Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 132

Text, one scholarly version only, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition.

132.1. {1608/1612I{The duchy of PARMA and PIACENZA.

132.2. That part of Lombardy or the Po area {1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S instead{Gallia Cisalpina which is anciently called Cispadana}1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S instead} or Æmilia contains the duchy of Parma and Piacenza, extending its borders from the river Leuk to where the river Tidone {not in 1609/1612/1641S{empties into the Po}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. This region may be regarded as the breast of Lombardy, because of its fertility {1609/1612L{for crops and its abundance of cattle}1609/1612L}; for this plain area {1609/1612L{of Reggio}1609/1612L is watered by the Po and also by other rivers and brooks derived from them {1609/1612L{by the industry of man}1609/1612L}. It has fertile fields and pastures, as well as land for wheat, beans, watermelons and other crops, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{some fields being adorned with blossoming trees, others with vines of all kinds, a wonder to behold. Thus, it is rich with cattle, crops, fruits and wine, excellent in colour and taste}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
132.3. Of milk there is truly a miraculous flood, as proved by the immense quantities of noble Parmezan cheese {not in 1609/1612/1641S{(including cheese from Piacenza and Laudia), about which we know that the largest weigh about 200 pounds, as scales testify, much in demand in the surrounding area, far and wide}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Next to this there are numerous flocks of sheep, recommended for the high quality of their wool. {1609/1612L{Martialis [Epigrammata Bk. 5 § 811]already said in his own age:
132.4. Also, Gallic Parma shears its innumerable sheep, and also, speaking about other Italian sorts of wool: Apulia is formost in wool, Parma is second, and the sheep honour Alticcione in the third place}1609/1612L}. Nor does it lack medicinal water, excellent to fight diseases. Parma, an ancient city, is the capital of this area, and became a Roman settlement together with Mutina [Modena], as Livius relates in his 39th book [§ 55]. {1609/1612/1641S only{Eodem anno Mutina & Parma, Coloniæ Romanorum ciuium sunt deductæ ; Bina millia hominum in agrum quæ proxime Boiorum, ante Thuscorum fuerat. Octona iugera Parmæ, quina Mutinæ acceperunt;deduxerunt triumuiri Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, T.Ebutius Carus, L.Quinctius Crispinus [In the same year, colonies of Roman citizens were established in Modena and Parma, consisting of 2000 people. To them, the fields were distributed which had belonged to the Boii and before them to the Etruscans. Eight acres is what those in Parma received, whereas the Modenans received 5 acres. The triumvires charged with this were Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, T. Aebutius Carus, and L. Quinctius Crispinus}1609/1612/1641S only}. Who first founded it is a matter treated differently by different authors. If we believe brother Giovanni Annius {1609/1612/1641S{who writes fables which we will not discuss here}1609/1612/1641S only} {not in 1609/1612/1641S{says that it was founded by Bianor, who also founded Mantua which is supposed to be an abbreviated word of Etruscan origin, comparable to Paraman. And in the same manner as he established Mantua, named after his mother, as the capital in the area beyond the Po, in the same way as he is supposed to have named Paraman after the rulers of the settlement, because Par means spear or ruler in Arameic, and man means city. Others assert that it was named after a round shield called parma at the time}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Others again state that it was named Parma after the river traversing Parma.
132.5. This river, which originates in the Apennine mountain range above Belvederium, crosses the road Æmilia and separating the city of Parma from its suburbs, passes the well known city of Colorno and finally empties into the Po. Parma itself is situated on the Æmilian road in an extended plain, five miles distant from the Appenine mountain range, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{separated from the western suburbs by a stone bridge}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. As concerns its buildings, it is of a magnificent splendour, and it provides rich produce of all kinds of necessities for life. Its inhabitants are friendly, noble, spiritual and nimble-minded, not only in matters of governance, but also in the humanities and military matters.
132.6. As regards their governance, since nothing can be determined with certainty from ancient times, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{it may be reasonable to suppose that it was under Roman rule, like the other cities of Italy, as long as the emperors or their representatives ruling the Legatidori and Essarchi safeguarded the esteem of the empire. When this was lost, it must have seized independence after the example of other cities}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Subsequently, depending on the specific circumstances, it allied itself sometimes with emperors, at other times with the popes of Rome, displaying the banner of the republic on a chariot called carrotium, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{occasionally providing assistance to allied peoples, particularly those from Bologna to whom the people of Parma always felt very closely related}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
132.7. Often they supported the church of Rome, particularly against Frederick the Second, whose strong siege they withstood for two years, around the year of our Lord 1248. And although Frederick had promised that he would only leave after the city had been captured, and certainly not before that moment, and although he had built a camp in the vicinity, fortified with ditches and walls, called Victoria because of the certain outcome - he hoped - {not in 1609/1612/1641S{(he even struck a coin in the name of the victor)}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, matters took a different turn. The Parma people concentrated their troups in one place, and assisted by auxiliaries from Milan, Piacenza, Modena, Reggio, Bologna and Ferrara and by papal cohorts who fought under the banner of cardinal Octavianus, the papal representative, they attacked the legions of Frederick with such force and ferocity that they utterly dispersed them, to such an extent that even the emperor himself, in the company of some knights, could hardly find a way to escape, so that [the Parma people] among other things captured the army baggage, all royal household items, the imperial crown and other imperial insignia.
132.8. This crown was donated as a gift by Gilbertus Correggio on behalf of the republic of Parma to emperor Henricus the seventh who besieged Brescia. The same Gilbertus after his splendid victory assumed the rule over Parma, but shortly afterwards he was expelled by viscount Matthæus, duke of Milan, although he, (according to Merula), had been appointed vicarius of that city and lord of Vasalla by emperor Henricus because of his gesture of returning the imperial crown. Subsequently the city [of Parma] was ruled by Canis Scaliger, prince of Verona until he died. Under his successor Mastino, the city subdued itself to the power of the church in the year 1329, and this situation persisted for five years, until, the papal rulers having been expelled, it was taken by the brothers Correggio. Azo Corregius, after having expelled his brother Guido, sold the city to the marquis of Ferrara, who in turn, doubting his capacity to retain power, sold his rights {1609/1612L{for 60,000 gold pieces}1609/1612L} to Luchinus Vicecomes, the prince of Milan.
132.9. Parma was ruled by Vicecomes until the year 1405. Then its rule was returned to the Ferrara people. Subsequently, it was ruled by Philippus Maria Vicecomes, and after his decease it was by Franciscus Sforza passed on to the lords of Milan, and remained under their various rulers until the year 1499. In that year, the French king Louis {1609/1612/1641L{the twelfth}1609/1612L} took over the duchy of Milan from Sforza, and following the fate of its prince, it was under French rule, which persisted until 1512. Then, by the efforts of pope Julius the Second, and of the city of Venice, employing the Swiss guards, the French were expelled from all of Italy. Now that Maximilius Sforza, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{the son of Louis}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, had returned to the princedom of Milan, Julius the second wanted to keep this city to himself, together with Piacenza. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{And Parma was now in the power of the Roman church until 1515, when Leo the tenth, and also}not in 1609/1612/1641S} François the first of France, invaded Italy with a large army, slaughtered the Swiss {not in 1609/1612/1641S{at Manlano}not in 1609/1612/1641S} and even captured the duke of Milan, abducting him to France. Maximilianus Sforza, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{after having taken the fortification of Porta Iovia by surrender}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, was allowed to rule Parma and Piacenza.
132.10. But not long afterwards, when a treaty had been struck between Charles the fifth and Leo the tenth, it was decided to join forces against the French {not in 1609/1612/1641S{under Prosperus Colonna and he [Prosperus]}not in 1609/1612/1641S} succeeded in capturing Milan and in expelling the French from all of Italy. Thus, Parma and Piacenza came under papal rule again, and this situation remained until 1545. The then ruling pope Paulus the third appointed his son Petrus Aloysius Farnese as the lord of these two cities, but he was killed after only two years by some conspiring noblemen, and the rule came to his son Octavius. When this Octavius died, Alexander Farnese, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{knight of the Golden Fleece}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, famous for the wars he waged successfully in Flanders on behalf of the catholic king and to defend true religion, became their duke. {1609/1612/1641S only{It is now ruled by his son Rainuccio Farnes}1609/1612/1641S only}. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{When he finally passed away, he was succeeded by his son Octavius. Under Octavius' benevolent rule, these cities flourished again, and reaped the profits from this period of unconcern and peace. From Parma originated many men proficient in warlike matters and in the study of letters, many of them outstanding in the ornations and purple of the holy senate, details of which can be found by the inquisitive reader in the catalogue of Historians, notably in Leander Albertus}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
132.11. Whether the noble and ancient city of Piacenza, often referred to by Plinius, Tacitus, Livius, Plutarchus and other ancient writers, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{was named after Placentulus, its founder, as some have it, or rather after placendo [pleasant] (for its has a very pleasant scenery), is something that writers disagree on}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Nowadays it has grandeur because of the nobility and civilisation of its citizens. It is situated on the river Po and on its South it offers a splendid view on the surrounding fields and fruitful hills. The soil is fertile for all things that can be needed by mortals. The fields yield a wonderful amount of corn and the hills produce noble, abundant wine, and there are also luxurious pastures, amply watered by brooks which are conducted there artfully, excellent in bringing great profit in dairy products.
132.12. This region also has salt springs, from which salt is boiled. It also has iron mines in places {not in 1609/1612/1641S{called Ferrara}not in 1609/1612/1641S}, nor does it lack wooded areas, suitable for hunting. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Under its various rulers, it always shared the fate of Parma and now it resides, like Parma, under the family of Farnese}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. It has a grammar school with all kinds of arts and sciences. At a small distance from Piacenza, at the river Trebbia, there is a place which has become famous because of that Roman battle - called the field of the dead - where Hannibal killed consul Sempronius. Who wants to know more about the deeds of the people from Piacenza should read Blondus, Platina, Corius, Leander and others}1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

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