give, or rather to sell wives to those who desire to marry. A married woman who is found to be adulterous is for her treachery punished, and bound with her back to a tree from morning to night, her arms and legs stretched out, and she is sometimes beaten with rods. Within three hours after giving childbirth, their women carry off their infants and wash them in the river.
15.24. They have no hatchets, except of wood, not of stone. Instead of ploughs, they have wooden shovels, with which they open the soil, and sow a kind of grain commonly called Turkish wheat, of which they have two or three {1608/1612I has instead{3 or 4}1608/1612I instead} crops a year. They also have pheasants &c. They sow in the months of May, June and July, and reap within six weeks after that}1592L}. {1595L{concerning this region read the book by Iacobus {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{Monachus}not in 1602S &1609/1612/1641S} Morguetus}1595L, not 1602G}.

15.25. GVASTECAN.

15.26. This is also a region of North America, and part of New Spain. The inhabitants are poor. Along the sea coasts and the banks of the rivers they live mostly on fish, but in the inland on a kind of wheat which they call maize. They are very gentle people. The Spaniards have founded two colonies here. One is called Panuco after the river that flows past it, the other is Santiago of the Valleys. Not far from Panuco, near the town called Tamatao, there is a hill with two springs on it. One of these disgorges black pitch, and the other red pitch, which is scalding hot}1584L3Add, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Secon, vernacular text version, translated from the 1585F3Add, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

15.27. {1585F3Add{PERV

15.28. The Spaniards divide the Southern part of America into five regions, namely what they call {not in 1598F{The golden Castilia which they also call}not in 1598F} Castella aurea, Popayana, Peru, Chili and Brazil. {1598/1610/1613D only{Girava and others write that}1598/1610/1613D only} in former times, before the Spanish came there, still under the government of the Ingas [Incas], Peru was much larger than at present. Now they confine it to Quito {1598/1610/1613D only{in the North}1598/1610/1613D only}, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{the coast of Bize}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, and Plata {not in 1598/1610/1613D{or Villa Argentea}not in 1598/1610/1613D} in the South. It was thus named after a river and harbour called Peru. At present, they divide it, according to the situation, into three parts: the Sierras, Andes and Plains. They call the land next to the sea the plain country. Sierras are the mountains, and Andes is a region beyond the mountains towards the East.
15.29. The main city of this country of Peru is Lima or [Ciudad} de los Reyes [or city of the kings], where the chancery of the whole kingdom is located. {1598/1610/1613D only{Here is also the archbishop's see under which reside the bishoprics of Quito, Cuzco, Guamanga, Arequipa, Pax, La Plata, Trujillo, Guanaco, Chachapoyas, Porto vieio, Guayaquil, PopayŠn, Carchi, San Miguel and San Francisco}1598/610/1613D only}.
15.30. Limited information evidently demonstrates that this is the richest country in gold in the world, compared to many others. Francesco de Jerez writes that in Cuzco there were houses of which the floor, walls and roof were covered entirely with plates of gold. Girava reports that the inhabitants of the province of Anzerma go to war all armed in gold, from head to foot. Their coats of mail, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{their breast-plates, and their leg and thigh harnesses}not in 1598/1610/1613D} consist entirely of gold. The same author confirms that from certain gold mines near Quito they dig more gold than earth.
15.31. Those that have written the story of King Atabalipa, the last king of Peru, agree that he offered so much gold to the Spaniards for his ransom as the room where he was kept prisoner could contain. It was twenty-two feet long and seventeen feet wide. He offered to fill this with gold as high as he could reach with his longest finger on the wall. Or if they preferred, (note also the infinite quantity of silver in this region) he offered to fill it twice with silver, even to the very roof. It has also been recorded that when the Spanish first entered this country, they shod their horses with gold and silver shoes.
15.32. This region in times past was governed by Incas (which word means Kings, or supreme Governors) of whom I find a pedigree by Diego {1598/1610/1613D only{or Jacob}1598/1610/1613D only} Fernandez. The first was Mango Capa. The Peruvians deny that he was born of a man, supposing that he was made out of a certain rock which can be seen near Cuzco. This man begat from his wife Mama Guaco a son named Sicheroca. Being even more warlike than his father, he subdued many bordering nations, and enlarged the confines of his empire. Of his wife Mama Cura he begat Locuco Pangue, the third Inca. This king preferred to keep that which his father had obtained, rather than making new conquests to augment his dominions.
15.33. At an advanced age he took Mama Anauerque as his wife, who bore him a son and successor called Mayta Capa. This successor of his joined the province of Cuzco to his father's Empire. Of his wife {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Mama Yacchidela}not in 1598/1610/1613D} he begat a son named Capacyupangu who achieved nothing worth remembering. He too had by his wife Mama Cagna a son called Inga Ruca. But he did not achieve any memorable deed in his life either, except that he took as his wife Mama Micay from whom he begat many sons.
15.34. About one of them, named Yaguar Guac Inga Iupangue, they report this story: as a child of three months old, he was taken away by a certain Cacique to be murdered. But while they were discussing whether they should kill him or not, it came to pass that drops of blood trickled from the {1598/1610/1613D only{crying}1598/1610/1613D only} infant's eyes, which they regarded as a prodigious sign which stopped their intention to murder him. After that, being found by a stranger and restored to his father, he grew up as a most valiant and warlike prince, as he subdued many bordering nations. He married Mama Chiquia, who gave birth to his son Vira Cocha, who succeeded him to rule the empire, and who enlarged it quite a bit.
15.35. After him his son Phacicoti reigned, born from his wife Mama Yunto Cayan. This prince, who surpassed all his ancestors in martial undertakings, conquered various nations. He laid the first foundations of the castle of Cuzco. When he died, he left behind him as his heir Topa Inga Yupange, begotten from his wife Mama Anabarque. This one not only finished the castle that had been founded by his father, but following him in his footsteps as a warrior, he won from his neighbours the kingdoms of Chili and Quito.
15.36. He was the initiator of the royal highways, most wonderful in the world, which run from Cuzco to Charcas and on to Chili. These are all entirely built from {1598/1610/1613D only{Chasquas, that is}1598/1610/1613D only} wooden piles, making the journey over them very short. Benefiting from this, he marched, (a thing incredible to our ears) the distance of 120 leagues in three days (since before the coming of the Spaniards the inhabitants had no knowledge of horses).
15.37. This king had more than 150 sons. But he ordained Guayna Capa whom he had by his wife Mama Oclo to be his heir. Although this son had such a valiant father, famous in peace and war, yet, by his brave undertakings he far surpassed his father. For he extended the bounds of the Peruvian empire much further. He brought his commonwealth into a much better shape, reformed many laws and ordained some new ones. He took as his wife Coya Pilico Vaco, with whom he could not have any offspring.
15.38. He also had various other wives, from which he begat sons, not just equal, but superior in number to those of his father. The eldest of these was Guascar, whose mother's name was Rava Oclo. He had another son, named Atabalipa. Some difference of opinion arose between these two concerning the government of the kingdom, Atabalipa residing in Casamalca, and Guascar in Cuzco. Atabalipa marched then with an army against his brother, came out victorious, captured him and carried him captive to Cuzco, where he later put him to death, and was burned there himself by the Spaniards. This was the end of the two brothers.
15.39. Upon which Mango Inga, a third brother, took over the government {not in 1598/1610/1613D{(because Guayna Capa, as we mentioned before, had many wives and sons)}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. When Mango died, he appointed as his heir Inga Xaires Topa, who married Coya Cuxi Varcay, daughter of Guascar. This man changed his name before he was crowned, and now called himself Mango Capa Pachuti Yupange. But he submitted himself to king Philip [the second], and became his vassal. This happened in the year 1557, on the fifth {1598/1610/1613D instead{fifth}1598/1610/1613D instead} of January, at the very feast of Epiphany.

15.40. FLORIDA.

15.41. This is a part of North America is called Florida {1598D only{pronouced with a long i}1598D only} in connection with Pascha Florida as the Spanish call it, because on that very day in the year 1512, it was that they discovered its coasts, {1598/1610/1613D only{as Girava writes, under their leader Juan Ponce de LeÚn}1598/1610/1613D only}. Thevet (like the previous) writes that it was called by its name on account of its being green and flourishing. The French have more than once attempted to establish a colony here to send people to live there.
15.42. But so far they have never been able to accomplish this because of resistance of the Spaniards, who often expelled them from there. It is inhabited by savage, forlorn and beastly people. They live on {1598/1610/1613D only{heads of}1598/1610/1613D only} spiders, ants, lizards, serpents and similar other poisonous creatures. The region is very fruitful, and rich in gold.{1598/1610/1613D only{Concerning this country, Jacobus Colius, my nephew, writes to me as follows, recorded from the mouth of an eye witness: the inhabitants are of a brownish colour, but the king's wives are made black by some artifice.
15.43. The king has the power to give, or rather to sell wives to those who desire to marry. A married woman who is found to be adulterous is for her treachery punished, and bound with her back to a tree from morning to night, her arms and legs stretched out, and she is beaten with rods by way of punishment. Within three hours after giving childbirth, their women carry off their infants and wash them in the river.
15.44. They have no axes or spades, except of wood. Instead of ploughs, they have wooden boards, with which they open the soil, and they sow a kind of grain commonly called Turkish wheat, of which they have two or three crops a year. They also have pheasants &c. They sow in the months of May, June and July, and reap within six weeks after that}1598/1610/1613D only}.

15.45. GVASTECAN.

15.46. This is also a region of North America, and part of New Spain. The inhabitants are poor. Along the sea coasts and the banks of the rivers they live mostly on fish, but in the inland on a kind of wheat which they call maize. Further, they are very gentle people. The Spaniards have founded two colonies here. One is called Panuco after the river that flows past it, the other is Santiago of the Valleys. Not far from Panuco, near the town called Tamatao, there is a hill with two springs on it. One of these disgorges black pitch, and the other red pitch, which is scalding hot}1585F3Add, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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