Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 118

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1584 Latin, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition:

118.1. {1584L{ITALY {1602G only{or Welschlandt}1602G only}.

118.2. Italy, {1602G only{one of}1602G only} the chief province of the world, has often changed its name according to the alteration of times and states. For it was called Oenotria, Ausonia, Hesperia, Saturnia &c. Similarly, its bounds and borders have been described differently by different authors. In spite of this, it is thus bound in recent times: first, by the river Var; then by a straight line passing by the Alps Coctiĉ, {1606E only{now called Monte Genebrĉ}1606E only}{1608/1612I only{now comprising Monte Genevra, & Cenis, & St. Bernardo}1608/1612I only} by Mount Adula, {1606E & 1608/1612I only{or St. Gothards hill}1606E & 1608/1612I only}; the Alps of Rhetia {1606E only{or Monte Braulis}1606E only} and adjoining hills; then by the river Arsia, the utmost border of Istria.
118.3. Thus it is bounded on one side. The other sides are [all] bounded by the sea. Ptolemĉus describes it in the form of a peninsula, which the sea encloses on three sides, the other being walled by the Alps. The early writers compare it to an oak leaf. Recent writers note the resemblance in proportion and shape to a man's leg, from the hip to the sole of the foot. Italy has the mountain range Apennine, as it were a ridge passing along from one end of it to the other, as we also see in fish, where the ridge bone runs from the head to the tail.
118.4. This mountain range which originates in the Alps, diminishing in height towards the lower or Mediterranean sea, first goes in an almost straight course towards Ancona, and there turns towards the Higher {1606E only{or Adriatic}1606E only} sea, and there it seems to end. Yet, from there turning away from the sea, it goes on through the middle of Italy towards the Brutij {1606E only{(now [called] Calabria inferiore)}1606E only} {1608/1612I only{via the Abruzzen and Calabria}1608/1612I only} and the Sicilian straights.
118.5. Ĉlianus asserts that in former times there were in this country 1166 {1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L have instead{1197}1601L, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L instead} cities. Guido, a priest of Ravenna, on authority of Hyginus, who wrote about the cities of Italy six hundred years ago, writes that in his time there were only about seven hundred {1602G has instead{70}1602G instead} {1608/1612I has instead{five hundred}1608/1612I instead} [cities]. Blondus divides Italy into 18 provinces. Leander into 19, and their names are these {1602G only has first two columns of old names and then two columns of new names in 1602G only}:

118.6. The old names The new names
118.7. LIGVRIA Riviera de Genua
{1608/1612I only{Orientale &
Occidentale.}1608/1612I only}
118.8. ETRVRIA Toscana.
118.9. VMBRIA Ducato di Spoleto.
118.10. LATIVM Campagna di Roma.
118.11. CAMPANIA FELIX Terra di Lavoro.
118.12. LVCANIA Basilicata.
118.13. BRVTII Calabria inferiore.
118.14. MAGNA GRĈCIA Calabria superiore.
118.15. {not in 1608/1612I{SALENTINITerra d'Otranto.}not in 1608/1612I}
118.16. APVLIA PEVCETIA Terra di Barri.[|]
118.17. APVLIA DAVNIA Puglia piana.
118.18. SAMNITES Abruzzo.
118.19. PICENVM Marca Anconitana.
118.20. FLAMINIA Romagna.
118.21. ĈMILIA Lombardia di qua dal Po.
118.22. GALLIA TRANSPADANA Lombardia di la dal Po
118.23. VENETI Marca Trevingiana.
118.24. FORVM IVLII Friuli, & Patria.
118.25. HISTRIA Istria.

118.26. Plinius, after Varro, declares lake Cutilius in the territory of Reatino to be the centre of all of Italy. Near to this lake is the territory of Rosella {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{(by Vergilius called Rosĉa rura velini}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, {1606E only{[that is] Velino's fields, covered with sweet roses}1606E only}, the most fertile region of all of Italy. This fertility was such, as Varro witnesses, that a rod being left in it [in the soil] overnight, may the next morning not be seen amidst the grass [that has grown around it] and therefore it is called Sumen Italiĉ, {1606E only{[that is] The sweet bread of Italy}1606E only}.
118.27. In former ages they have reported that the plain of Stellate was the worthiest and best soil of all of Italy. But now, as Blondus says, the places around Bologna and Modena far surpass the rest. Sabellicus according to claims of the common people, attributes these qualities to the chief cities of Italy: Venice the rich, Milan the great, Genua the proud, Florence the fair, Bologna the fertile, Ravenna the old, Rome the holy, and Naples the noble.
118.28. But the recommendation of this country provided by Plinius, with as great and majestic [words] as this country excels above other countries of the world, I cannot [omit] but must, before I pass on, write down here by way of digression, for this is how he speaks about it in his third book, and fifth chapter:
118.29. ITALY [is] the nurse and mother of all nations, chosen by the providence of God to add lustre to the very heavens themselves, to unite dispersed kingdoms, to temper and mollify their rude and uncivil manners, to draw the dissonant, barbarous and savage languages of so many diverse peoples, by the intercourse of one refined speech to a conference and parley, to teach civility to men, and briefly to make this country common to all the nations of the world. But what shall I say more?
118.30. Such is the excellence of all places, that any man shall [want to] come to it, such is the gloriousness of all things, and of all people who possess it. The city of Rome, which seems to excel within it, and to be a worthy face for so glorious a neck, with what words of eloquence may I express it! How beautiful is the countenance of Campania by itself! How great and numerous are the glorious pleasures and delights of it! [I trust] that it is evident that in this very place nature has shown all its skills in a work meant to provide delight.
118.31. And indeed, such is the vital and continuous wholesomeness of the temperate air, such fertile plains and excellent grounds, such sunny banks, such harmless forests, such cool and shady groves, such fruitful and bountiful kinds of woods, such fertility in corn, vines and olives, such excellent flocks of sheep, such fat cows, so many lakes, such a store of rivers and springs everywhere watering and drenching it, so many seas, harbours and ports, as it were bosoms of the land everywhere, open and ready to entertain and receive traffic from all lands, and itself extending into the sea as if it were willing to offer itself in earnest desire to help, and support mortal men in distress.
118.32. I do omit here to speak of the fine wits, nature and manner of these people, and also of the various nations conquered by them, partly by valour, partly by humanity. The Greek themselves, a nation exceeding wonderfully in their praise and glory have made this judgement, calling a large part of it Magna Grĉcia, Great Greece. [end of Plinius quote].
118.33. Of the ancient writers Caius Sempronius, Marcus Cato, and Polybius in his second book, but particularly Strabo, {1601L{as he does all other things,}1601L} have described this country. Of the more recent historians, Blondus, Iohannes Annius Viterbiensis in his comments on Berosus and other authors published together with him [have done the same]. {1592L, not in 1602G{Pontanus in his first book on the famous deeds of king Alphonsus}1592L, not in 1602G}, Volaterranus, Sabellicus, Bernardus Saccus, and Dominicus Niger, but most particularly Leander [and] Gaudentius Merula have most excellently described Gallia Cisalpina {1608/1612I only{which is also called Lombardia}1608/1612I only}, which indeed is not the least part of Italy}1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1609/1612L end here}{1608/1612I only{with the surrounding regions, belonging to this Gallia}1608/1612I only which ends here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598/1610/1613 Dutch editions:

118.34. {1587F{Italy.

118.35. Everyone praises his own, native country, but this country has also been praised by foreigners, and not without reason, because it is truly the queen of Christianity [Europe], and the princess of the world, which it has in former times subdued with its power and courage, and rules with its spirit and teachings and has provided with good manners, laws and customs.
118.36. For this reason Italy has always been highly respected by all the learned. And whoever practices a study in literature, and has the impression to have acquired all sciences, such as the knowledge of various languages, medicine, law, astronomy or theology, will conclude that to finalise this knowledge, he will want to travel to this country to have a look for himself. He will be convinced that such a journey may not be missed to see what is still lacking to perfect his knowledge of the sciences or arts.
118.37. This country is by nature well situated and protected, mostly by the sea, and further by the mountain range which provides protection like a wall. Along the middle (beginning from above Genua from the Alps, to Apulia near the sea) it is divided by the Apennine mountain range. Originating from this mountain range, various rivers run on both sides of it down into the sea. As a result, this country, along its length, has a pleasant mountain range, fertile fields and running fountains.
118.38. Where it is at its broadest, that is in Lombardy, it is no more than a flat plain, and traversed by the river Po with waters and brooks, as if it were a garden planted by hand, which is the reason why this Lombardy is so fertile, and therefore so fruitful, that you may in one and the same field see corn, vines, and fruits, without one impeding the other. The field is full of corn, in between the trees bear their fruits, and on the borders next to them grow the vineyards, the trees being connected by the twigs of the vines as if they were ropes, and the grapes will hang above the corn to ripen, truly a pleasant sight.
118.39. This Italy is now governed by these rulers; in the first place the pope of Rome, owning the lands belonging to the church, called the Patrimonium of St. Peter. [Then] the king of Spain, who rules the kingdom of Naples and the duchy of Milan, which together constitute about half of Italy. [Then] the king of Piemont. Further, five dukes, namely of Florence, Ferrara, Mantua, Urbino and Parma. Then two cities or republics, namely those of Venice and Genoa. Nowadays Italy is divided into these ten regions. If there are any above this number, then they are very small, or they are vassals under one of those just mentioned.
118.40. There is no country in Christianity [Europe] that has more splendid or better built cities, among which the following are the most renowned ones, and graced with the following titles or nicknames by writers and the common people: holy Rome, noble Naples, fair Florence, rich Venice, gracious Genoa, great Milan, fruitful Bologna, and ancient Ravenna.
118.41. Also, we think that who has not seen Italy does not now what is the significance of opulence, graciousness, costliness, or delights of the flesh and the eye. And in order to avoid the impression that the following region should be lacking anything, it should be mentioned that among all countries in Christianity, it is the only one that has bread from heaven, called manna, for it rains from heaven in Calabria. But whoever wants to know more about this country and all its cities and places, should read Albertus Leander, who has described it with great diligence}1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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