Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 142

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1591 German 4 Add, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition. Note the unusual inclusion of the 1598 French edition among the scholarly texts:

142.1. {1590L4Add{The isle of ISCHIA.

142.2. That this island was formerly called ÆNARIA, ARIMA, INARIMA and PITHECVSA has been sufficiently witnessed by Homerus, Aristoteles, Strabo, Plinius, Vergilius, Ovidius and other writers. Now it is called ISCHIA after the name of the city here, built upon the top of a hill in a shape somewhat resembling a hip bone, as Hermolius Barbarus testifies, {1606E only{which by the Greek is called Ischia}1606E only}, or [alternatively] after the strength and defensibility of the place, as Volaterranus thinks.
142.3. Although it seems certain that these are just synonyms for one and the same island, yet Mela, Livius and Strabo seem to take Ænaria and Pithecusa [to be] two distinct islands. And also Ovidius seems to do this in these verses [Metamorphosae Bk 14, line 90]: Inarimen Prochitámq. legit, steriliq. locatas Colle Pithecusas, habitantum nomine dictas, {1591G4Add, 1602G, & 1606E only{[that is:] By Inarime he sails, by Procida island, by barren Pithecuse, A town on top of a hill, bearing the name of its inhabitants}1591G4Add & 1602G only} where wily apes roam}1606E only}. Where by Pithecusas he means, as I think, the city anciently (as also now) of the same name as the whole island.
142.4. Although it can now be seen to be joined to the island, yet in former times it was called Gerunda, and it was separated from and not joined to the isle, as Pontanus, a trustworthy man, says in the second book which he wrote on the wars of Naples. There he says that in his time it was joined to the island by a dam made between them. Procida, not far distant from there, (about which Plinius writes that it was separated from Pithecusa) {not in 1591G4Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{shows that it was sometimes joined to and sometimes not joined to this island}not in 1591G4Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S}.
142.5. The same author says, like Strabo, writes that all of this was cut off from the mainland and was part of cape Miseno {1591G4Add & 1602G only{separated from the promontory of Campania}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. This is confirmed by Pontanus whom we mentioned before in his sixth book {not in 1606E{about the Naples war}not in 1606E} in these words: That Ænaria, he says, was cut off from the mainland is proved by many things, namely, the torn rocks, the hollow ground full of caves, the nature of the soil which is like that on the mainland, [namely] dry and issuing hot springs and fountains.
142.6. It breeds flaming fires in the middle of the earth, for which reason it is manifest that it contains much alume. Andreas Baccius in his famous book on the baths of the whole world writes that this island resembles Campania (of which it was once a part) not only with respect to the fertility of its soil, but also for the likeness and similitude of its baths.
142.7. Erythræus, [basing himself] on the ninth {1608/1612I has instead{sixth}1608/1612I instead} book of Vergilius' Æneiads thinks that it was called Arima {not in 1598F & 1606E{by Homerus}not in 1598F & 1606E} after a kind of people or some wild beasts with that name, {1590L4Add, but not in 1591G4Add, 1598F & 1602G{and that Vergilius was the first, when he translated the expression of Homerus [in Greek script] ein arimois after the Ionian preposition [in Greek script] ein and arimois, altering the declension and number}1590L4Add but not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}, made the new word Inarime {not in 1606E{which is contradicted by Plinius {1606E only{in the 6th chapter of his 3rd book}1606E only}and {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Solinus}1608/1612I only} {not in 1608/1612I{also named}1606E only} Polyhistor}not in 1608/1612I only} who say that it was also called Inarima by Homerus}not in 1598F}.
142.8. And as the same Plinius reports, it was called Ænaria after the ships of Æneas which were put into the harbour here, & Pithecusa, not after the great number of apes here {not in 1606E{as some think}not in 1606E}, but after pottery-makers {1598F only{of which there are many}1598F only}. But this is a view which the same Erythræus in the place mentioned before exerts himself to deny as being not altogether according to the truth {not in 1598F{because he has not read in any author about pots being made there}not in 1598F}.
142.9. Yet, Servius in my judgment seems, following the 6th book of Vergilius' Æneads cited, to side with Plinius where he says that near Cumæa {1591G4Add & 1602G only{in Campania near Naples}1591G4Add & 1602G only} there was a certain place named Doliola {1590L4Add, 1592L & 1606E only{which means, if we interpret it, container}1590L4Add, 1592L & 1606E only}. And it is more likely that this island should take its name from that place with which it was once united, according to the opinion of these good authors, rather than from apes {1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G{(for I do not believe the fable of Ovidius)}1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G}, of which beasts there are none here, nor ever there were.
142.10. That this island from the beginning has been subjected to earthquakes, flames of fire and hot waters often breaking forth, we know for sure from Strabo and Plinius. The mountain which Strabo calls Epomeus and Plinius Epopos, (now they call it St. Nicolas mount), is supposed to have burned internally at the bottom for the same reason, and being shaken by earthquakes, to have cast great flakes of fire now and then.
142.11. As a result, it is here that the fable arose about Typhon the giant {not in 1598F{(about whom you may have read in Homerus, Vergilius, Silius Italicus {1595L, not in 1602G{(who calls him Iapetes)}1595L, not in 1602G}, Lucanus and others), as the same Strabo says, who they imagine to lie underneath this hill, and to breathe out fire and water}not in 1598F}. It has been shown conclusively that it [this island] is wonderfully fertile by recent writers [such as] Ioannes Elysius, Franciscus Lombardus, Ioannes Pontanus, {not in 1598F{Solenander, Andrea Baccius}not in 1598F} and most clearly by Iasolinus, the author of this map. He lists in it, next to the 18 {1608/1612I has instead{12}1608/1612I instead} natural baths about which others have written, there are 35 {1608/1612I has instead{3}1608/1612I instead} other baths, first discovered by himself.
142.12. Besides these baths, the same author mentions 19 {1608/1612I has instead{11}1608/1612I instead} stoves or hothouses (fumarolas they call them) and 5 [baths with] medicinal sands, excellent for health {1606E instead{for the drying up of raw humours}1606E instead}. About this fire in the bowels of the earth}not in 1598F}, Aristoteles in his book Admiranda says that there are certain stoves which burn with a fiery kind of force and exceedingly fervent heat, and yet they never burst into flames.
142.13. But Elysius, Pandulphus and Pontanus report to the contrary. There is a place on this island of Ischia, about a mile from the city with the same name, which, because of the raging fire that burnt here in the time of Carolus II in the year 1301 has now retained its own name {1590L4Add, not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{Cremate}1590L4Add, not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}. For here the bowels of the earth opened up and by the flashing fire that flamed out, a great part of it was consumed to such an extent that a small village that was first burned down, was at last utterly swallowed. And casting huge stones up into the air, mixed with smoke, fire and dust, which coming down by their own weight and violence scattered here and there on the ground, and turned a most fertile and pleasant island into a waste and desolate [one].
142.14. This fire continued [to burn] for two months, so that many, both men and beasts, were destroyed by it, and [the fire] forced many to take themselves and their belongings either by ship to the adjacent islands or to the mainland. Yet this island is for many things very fruitful, for it has excellent good wines of various kinds, like that which they call Greek wine, Roman and Sorbinian [wine] and Cauda caballi{1591G4Add, 1598F, 1602G, & 1608/1612I only{or horse tail}1591G4Add, 1598F, 1602G & 1608/1612I only}.
142.15. {not in 1598F{It produces good corn around mount Epomeo}not in 1598F} {1606E instead{St. Nicholas}1606E instead}. On [this island] the cedar, the lemon trees {1591G4Add & 1602G only{which come from Mauretania}1591G4Add & 1602G only} and the quince trees grow everywhere in great numbers. Alume and brimstone are found deep within the earth. It has for a very long time had some veins of gold, as Strabo {not in 1598F{and Elysius}not in 1598F} have written, {not in 1598F{and it still has [gold] today, as Iasolinus says}not in 1598F}. Around its hill (commonly called Monte Ligoro) there is a great hunting of pheasants, hares, rabbits and other wild beasts of the woods.
142.16. Near cape St. Angelo {1606E has instead{Nicholas}1606E instead} they catch much fish, and also find much coral. Not far from there is the harbour Ficus or Fichera where the water coming out of the earth boils so hot that meat or fish is boiled in it very quickly, and yet these retain a pleasant taste. There is a fountain which they call Nitroli which is admirable because of its great virtues to cure certain diseases, but also, if you put flax into it, it will turn it white as snow within three days at the most.
142.17. The author of this map says that this isle for its size, good climate, fertility of its soil, metal mines [and] strong wines surpasses the other 25 islands which there are in the bay of Naples. Between the foreland Acus {1606E only{[that is] the needle}1606E only}, and the other one named Cephalino there is a large cave that is a safe harbour for ships, especially for pinnacles and other such small ships {1598F only{because it is not deep here}1598F only}. It is likely that Æneas landed here, about which Ovidius speaks, as also Pompeius, when he sailed from Sicilia to Pozzuoli {1591G4Add & 1602G only{a city in Campania}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. Appianus writes about this in the 5th book of his Civil wars.
142.18. On this same island, opposite Cumæ, there is a lake that is always full of sea gulls or fen ducks {not in 1591G4Add, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S 1609/1612/1641S{(Larus or Fulica)}not in 1591G4Add, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} {1590L4Add but not in 1591G4Add & 1602G{which are very profitable for the inhabitants}1590L4Add but not in 1591G4Add & 1602G}{1608/1612I has instead{which are good to eat}1608/1612I instead}. The words of Plinius, speaking about this island, are worth noting. On this island, he says, a whole town sunk. And at another occasion, as the result of an earthquake, the firm land became a standing pool,}1591G4Add & 1602G end here} {not in 1598F{stagnum he calls it (although anciently written copies have statinas instead of stagnum, in which place the learned Scaliger would have preferred to find stativas, meaning standing waters).
142.19. {1595L{The same Plinius has recorded that if one here cuts down a cedar tree, it will shoot forth and bud again}1595L, not in 1598F}. Livius says that the Chalcidenses of Eubœa {1608/1612I only{or Negroponte}1608/1612I only} were the first to inhabit this island, but Strabo says the [first inhabitants] were the Eretrienses who also came from the isle of Eubœa {1608/1612I has instead{Negroponte}1608/1612I instead}. {1595L, not in 1598F{I think that Athenæus in his 9th book means this island, although he does not mention it, which he says he saw (as he sailed from Dicæarchia to Naples) being inhabited by few people, but full of rabbits}1595L, not in 1598F}.
142.20. There is also near this [island of] Procida, {not in 1598F{an island so named not after Æneas' nurse, but because it was profusa ab Ænaria, severed from Ænaria or}not in 1598F}, as Strabo writes in his 5th book, from Pithecusæ. Yet, he writes {not in 1608/1612I{in his 1st book}not in 1608/1612I} that it was separated from Miseno, but both may be true, for one as well as the other may have been torn from the mainland by inundations and tempestuous storms.
142.21. The poets pretend that Minas the giant lies under this island, like Typhon lies under Ischia. {not in 1591G4add, 1602G& 1606E{Hence Silius Italicus writes in his book 12: Apparet Prochita sæuum sortita Mimantem [Prochita seems to belong to savage Minas}not in 1591G4Add, 1602G & 1606E}. About which Horatius writes to Calliope in his 3rd book of Poems. Andreas Baccius writes about this isle like this: It is a small isle, he says, but very pleasant, rich with metals and hot baths, yet, because of its continuous fires {not in 1598F{which the tides of the sea kindle in it, as Strabo writes}not in 1598F}, it was never much inhabited. It still retains its ancient name, for they now call it Procida}1590L4Add & 1592L end here}. {1595L{About this island you may read more in Scipio Mazella {not in 1598F & 1608/1612I{in his additions to the volume of Elysius}not in 1598F & 1608/1612I} on the Baths of Pozzuoli}1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1598/1610/1613 Dutch edition:

142.22. {1598/1610/1613D{Ischia.

142.23. Ischia lies in the Mediterranean and used to be called Ænaria, but now it is called Ischia after a city of that name on it which may have been a separate island by itself, (as also Pontanus testifies), but became joined to the main land. Truly, most of these islands were joined to the main land, but have been torn off again by tempests and thunder. On the isle of Ischia the eroded rocks, the caves in the ground similar to those on the main land, dry and full of hot springs. It has some underground fires, and hence a lot of alum. Andreas Baccius writes about it in his famous book on hot baths all over the world.
142.24. This island has the fertility of Campania, to which it used to be connected, but it also has the same kind of hot baths. From Strabo and Plinius we understand that it is very prone to earthquakes, and also that sometimes rivers and hot springs erupt there. In the reign of Carolus II in the year 1301 a huge fire erupted from the earth, with terrible noise, hurling stones and fire and smoke near a place called Cremate, and it lasted for two full months. The most fertile part of the island was very much damaged by this violence.
142.25. Further, this island is very fertile. It produces many kinds of wine, as many ancient and modern writers testify, and good corn near the mountain Epomeus. You will find the lemon tree, ceder tree and quince tree here everywhere. Alume and sulpher are dug from the earth here. It also has gold, according to ancient and modern writers. Near mount Ligori there is much hunting of pheasants, hares, rabbits and other wild animals. Near the promontory of St. Angelus many fishes as well as corals are caught. Not far from there is the harbour of Fichera, where hot water issues from the earth which will cook meat and fish in a short while, yet having an excellent taste.
142.26. There is also a fountain called Nitroli which heals many illnesses and which bleaches hemp within three days when soaked in it. The author of this map [Iasolinus] states that this island, and twenty five others which he distinguishes in the bay of Naples, have a very temperate climate, and great fertility of the earth, excelling in noble wines above all others. The island of Procida lies close to Ischia. It is a small and lovely island, rich in metals and hot springs. It has few inhabitants because of its numerous vulcanic eruptions to which it is subject. It still retains its old name of Procida}1598/1610/1613D ends here}.

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